Fencing is a group of three related combat sports. The three disciplines in modern fencing are the foil, the épée, the sabre. A fourth discipline, appeared in the 1904 Olympics but was dropped after that, is not a part of modern fencing. Fencing was one of the first sports to be played in the Olympics. Based on the traditional skills of swordsmanship, the modern sport arose at the end of the 19th century, with the Italian school having modified the historical European martial art of classical fencing, the French school refining the Italian system. There are three forms of modern fencing, each of which uses a different kind of weapon and has different rules. Most competitive fencers choose to specialize in one weapon only. Competitive fencing is one of the five activities which have been featured in every modern Olympic Games, the other four being athletics, cycling and gymnastics. Fencing is governed by Fédération Internationale d'Escrime. Today, its head office is in Switzerland; the FIE is composed of 145 national federations, each of, recognised by its state Olympic Committee as the sole representative of Olympic-style fencing in that country.
The FIE maintains the current rules used by FIE sanctioned international events, including world cups, world championships and the Olympic Games. The FIE handles proposals to change the rules the first year after an Olympic year in the annual congress; the US Fencing Association has different rules, but adheres to FIE standards. Fencing traces its roots to the development of swordsmanship for duels and self defense. Fencing is believed to have originated in Spain. Treatise on Arms was written by Diego de Valera between 1458 and 1471 and is one of the oldest surviving manuals on western fencing shortly before dueling came under official ban by the Catholic Monarchs. In conquest, the Spanish forces carried fencing around the world to southern Italy, one of the major areas of strife between both nations. Fencing was mentioned in the play The Merry Wives of Windsor written sometime prior to 1602; the mechanics of modern fencing originated in the 18th century in an Italian school of fencing of the Renaissance, under their influence, were improved by the French school of fencing.
The Spanish school of fencing was replaced by the Italian and French schools. The shift towards fencing as a sport rather than as military training happened from the mid-18th century, was led by Domenico Angelo, who established a fencing academy, Angelo's School of Arms, in Carlisle House, London in 1763. There, he taught the aristocracy the fashionable art of swordsmanship, his school was run by three generations of his family and dominated the art of European fencing for a century. He established the essential rules of posture and footwork that still govern modern sport fencing, although his attacking and parrying methods were still much different from current practice. Although he intended to prepare his students for real combat, he was the first fencing master to emphasize the health and sporting benefits of fencing more than its use as a killing art in his influential book L'École des armes, published in 1763. Basic conventions were collated and set down during the 1880s by the French fencing master Camille Prévost.
It was during this time that many recognised fencing associations began to appear in different parts of the world, such as the Amateur Fencers League of America was founded in 1891, the Amateur Fencing Association of Great Britain in 1902, the Fédération Nationale des Sociétés d’Escrime et Salles d’Armes de France in 1906. The first regularized fencing competition was held at the inaugural Grand Military Tournament and Assault at Arms in 1880, held at the Royal Agricultural Hall, in Islington in June; the Tournament featured a series of competitions between army soldiers. Each bout was fought for five hits and the foils were pointed with black to aid the judges; the Amateur Gymnastic & Fencing Association drew up an official set of fencing regulations in 1896. Fencing was part of the Olympic Games in the summer of 1896. Sabre events have been held at every Summer Olympics. Starting with épée in 1933, side judges were replaced by the Laurent-Pagan electrical scoring apparatus, with an audible tone and a red or green light indicating when a touch landed.
