The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty known as the National Trust, is an independent charity and membership organisation for environmental and heritage conservation in England and Northern Ireland. The trust describes itself as "a charity that works to preserve and protect historic places and spaces—for for everyone"; the trust was founded in 1895 and given statutory powers, starting with the National Trust Act 1907. The Trust acquired land by gift and sometimes by public subscription and appeal, but after World War II the loss of English country houses resulted in many such properties being acquired either by gift from the former owners, or through the National Land Fund the National Heritage Memorial Fund and the National Lottery. Country Houses and Estates still make up a significant part of its holdings, but it is known for its protection of wild landscapes such as in the Lake District and Peak District, historic urban properties, nature reserves such as Wicken Fen.
In Scotland, there is a independent National Trust for Scotland. The National Trust has a unique special power to prevent its inalienable land being sold off, although this can be over-ridden by Parliamentary procedure; the National Trust has been the beneficiary of bequests. It owns over 500 heritage properties, which include many historic houses and gardens, industrial monuments, social history sites. Most of these are open to the public for a charge. Others are leased to tenants on terms that manage to preserve their character whilst providing for more limited public access; the Trust is one of the largest private landowners in the United Kingdom, owning over 248,000 hectares of land. The Trust, one of the largest UK charities financially, is funded by membership subscriptions, entrance fees and revenue from gift shops and restaurants within its properties, it has been accused of focusing too much on country estates, in recent years, the Trust has sought to broaden its activities by acquiring historic properties such as former mills, early factories and the childhood homes of Paul McCartney and John Lennon.
In 2015, the Trust undertook a governance review to mark the 10th anniversary of the current governance structure. The review led to the downsizing of the limitation of tenure to two terms; the National Trust was incorporated in 1895 as an "association not for profit" under the Companies Acts 1862–90, in which the liability of its members was limited by guarantee. It was incorporated by six separate Acts of Parliament: The National Trust Acts 1907, 1919, 1937, 1939, 1953, 1971, it is a charitable organisation registered under the Charities Act 2006. It was set up with the purpose of: The trust was founded on 12 January 1895 by Octavia Hill, Sir Robert Hunter and Hardwicke Rawnsley, prompted in part by the earlier success of Charles Eliot and the Kyrle Society. In the early days, the trust was concerned with protecting open spaces and a variety of threatened buildings; the trust's first nature reserve was Wicken Fen, its first archaeological monument was White Barrow. The trust has been the beneficiary of numerous donations of money.
From 1924 to 1931, the trust's chairman was John Bailey, of whom The Times said in 1931, "The strong position which the National Trust now occupies is due to him, it will never be known how many generous gifts of rural beauty and historic interest the nation owes, directly or indirectly, to his persuasive enthusiasm." At the same time, a group of anonymous philanthropists set up the Ferguson's Gang. The focus on country houses and gardens, which now comprise the majority of its most visited properties, came about in the mid 20th century when the private owners of many of the properties were no longer able to afford to maintain them. Many were donated to the trust in lieu of death duties; the diarist James Lees-Milne is credited with playing a central role in the main phase of the trust's country house acquisition programme, though he was in fact an employee of the trust, was carrying through policies decided by its governing body. Sir Jack Boles, Director General of the Trust between 1975 and 1983, oversaw the acquisition of Wimpole Hall, Canons Ashby and Kingston Lacy.
Corfe Castle, Studland Bay, Badbury Rings and a host of commercial and domestic buildings and land. One of the biggest crises in the trust's history erupted at the 1967 annual general meeting, when the leadership of the trust was accused of being out of touch and placing too much emphasis on conserving country houses. There followed motions for change; the chair, Lord Antrim, asked the respected Len Clark to intervene, Clark's suggestion of looking at the trust's governance avoided division and was followed by Sir Henry Benson's chairing of an advisory committee to review the structure of the trust. Following the publication of the Benson Report in 1968, much of the administration of the trust was devolved to the regions. In the 1990s, a dispute over whether deer hunting should be permitted on National Trust land caused bitter disputes within the organisation, was the subject of much debate at annual general meetings, but it
The 1996 Japanese Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Suzuka on 13 October 1996. It was the final race of the 1996 Formula One World Championship; the 52-lap race was won by Damon Hill. Hill took his eighth win of the season, with it the Drivers' Championship, after teammate and pole-sitter Jacques Villeneuve made a poor start and retired when a wheel fell off. Villeneuve had needed to win the race, without Hill scoring, in order to win the Championship himself. Michael Schumacher finished second in a Ferrari, enabling the Italian team to steal second place in the Constructors' Championship from Benetton, with Mika Häkkinen third in a McLaren-Mercedes. In the UK, this was the last F1 race until 2009 to be broadcast live by the BBC; as Hill crossed the line to win the race and the championship, commentator Murray Walker said, "I've got to stop now, because I've got a lump in my throat." Hill was the first son of a World Champion to win the championship himself, his father Graham having been champion in 1962 and 1968.
This was the last race for Martin Brundle, competing in F1 since 1984 and finished on the podium 9 times since 1992, as well as the last race for Pedro Lamy, Giovanni Lavaggi and Ligier. This was the first time since 1977. In qualifying, Villeneuve beat Hill to pole position by nearly half a second, with a further 0.7 seconds back to Schumacher in third. On race day, the first start was aborted. At the second start, Villeneuve made a poor getaway and fell to sixth behind Hill, Gerhard Berger, Häkkinen and Eddie Irvine. Meanwhile, Jean Alesi, attempting to make up several places after qualifying ninth, spun off at the second corner and destroyed his Benetton, Alesi was unhurt from the impact. On the third lap, Berger attempted to overtake Hill at the final chicane, only to damage his front wing. Thereafter, Hill pulled away, with Schumacher overtaking Häkkinen for second during the first round of pit stops. Pedro Diniz had lost control of his Ligier at the final chicane and spun off into the gravel trap by lap 14.
