Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is
The Bank of Nova Scotia, operating as Scotiabank, is a Canadian multinational bank. It is the third largest bank in Canada by deposits and market capitalization, it serves more than 25 million customers around the world and offers a range of products and services including personal and commercial banking, wealth management and investment banking. With a team of more than 88,000 employees and assets of $998 billion, Scotiabank trades on the Toronto and New York Exchanges. Founded in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1832, Scotiabank moved its executive offices to Toronto, Ontario, in 1900. Scotiabank has billed itself as "Canada's most international bank" due to its acquisitions in Latin America and the Caribbean, in Europe and parts of Asia. Through its subsidiary ScotiaMocatta, it is a member of the London Bullion Market Association and one of five banks that participates in the London gold fixing. Scotiabank's Institution Number is 002; the company ranked at number 41 on the SNL Financial World's 100 biggest banks listing, September 2013 and is led by President and CEO Brian J. Porter.
The bank was incorporated by the Legislative Assembly of Nova Scotia on March 30, 1832, in Halifax, Nova Scotia, with William Lawson serving as the first president. Scotiabank was founded in Nova Scotia, in 1832 under the name of The Bank of Nova Scotia; the bank intended to facilitate the trans-Atlantic trade of the time. In 1883, The Bank of Nova Scotia acquired the Union Bank of Prince Edward Island, although most of the bank's expansion efforts in the century took the form of branch openings; the bank launched its branch banking system by opening in Nova Scotia. The expansion was limited to the Maritimes until 1882, when the bank moved west by opening a branch in Winnipeg, Manitoba; the Manitoba branch closed, but the bank continued to expand into the American Midwest. This included opening a branch in Minneapolis in 1885, which transferred to Chicago in 1892. Following the collapse of the Commercial Bank of Newfoundland and Union Bank of Newfoundland on December 10, 1894, The Bank of Nova Scotia established on December 15, 1894, in Newfoundland.
In 1899, Scotiabank opened a branch in Massachusetts. The bank opened a branch in Kingston, Jamaica in 1889 to facilitate the trading of sugar and fish; this was Scotiabank's first move into the Caribbean and the first branch of a Canadian bank to open outside of the United States or the United Kingdom. By the end of the 19th century, the bank was represented in all of the Maritimes, Quebec and Manitoba. In 1900, the bank moved its headquarters to Ontario; the bank continued to expand in the 20th century, although its growth now took the form of acquisitions rather than branch openings. 1906 – The bank opened a branch in Havana, Cuba. By 1931, it had five branches in Havana, one branch each in Camagüey, Cienfuegos and Santiago de Cuba. In 1960, the Government of Cuba nationalized all banks in Cuba, the Scotiabank withdrew services from all eight branches. 1907 – The bank opened a branch in New York City. 1910 – The bank opened a branch in San Juan, Puerto Rico. 1913 – The Bank of Nova Scotia merged with the Bank of New Brunswick.
1914 – Toronto-based Metropolitan Bank was acquired, making Scotiabank the fourth largest financial institution in Canada. 1919 – The bank opened a branch in Fajardo, Puerto Rico, located in Puerto Rico's northeast. 1919 – Bank of Ottawa was amalgamated. 1920 – The bank opened a branch in London, another in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. 1961 – The bank became the first Canadian bank to appoint women bank managers on September 11, 1961. 1962 – The bank expanded into Asia with the opening of a Representative Office in Japan. 1975 – The bank adopted "Scotiabank" as its worldwide brand name. 1978 – The bank and Canadian Union of Public Employees signed the first collective agreement between a Canadian bank and a union on September 28, 1978, in Toronto. 1997 – The bank acquired Banco Quilmes in Argentina. 2000 – Scotiabank's stake in Mexican bank Grupo Financiero Inverlat was increased to 55 percent. The Mexican bank was subsequently renamed to Grupo Financiero Scotiabank Inverlat. 2002 – The bank shut its branches in Argentina during the currency crisis and massive sovereign default.
2003 -The bank's Guangzhou Branch was awarded the first licence to a Canadian bank by the Chinese government to deal in Chinese currency. 2003–2004 – The bank acquired Inverlat banking house in Mexico, taking over all of its branches and establishing a strong presence in the country. 2010 – The bank arrived in Bogotá, Colombia. 2012 - Scotiabank entered into an agreement to acquire ING Direct Bank of Canada from ING Groep N. V. In its early expansion, the bank followed trade and its customers' businesses rather than pursuing a strategy of expansion into international financial centres. Scotiabank is a member of the Global ATM Alliance, a joint venture of several major international banks that allows customers of the banks to use their ATM cards or check cards at certain other banks within the Global ATM Alliance without fees when traveling internationally. Other participating banks are Barclays, Bank of America, BNP Paribas, Deutsche Bank, Westpac. Scotiabank has spent $100 million implementing a controversial system to report to the United States the account holdings of close to one million Canadians of American origin and their Canadian-born spouses.
Scotiabank has been forced to implement this system in order to comply with FATCA. Ac