Foil was automated in 1956, sabre in 1988. The scoring box reduced the bias in judging, permitted more accurate scoring of faster actions, lighter touches, more touches to the back and flank than before. There are three weapons in modern fencing: foil, épée, sabre; each weapon has its own strategies. Equipment needed includes at least 2 swords, a Lame, a white jacket, underarm protector, two body and mask cords, knee high socks and knickers; the foil is a light thrusting weapon with a maximum weight of 500 grams. The foil targets the torso, but not the legs; the foil has a small circular hand guard. As the hand is not a valid target in foil, this is for safety. Touches are scored only with the tip. Touches that lan
A dormitory is a building providing sleeping and residential quarters for large numbers of people such as boarding school, high school, college or university students. In some countries, it can refer to a room containing several beds accommodating people. Worldwide, dormitories are single sex, or sexes are accommodated on separate floors or in separate rooms in some cases, it is unusual for unrelated mixed sex occupancy of a bedroom except temporarily. Where this does occur, it is so remarkable; the terms "dorm" and "residence hall" are used interchangeably in the US. However, within the residence life community, the term "residence hall" is preferred. According to the University of Oregon, their facilities "provide not just a place to sleep, but opportunities for personal and educational growth. Trained Residence Life staff and Hall Government officers support this objective by creating engaging activities and programs in each hall or complex." In United Kingdom usage, the word dormitory means a room containing several beds accommodating unrelated people.
In the United Kingdom, this arrangement exists for pupils at a boarding school, travellers or military personnel, but is entirely unknown for university students. In United Kingdom usage, a building providing sleeping and residential quarters for large numbers of people is called a hall of residence, hostel or barracks. In the United Kingdom, halls of residence entirely have single occupancy rooms, are always mixed sex, with residents being allocated to adjacent rooms regardless of sex. Halls located away from university facilities sometimes have extra amenities such as a recreation room or bar; as with campus located residence halls, these off-campus halls also have Internet facilities, either through a network connection in each student room, a central computer cluster room, or Wi-Fi. Catered halls may charge for food through an termly subscription, they may contain basic kitchen facilities for student use outside catering hours. Most halls contain a laundry room; as of 2015 there was an expanding market for private luxury off-campus student residences which offered substantial amenities in both the United States and Britain in London.
Most colleges and universities provide single or multiple occupancy rooms for their students at a cost. These buildings consist of many such rooms, like an apartment building, the number of rooms varies quite from just a few to hundreds; the largest dormitory building is Bancroft Hall at the United States Naval Academy. Many colleges and universities no longer use the word "dormitory" and staff are now using the term residence hall or "hall" instead. Outside academia however, the word "dorm" or "dormitory" is used without negative connotations. Indeed, the words are used in the marketplace as well as in advertising. College and university residential rooms vary in size, shape and number of occupants. A United States residence hall room holds two students with no toilet; this is referred to as a "double". Residence halls have communal bathroom facilities. In the United States, residence halls are sometimes segregated by sex, with men living in one group of rooms, women in another; some dormitory complexes are single-sex with varying limits on visits by persons of each sex.
For example, the University of Notre Dame in Indiana has a long history of Parietals, or mixed visiting hours. Most colleges and universities offer coeducational dorms, where either men or women reside on separate floors but in the same building or where both sexes share a floor but with individual rooms being single-sex. In the early 2000s, dorms that allowed people of opposite sexes to share a room became available in some public universities; some colleges and university coeducational dormitories feature coeducational bathrooms. Most residence halls are much closer to campus than comparable private housing such as apartment buildings; this convenience is a major factor in the choice of where to live since living physically closer to classrooms is preferred for first-year students who may not be permitted to park vehicles on campus. Universities may therefore provide priority to first-year students when allocating this accommodation. In UK universities these buildings are called halls of residence, except at Oxford, Durham, York and Kent where the residential accommodation is incorporated in each college's complex of buildings, known as rooms.
