Trnje is a district in the City of Zagreb, Croatia. According to the 2011 census, the district had 42,282 residents, it is located in the central part of the city, south of Donji grad across the railway, east of Trešnjevka, west of Peščenica, north of the river Sava. The Slavonska Avenue intersects Trnje. Trnje was amalgamated into the city in 1927 by Mayor Vjekoslav Heinzel, along with several other new districts for the purpose of housing people needed for Zagreb's industrial sector expansion; as a district, Trnje has an elected council. Cvjetno naselje Kanal Kruge Martinovka Savica Sigečica Vrbik Zavrtnica
1880 Zagreb earthquake
The 1880 earthquake which struck Zagreb, is known as The Great Zagreb earthquake, occurred with a moment magnitude of 6.3 on 9 November. Its epicenter was in the Medvednica mountain north of Zagreb. Although only one person was killed in the earthquake, it damaged many buildings. According to the Zagreb Meteorological Station data, the earthquake struck at 07:33, was followed by a series of tremors of smaller intensity. Contemporary records say that 3,800 outgoing tickets were sold at the Zagreb Main Station within the first 24 hours of the initial earthquake, as many locals sought to leave the city for Vienna, Ljubljana and other Austro-Hungarian cities in the vicinity of Zagreb. City authorities formed a commission to assess the damage, their official report said that a total of 1,758 buildings were affected, out of which 485 were damaged. Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts organized documenting of damaged building by prominent Zagreb photographer Ivan Standl; the most prominent building damaged was the Zagreb Cathedral, which underwent a thorough reconstruction led by Hermann Bollé and which went on for 26 years before it was finished in 1906.
However, the damage brought by the earthquake spurred construction and many historic buildings in the Lower Town area of the city were built in the following years. List of historical earthquakes Horvat, Rudolf. Prošlost grada Zagreba. Zagreb: August Cesarec. Pp. 66–71. ISBN 978-86-393-0267-2. Kozák, J..
Kaptol is a part of Zagreb, Croatia in the upper town and it is the seat of the Roman Catholic archbishop of Zagreb. The existence of Kaptol, the settlement on the east slope, was confirmed in 1094 when King Ladislaus founded the Zagreb diocese; the bishop, his residence and the Cathedral had their seat in the southeast part of the Kaptol hill. VIaška Ves was situated in the close vicinity of the Cathedral. Being under the bishop's jurisdiction, it was first mentioned in 1198. Kaptol Street ran from the south to the north across the Kaptol terrace with canons' residences arranged in rows alongside; as the Latin word for a group or body of canons is "capitulum", it is clear. The canons ruled this settlement; the Cathedral was consecrated in 1217, but in 1242 it was badly damaged during the Mongol invasion. After 1263 it was rebuilt; as a settlement, Kaptol's shape was an unsymmetrical rectangle, which had a southern entrance in Bakačeva Street, ended at its north end near the present day Kaptol School.
In the Middle Ages, Kaptol had no fortifications. It was enclosed with wooden fences or palisades, which were destroyed and rebuilt; the defensive walls and towers around Kaptol were built between 1469 and 1473. The Prislin Tower near the Kaptol School is one of the best-preserved from those times. In 1493 the Turks were defeated there. Therefore, fearing the Turkish invasion, the Bishop of Zagreb had the fortifications built around the Cathedral and his residence; the defensive towers and walls built between 1512 and 1520 have been preserved until the present day except those that directly faced the front of the Cathedral situated at Kaptol Square. This section of the wall was pulled down in 1907. In the 13th century two Gothic churches were built in Kaptol, St. Francis with the Franciscan monastery and St. Mary, which underwent considerable reconstruction works in the 17th and the 18th centuries. In Opatovina, small dwelling houses of former Kaptol inhabitants can still be seen, but at Dolac a number of little and narrow streets were torn down in 1926 when the today's market was built.