Hill pitted for his second stop with a 25-second gap to Schumacher, emerging narrowly ahead of the Ferrari, before pulling away once again to lead by 13 seconds with ten laps remaining. Villeneuve, passed Irvine, set the fastest lap of the race and ran fourth before his right rear wheel came off on lap 37 due to a wheel bearing failure, putting him out of the race and handing the Drivers' Championship to Hill dropped by Williams for the following season; as Gerhard Berger had another collision with the Ferrari of Eddie Irvine at the final chicane causing the Northern Irishman to spin out and retire, Berger was able to carry on unscathed. A late fightback saw Schumacher close the gap to Hill, but Hill held on to win the race by 1.8 seconds, with Häkkinen a further 1.4 seconds back, while Berger recovered to finish fourth, Martin Brundle came fifth in his final Grand Prix, Heinz-Harald Frentzen picked up the final point for sixth. Note: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings
The Battle of Port Royal was one of the earliest amphibious operations of the American Civil War, in which a United States Navy fleet and United States Army expeditionary force captured Port Royal Sound, South Carolina, between Savannah and Charleston, South Carolina, on November 7, 1861. The sound was guarded by two forts on opposite sides of the entrance, Fort Walker on Hilton Head Island to the south and Fort Beauregard on Phillip's Island to the north. A small force of four gunboats did not materially affect the battle; the attacking force assembled outside of the sound beginning on November 3 after being battered by a storm during their journey down the coast. Because of losses in the storm, the army was not able to land, so the battle was reduced to a contest between ship-based guns and those on shore; the fleet moved to the attack on November 7, after more delays caused by the weather during which additional troops were brought into Fort Walker. Flag Officer Samuel F. Du Pont ordered his ships to keep moving in an elliptical path, bombarding Fort Walker on one leg and Fort Beauregard on the other.
His plan soon broke down and most ships took enfilading positions that exploited a weakness in Fort Walker. The Confederate gunboats fled up a nearby creek when challenged. Early in the afternoon, most of the guns in the fort were out of action, the soldiers manning them fled to the rear. A landing party from the flagship took possession of the fort; when Fort Walker fell, the commander of Fort Beauregard across the sound feared that his soldiers would soon be cut off with no way to escape, so he ordered them to abandon the fort. Another landing party raised the Union flag the next day. Despite the heavy volume of fire, loss of life on both sides was low, at least by standards set during the American Civil War. Only eight were killed in the fleet and eleven with four other Southerners missing. Total casualties came to less than 100. Early in the war, the U. S. Navy had the responsibility of blockading the Southern coastline, but found this task difficult when forced to rely on fueling and resupply ports in the North for its coal-fired steamships.
The problems of the blockade were considered by a commission appointed by Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles. Chairman of the commission was Capt. Samuel Francis Du Pont; the commission stated its views of the South Carolina coast in its second report, dated July 13. In order to improve the blockade of Charleston, they considered seizing a nearby port, they gave particular attention to three: Bull's Bay to the north of Charleston, St. Helena Sound and Port Royal Sound to the south; the latter two would be useful in the blockade of Savannah. They considered Port Royal to be the best harbor, but believed that it would be defended and therefore were reluctant to recommend that it be taken. Shortly after the bombardment of Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor had started the war, Confederate Brigadier General P. G. T. Beauregard did not believe that Port Royal Sound could be adequately defended, as forts on opposite sides of the sound would be too far apart for mutual support. Overruled by South Carolina Governor Francis Pickens, he drew up plans for two forts at the entrance.
Soon called away to serve the Confederate Army in Virginia, he turned the task of implementing his plans over to Maj. Francis D. Lee of the South Carolina Army Engineers. Before the war, Lee had been an architect, had designed several churches in Charleston. Work on the two forts progressed only slowly. Labor for the construction was obtained by requisitions of slave labor from local farms and plantations, which the owners were reluctant to provide. Construction was not complete. Beauregard's plan was altered because the heavy guns he wanted were not available. To compensate for the reduced weight of fire by increased volume, the number of guns in the water battery of Fort Walker was increased from seven 10 in columbiads to 12 guns of smaller caliber, plus a single 10 in. Fitting the increased number into the available space required that the traverses be eliminated; the battery was therefore vulnerable to enfilade. In addition to the 13 guns of the water battery, Fort Walker had another seven guns mounted to repel land attacks from the rear and three on the right wing.
Two other guns were not mounted. Fort Beauregard was as strong; the garrisons were increased in size. On November 6, another 450 infantry and 50 artillerymen were added, 650 more came from Georgia the same day; because of its isolated position, the garrison of Fort Beauregard could not be increased. The force on Philip's Island was 640 men, of whom 149 were in the fort and the remainder infantry defending against land assault. For lack of transportation, all of the late-arriving troops were retained at Fort Walker. While the forts were being built, the state of Georgia was forming a rudimentary navy by converting a few tugs and other harbor craft into gunboats. Although they could not face the ships of the US Navy on the open seas, their shallow draft enabled them to move about in the inland waters along the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia, they were commanded by Flag Officer Josiah Tattnall. When the Georgia navy was transferred to and became part of the Confederate States Navy, Tattnall found himself in charge of the coastal defenses of both South Carolina and Georgia.
He had four gunboats in the vicinity of Port Royal Sound