Members of the college who live in its own buildings are said to be living in or living in college. The majority of bedrooms in UK halls are now single occupancy – offering the first chance at privacy for some young people who shared bedrooms with siblings at home. Kitchen facilities are shared, as are bathrooms in some halls, though more expensive en-suite rooms are available in some universities. Over the years, UK universities have been hit by considerable funding cuts as part of government austerity measures. This, in part, has led to an increase in the rental of student accommodation during the winter and summer vacation periods to house conference delegates and tourists at rates similar to those charged by upmarket hotels. Unfortu
Hostels provide lower-priced, sociable accommodation where guests can rent a bed a bunk bed, in a dormitory and share a bathroom and sometimes a kitchen. Rooms can be mixed or single-sex, private rooms may be available. In the 2010s, hostels have wifi access. Hostels are cheaper for both the operator and occupants than hotels. In India and South Africa, hostel refers to boarding schools or student dormitories in resident colleges and universities. In other parts of the world, the word hostel refers to properties offering shared accommodation to travellers or backpackers. In 1912, in Altena Castle in Germany, Richard Schirrmann created the first permanent Jugendherberge or "Youth Hostel." These first youth hostels were an exponent of the vision of the German Youth Movement to let poor city youngsters breathe fresh air outdoors. The youths were supposed to manage the hostel themselves as much as possible, doing chores to keep the costs down and build character, be physically active outdoors; because of this, many youth hostels closed during the middle part of the day.
There are several differences between hostels and hotels, including: Hostels tend to be budget-oriented. Hostels tend to have single beds in a shared room, rather than private rooms. For those who prefer an informal environment, hostels do not have the same level of formality as hotels. For those who prefer to socialize with their fellow guests, hostels have more common areas and opportunities to socialize; the dormitory aspect of hostels increases the social factor. Hostels are self-catering, with a shared kitchen that all the guests use to make their food. Hostels close during the day to keep down cost. Hostels lack the extra amenities provided in hotel rooms. There is less privacy in a hostel than in a hotel. Sharing sleeping accommodation in a dormitory is different from staying in a private room in a hotel or bed and breakfast, might not be comfortable for those requiring more privacy. For some hostel users, the shared accommodation makes it easier to meet new people; some hostels encourage more social interaction between guests due to the shared sleeping areas and communal areas such as lounges and internet cafes.
Lounges have sofas and chairs, coffee tables, board games, books and Internet access. The lounge provides a location for social activities. Washing machines and tumble driers are provided for cleaning and drying clothes, with pay machines used. Care should be taken with personal belongings, as guests may share a common living space, so it is advisable to secure guests' belongings against theft. Most hostels offer some sort of system for safely storing valuables, an increasing number of hostels offer private lockers. Noise can make sleeping difficult on occasions, whether from snoring and social activities in the lounge, people staying up to read with the light on, someone either returning late from bars, or leaving early, or the proximity of so many people. To mitigate this, some wear earplugs and/or eye-covering sleeping masks. In attempts to attract more visitors, many hostels nowadays provide additional services not available, such as airport shuttle transfers, internet cafés, swimming pools and spas, tour booking and carfree hire.
Some hostels may include food in the price. The traditional hostel format involved dormitory style accommodation; some newer hostels include en-suite accommodation with single, double or quad occupancy rooms, though to be considered a hostel they must provide dormitory accommodation. In recent years, the numbers of independent and backpackers' hostels have increased to cater for the greater numbers of overland, multi-destination travellers; the quality of such places has improved dramatically. While most hostels still insist on a curfew, daytime lockouts few require occupants to do chores apart from washing and drying up after food preparation. Richard Schirrmann's idea of hostels spread overseas and resulted in Hostelling International, an organisation composed of more than 90 different youth hostel associations representing over 4,500 youth hostels in over 80 countries; some HI Youth Hostels cater more to school-aged children and parents with their children, whereas others are more for travellers intent on learning new cultures.
However, while the exploration of different cultures and places is emphasised in many hostels in cities or popular tourist destinations, there are still many hostels providing accommodation for outdoor pursuits such as hillwalking and bicycle touring. In 2017, Hostelling International reported that it has added hotels and package resorts to their networks in addition to hostels. Despite their name, in most countries membership is not limited to youth. Independent hostels are not affiliated with one of the national bodies of Hostelling International, Youth Hostel Association or any other hostel network; the word independ
A mime or mime artist is a person who uses mime as a theatrical medium or as a performance art. Miming involves acting out a story through body motions, without the use of speech. In earlier times, in English, such a performer would be referred to as a mummer. Miming is distinguished from silent comedy, in which the artist is a character in a film or sketch without sound. Jacques Copeau influenced by Commedia dell'arte and Japanese Noh theatre, used masks in the training of his actors, his pupil Étienne Decroux was influenced by this, started exploring and developing the possibilities of mime, developed corporeal mime into a sculptural form, taking it outside the realms of naturalism. Jacques Lecoq contributed to the development of mime and physical theatre with his training methods; the performance of mime originates at its earliest in Ancient Greece. In Medieval Europe, early forms of mime such as mummer plays and dumbshows evolved. In early nineteenth-century Paris, Jean-Gaspard Deburau solidified the many attributes that have come to be known in modern times—the silent figure in whiteface.