In 1334 the canons of Zagreb established a colony of Kaptol serfs in the vicinity of their residences, north of Kaptol. That was the beginning of a new settlement called Nova Ves. Kaptol is today part of the Gornji Grad - Medveščak city district, it faces the Kaptol Street, lying atop of the Ribnjak Park in the east. The Kaptol Centar shopping mall is located in Nova Ves; the central part of Kaptol is part of the local government "August Cesarec" that has a total population of 1,523. History of Croatia History of Zagreb Ban Jelačić Square Gradec St. Mark's Church Zagreb Cathedral Kaptol manors in Zagreb guide.ndo.co.uk
A national library is a library established by a government as a country's preeminent repository of information. Unlike public libraries, these allow citizens to borrow books, they include numerous rare, valuable, or significant works. A National Library is that library which has the duty of collecting and preserving the literature of the nation within and outside the country. Thus, National Libraries are those libraries. Examples include the British Library, the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris. There are wider definitions of a national library, putting less emphasis to the repository character. National libraries are notable for their size, compared to that of other libraries in the same country; some states which are not independent, but who wish to preserve their particular culture, have established a national library with all the attributes of such institutions, such as legal deposit. Many national libraries cooperate within the National Libraries Section of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions to discuss their common tasks and promote common standards and carry out projects helping them to fulfill their duties.
National libraries of Europe participate in The European Library. This is a service of The Conference of European National Librarians; the first national libraries had their origins in the royal collections of the sovereign or some other supreme body of the state. One of the first plans for a national library was devised by the English mathematician John Dee, who in 1556 presented Mary I of England with a visionary plan for the preservation of old books and records and the founding of a national library, but his proposal was not taken up. In England, Sir Richard Bentley's Proposal for Building a Royal Library published in 1694 stimulated renewed interest in the subject. Sir Robert Cotton, 1st Baronet, of Connington, a wealthy antiquarian, amassed the richest private collection of manuscripts in the world at the time and founded the Cotton Library. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries, many priceless and ancient manuscripts that had belonged to the monastic libraries began to be disseminated among various owners, many of whom were unaware of the cultural value of the manuscripts.
Sir Robert's genius was in finding and preserving these ancient documents. After his death his grandson donated the library to the nation as its first national library; this transfer established the formation of the British Library. The first true national library was founded in 1753 as part of the British Museum; this new institution was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king open to the public and aiming to collect everything. The museum's foundations lay in the will of the physician and naturalist Sir Hans Sloane, who gathered an enviable collection of curiosities over his lifetime which he bequeathed to the nation for £20,000. Sloane's collection included some 40,000 printed books and 7,000 manuscripts, as well as prints and drawings; the British Museum Act 1753 incorporated the Cotton library and the Harleian library. These were joined in 1757 by the Royal Library, assembled by various British monarchs; the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759, in 1757, King George II granted it the right to a copy of every book published in the country, thereby ensuring that the Museum's library would expand indefinitely.
Anthony Panizzi became the Principal Librarian at the British Museum in 1856, where he oversaw its modernization. During his tenure, the Library's holdings increased from 235,000 to 540,000 volumes, making it the largest library in the world at the time, its famous circular Reading Room was opened in 1857. Panizzi undertook the creation of a new catalogue, based on the "Ninety-One Cataloguing Rules" which he devised with his assistants; these rules served as the basis for all subsequent catalogue rules of the 19th and 20th centuries, are at the origins of the ISBD and of digital cataloguing elements such as Dublin Core. In France, the first national library was the Bibliothèque Mazarine, which evolved from its origin as a royal library founded at the Louvre Palace by Charles V in 1368. At the death of Charles VI, this first collection was unilaterally bought by the English regent of France, the Duke of Bedford, who transferred it to England in 1424, it was dispersed at his death in 1435. The invention of printing resulted in the starting of another collection in the Louvre inherited by Louis XI in 1461.