The first recorded mime was Telestēs in the play Seven Against Thebes by Aeschylus. Tragic mime was developed by Puladēs of Kilikia. Mime was an aspect of Roman theatre from its earliest times, paralleling the Atellan farce in its improvisation, it began to replace the Atellanae as interludes or postscripts on the main theatre stages. Under the Empire mime became the predominant Roman drama, if with mixed fortunes under different emperors. Trajan banished mime artists. Nero himself acted as a mime; the mime was distinguished from other dramas by its absence of masks, by the presence of female as well as male performers. Stock characters included the lead, the stooge or stupidus, the gigolo, or cultus adulter. While most of this article has treated mime as a constellation of related and linked Western theatre genres and performance techniques, analogous performances are evident in the theatrical traditions of other civilizations. Classical Indian musical theatre, although erroneously labeled a "dance," is a group of theatrical forms in which the performer presents a narrative via stylized gesture, an array of hand positions, mime illusions to play different characters and landscapes.
Recitation and percussive footwork sometimes accompany the performance. The Natya Shastra, an ancient treatise on theatre by Bharata Muni, mentions silent performance, or mukabhinaya. In Kathakali, stories from Indian epics are told with facial expressions, hand signals and body motions. Performances are accompanied by songs narrating the story while the actors act out the scene, followed by actor detailing without background support of narrative song; the Japanese Noh tradition has influenced many contemporary mime and theatre practitioners including Jacques Copeau and Jacques Lecoq because of its use of mask work and physical performance style. Butoh, though referred to as a dance form, has been adopted by various theatre practitioners as well. Prior to the work of Étienne Decroux there was no major treatise on the art of mime, so any recreation of mime as performed prior to the twentieth century is conjecture, based on interpretation of diverse sources. However, the twentieth century brought a new medium into widespread usage: the motion picture.
The restrictions of early motion picture technology meant that stories had to be told with minimal dialogue, restricted to intertitles. This demanded a stylized form of physical acting derived from the stage. Thus, mime played an important role in films prior to advent of talkies; the mimetic style of film acting was used to great effect in German Expressionist film. Silent film comedians like Charlie Chaplin, Harold Lloyd, Buster Keaton learned the craft of mime in the theatre, but through film, they would have a profound influence on mimes working in live theatre decades after their deaths. Indeed, Chaplin may be the best-documented mime in history; the famous French comedian and director Jacques Tati achieved his initial popularity working as a mime, indeed his films had only minimal dialogue, relying instead on many subtle expertly choreographed visual gags. Tati, like Chaplin before him, would mime out the movements of every single character in his films and ask his actors to repeat them.
Mime has been performed with Marcel Marceau and his character "Bip" being the most famous. Mime is a popular art form in street theatre and busking. Traditionally, these sorts of performances involve the actor/actress wearing tight black and white clothing with white facial makeup. However, contemporary mimes perform without whiteface. While traditional mimes have been silent, contemporary mimes, while refraining from speaking, sometimes employ vocal sounds when they perform. Mime acts are comical, but some can be serious. On the stage, Mime Artist Nithor Mahbub from Bangladesh introduced the first practice of teaching through humor with group Mimo Drama troupe Mime Art. Canadian author Michael Jacot's first novel, The Last Butterfl
Chester is a town in Middlesex County, United States. The population was 3,743 at the 2000 census; the town center is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as a census-designated place; the name is a transfer from Chester, in England. The Wangunks, a river tribe of Native Americans, occupied the land called Pattaconk prior to English settlement of the area in 1692; the town was formed from the northern quarter of Saybrook and incorporated in 1836. Back in 1769, Jonathan Warner was granted permission to operate a ferry across the Connecticut River that became the Chester-Hadlyme Ferry, the second-oldest continuously operating ferry service in Connecticut, its location is a state historical landmark. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 16.8 square miles, of which, 16.0 square miles of it is land and 0.8 square miles of it is water. The CDP has a total area of 2.1 square miles of which 1.46% is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,743 people, 1,510 households, 1,005 families residing in the town.
The population density was 233.5 people per square mile. There were 1,613 housing units at an average density of 100.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.79% White, 0.85% African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.83% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.24% from other races, 0.88% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.71% of the population. There were 1,510 households out of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.9% were married couples living together, 7.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.4% were non-families. 28.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.93. In the town, the population was spread out with 22.3% under the age of 18, 4.4% from 18 to 24, 30.1% from 25 to 44, 26.1% from 45 to 64, 17.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.6 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $65,156, the median income for a family was $79,941. Males had a median income of $45,515 versus $40,444 for females; the per capita income for the town was $32,191. None of the families and 1.3% of the population were living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 2.6% of those over 64. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,546 people, 632 households, 401 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 762.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 669 housing units at an average density of 329.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 96.31% White, 1.29% African American, 0.06% Native American, 1.36% Asian, 0.06% from other races, 0.91% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.29% of the population. There were 632 households out of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.8% were married couples living together, 6.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.4% were non-families.
30.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.91. In the CDP the population was spread out with 21.9% under the age of 18, 4.9% from 18 to 24, 31.8% from 25 to 44, 26.1% from 45 to 64, 15.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.8 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $64,236, the median income for a family was $71,250. Males had a median income of $38,900 versus $46,354 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $32,087. None of the families and 0.5% of the population were living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and none of those over 64. Chester, like the other two towns in the "tri-town area", is a member of Regional School District #4. John Winthrop Junior High School is on Warsaw Street in Deep River where as Valley Regional High School, is on Kelsey Hill in Deep River.
They serve students for grades 9-12, respectively. There are elementary schools in the "tri-town area" each town has one they serve from grades K-6; the 1959 film It Happened to Jane, starring Jack Lemmon, was filmed in Chester. Portions of the 1971 horror film Let's Scare Jessica to Death were filmed in Chester, including the Chester–Hadlyme Ferry; the Beth Shalom Rodfe Zedek synagogue is noted for the architecture of its "spectacular" building. Goodspeed-at-Chester, Goodspeed Musicals' second theatre; the Chester Museum at the Mill, a future museum of the Chester Historical Society The Chester–Hadlyme Ferry is the second oldest continuously operating ferry service in the state of Connecticut and is a designated state historical landmark. Camp Hazen YMCA Charles Daniels House — 43 Liberty St. Dr. Ambrose Pratt House — Pratt St. Jonathan Warner House — 47 Kings Hwy. Old Town Hall — On the green between Liberty St. and Goose Hill Rd. Villa Bella Vista — 7 Old Depot Rd; the Whelen Engineering Corporation, a major designer and distributor of public service warning equipment in North America, is headquartered in Chester.
The Chester Airport is a owned local facility with one paved runway. The Estuary Transit District provides public transportation throughout Chester and the surrounding towns through its 9 Town Transit
Chita Rivera is an American actress and singer best known for her roles in musical theatre. She is the first Hispanic woman and the first Latino American to receive a Kennedy Center Honors award, she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2009. Rivera was born Dolores Conchita Figueroa del Rivero in Washington, D. C. the daughter of Katherine, a government clerk, Pedro Julio Figueroa del Rivero, a clarinetist and saxophonist for the United States Navy Band. Her father was Puerto Rican, her mother was of Scottish and Italian descent. Rivera was seven years old when her mother went to work at The Pentagon. In 1944, Rivera's mother enrolled her in the Jones-Haywood School of Ballet; when she was 15, a teacher from George Balanchine's School of American Ballet visited their studio. Rivera's audition was successful, she was accepted into the school and given a scholarship. In 1951, Rivera accompanied a friend to the audition for the touring company of Call Me Madam and ended up winning the role herself.
She followed this by landing roles in other Broadway productions such as Dolls and Can-Can. In 1957, she was cast in the role, destined to make her a Broadway star, the firebrand Anita in West Side Story.. Rivera starred in a national tour of Can-Can and played the role of Nickie in the film adaptation of Sweet Charity with Shirley MacLaine. On December 1, 1957, Rivera married dancer Tony Mordente, her performance was so important for the success of the show that the London production of West Side Story was postponed until she gave birth to the couple's daughter Lisa. In 1960, Rivera created the role of Rose in the Broadway smash Bye Bye Birdie, she won raves for her performance, but was passed over for the film version where the role was played by Janet Leigh. In 1963, Rivera was cast opposite Alfred Drake in Zenda; the Broadway-bound musical closed on the road. In 1975 she appeared as Velma Kelly in the original cast of the musical Chicago. In 1984 she starred in the musical The Rink with Liza Minnelli and won her first Tony Award for her role as Anna.
In 1986, while performing in the Jerry Herman musical, Jerry's Girls, Rivera was in a severe accident when her car collided with a taxi on West 86th Street in Manhattan. Injuries sustained included the breaking of her left leg in twelve places, requiring eighteen screws and two braces to mend. After rehabilitation, Rivera continued to perform on stage. Miraculously revitalized, in 1988, she endeavored in a restaurant venture in partnership with the novelist, Daniel Simone; the eatery, located on 42nd Street between 9th and 10th Avenue, was named ` Chita' after her. It soon became a significant attraction for the after-theater crowds and remained open until 1994. In addition to her ballet instructors, Rivera credited Leonard Bernstein and Gwen Verdon, with whom she starred in Chicago, as being people from whom she learned a great deal, she appeared as Fastrada in a filmed-for-television version of the musical Pippin in 1981. In 1993, she received a Tony Award for Best Leading Actress in a Musical for her portrayal of Aurora in the musical Kiss of the Spider Woman, written by Kander and Ebb.
Rivera starred in the Goodman Theatre production of the musical The Visit as Claire Zachanassian in 2001. In 2008 she appeared in a revised production of the musical at the Signature Theatre in Arlington, Virginia, co-starring George Hearn. In 2003, Rivera returned to Broadway in the 2003 revival of Nine as Liliane La Fleur, received her eighth career Tony Award nomination and fourth Drama Desk Award nomination, she appeared with Antonio Banderas. She appeared on the revival's cast album. On television, Rivera was a guest on The Judy Garland Show, she guest-starred along with Michele Lee in a February 2005 episode of Will & Grace, in December of that year, Chita Rivera: The Dancer's Life, a retrospective of her career, opened on Broadway. She received another Tony nomination for her self-portrayal. Though she was expected to reprise her role in a Signature Theatre staging of The Visit in autumn of 2007, postponed to the following season. Instead, she performed at New York's Feinstein's At The Regency supper club in New York for two weeks.
Rivera performed in a staged concert of The Visit as a benefit at the Ambassador Theatre on November 30, 2011. Rivera made a cameo appearance in the 2002 movie version of Chicago. Rivera guest-starred on the Sprites as Queen of All Magical Beings; the episode debuted on March 15, 2008. In August 2009, US President Barack Obama awarded Rivera with the Presidential Medal of FreedomIn the 1960s Rivera had recorded two albums, Chita Rivera: Get Me To The Church On Time and And Now I Sing; these early 1960s albums will be reissued on CD by Stage Door Records in February 2013. In November 2008, Rivera released her third solo album. Rivera performed on The Carol Burnett Show. Show #422. Original air date February 22, 1971. In 2012, Rivera played "Princess Puffer" in the new Broadway revival of The Mystery of Edwin Drood at Studio 54, she was the Grand Marshal of the Puerto Rican Day Parade in New York City on June 9, 2013. Rivera returned to Broadway in The Visit, the final musical written by John Kander, Fred Ebb and Terrence McNally.
The musical opened at the Lyceum Theatre on March 26, 2015 and closed on June 14, 2015
A mission statement is a short statement of why an organization exists, what its overall goal is, identifying the goal of its operations: what kind of product or service it provides, its primary customers or market, its geographical region of operation. It may include a short statement of such fundamental matters as the organization's values or philosophies, a business's main competitive advantages, or a desired future state—the "vision". A mission is not a description of an organization by an external party, but an expression, made by its leaders, of their desires and intent for the organization; the purpose of a mission statement is to communicate the organisation's purpose and direction to its employees, customers and other stakeholders. A mission statement creates a sense of identity for its employees. Organizations do not change their mission statements over time, since they define their continuous, ongoing purpose and focus. According to Chris Bart, professor of strategy and governance at McMaster University, a commercial mission statement consists of three essential components: Key market: the target audience Contribution: the product or service Distinction: what makes the product unique or why the audience should buy it over anotherBart estimates that in practice, only about ten percent of mission statements say something meaningful.
For this reason, they are regarded with contempt. The sole purpose of a mission statement is to serve as a company's goal/agenda, it outlines what the goal of the company is; some generic examples of mission statements would be, "To provide the best service possible within the banking sector for our customers." Or "To provide the best experience for all of our customers." The reason why businesses make use of mission statements is to make it clear what they look to achieve as an organization, not only to themselves and their employees but to the customers and other people who are a part of the business, such as shareholders. As a company evolves, so will their mission statement; this is to make sure that the company remains on track and to ensure that the mission statement does not lose its touch and become boring or stale. It is important; as discussed earlier, the main purpose of a mission statement is to get across the ambitions of an organisation in a short and simple fashion, it is not necessary to go into detail for the mission statement, evident in examples given.
The reason why it is important that a mission statement and vision statement are not confused is because they both serve different purposes. Vision statements tend to be more related to strategic planning and lean more towards discussing where a company aims to be in the future. Provides direction: Mission statements are a way to direct a business into the right path, they play a part in helping the business make better decisions. Without the mission statement providing direction, businesses may struggle when it comes to making decisions and planning for the future; this is why providing direction could be considered one of the most advantageous points of a mission statement. Clear purpose: Having a clear purpose can remove any potential ambiguities that can surround the existence of a business. People who are interested in the progression of the business, such as stakeholders, will want to know that the business is making the right choices and progressing more towards achieving their goals, which will help to remove any doubt the stakeholders may have in the business.
A mission statement can act as a motivational tool within an organisation, it can allow employees to all work towards one common goal that benefits both the organisation and themselves. This can help with factors such as employee productivity, it is important. Giving them this sense of purpose will allow them to focus more on their daily tasks and help them to realise the goals of the organisation and their role. Although it is beneficial for a business to craft a good mission statement, there are some situations where a mission statement can be considered pointless or not useful to a business. Unrealistic: In most cases, mission statements turn out to be unrealistic and far too optimistic. An unrealistic mission statement can affect the performance and morale of the employees within the workplace; this is because an unrealistic mission statement would reduce the likelihood of employees being able to meet this standard which could demotivate employees in the long term. Unrealistic mission statements serve no purpose and can be considered a waste of management's time.
Another issue which could arise from an unrealistic mission statement is that poor decisions could be made in an attempt to achieve this goal which has the potential to harm the business and be seen as a waste of both time and resources. Waste of time and resources: Mission statements require planning; this takes effort for those who are responsible for creating the mission statement. If the mission statement is not achieved the process of creating the mission statement could be seen as a waste of time for all of the people involved. A lot of thought and time can be spent in designing a good mission statement, to have all of that time wasted is not what businesses can afford; the wasted time could have been spent on much more important tasks within the organisation such as decision-making for the business. According to an independent contributor to Forbes, the following questions must be answered in the mission statement: “What do we do?” — The mission statement should outline the main purpose of the organisation, what they do.
“How do we do it?” — It