Francis I transferred the collection in 1534 to Fontainebleau and merged it with his private library. The appointment of Jacques Auguste de Thou as librarian in the 17th century, initiated a period of development that made it the largest and richest collection of books in the world; the library opened to the public in 1692, under the administration of Abbé Louvois, Minister Louvois's son. Abbé Louvois was succeeded by the Abbé Bignon, or Bignon II as he was termed, who instituted a complete reform of the library's system. Catalogues were made; the collections increased by purchase and gift to the outbreak of the French Revolution, at which time it was in grave danger of partial or total destruction, but owing to the activities of Antoine-Augustin Renouard and Joseph Van Praet it suffered no injury. The library's collections swelled to over 300,000 volumes during the radical phase of the French Revolution when the private libraries of aristocrats and clergy were seized. After the establishment of the French First Republic in September 1792, "the Assembly declared the Bibliotheque du Roi to be national property and the institution was renamed the Bibliothèque Nationale
Andrea Meldolla known as Andrea Schiavone or Andrea Lo Schiavone was an Italian Renaissance painter and etcher, born in present-day Croatia, active in the city of Venice. Meldolla was born in the Venetian-ruled city of Zara in Dalmatia, now Zadar in Croatia, the son of a garrison commander of a post nearby, his family was from the small town of Meldola, close to the city of Forlì in Romagna. He trained either in Venice. Lomazzo stated, in a book of 1584, that he was a pupil of Parmigianino. There are unproven claims, he worked in fresco, panel painting, etching. By 1540, he was well enough established in Venice that Giorgio Vasari commissioned him a large battle picture. Although much influenced by Parmigianino and Italian Mannerism, "he was a strikingly daring exponent of Venetian painting techniques", combined both in his works, influencing Titian and Jacopo Bassano among others, his works "shocked some contemporaries and stimulated others". By the 1550s, he had achieved a new synthesis of Raphael and Titian's compositional elements with his own interest in atmosphere, effecting a "fusion of form with a dense atmosphere in a pictorial fabric whose elements tend to lose their separate indenties".
In Painting in Belgium, 1500–1600, Freedberg describes Meldolla as well adapted to the Mannerist vocabulary, that while he was "able to invent a Venetian Maniera...he was strangely uncreative in the more ordinary workings of artistic invention." In the 1550s, "occasionally, the sensibility - too receptive feminine - that inclined Schiavone towards imitation brought him to the verge of echo of the larger personality". Other works have attributions disputed between Tintoretto. Few of his paintings are documented. Richardson insists on his importance as an etcher: "In etching he was innovative, his technique was unlike that of any contemporary: unsystematically he used dense webs of light, multidirectional hatching to create a tonal continuum embracing form, light and air. His etchings are the only real equivalent in printmaking of 16th-century Venetian painting modes, his technical experiments were emulated by 17th-century etchers such as Jacques Bellange, Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione and Rembrandt".
Meldolla died in Venice in 1553. Freedberg, Sydney J.. Pelican History of Art, ed. Painting in Italy, 1500-1600. Penguin Books. Pp. 533–534. Richardson, Francis E.. Andrea Schiavone. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Richardson, Francis E. the Encyclopedia of Italian Renaissance & Mannerist Art. Pp. 1502–04 at 1503. Zeri, F. & Gardner, E.. Italian Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Venetian School. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 0-87099-079-9. Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery - Biography of Andrea Schiavone Andrea Schiavone, The J. Paul Getty Museum Giorgio Vasari's Lives of the Artists
Sesvete is the easternmost city district of Zagreb, Croatia. With a population of 70,009 it is the most populated district as well as the second largest by area; the Sesvete district includes the following local government units - local committees, some of which are individual settlements: Sesvete Official Web Site Sesvete danas, e-zine from Sesvete Sesvete Wireless Unofficial web site of Sesvete
Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach
Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach was an Austrian architect and architectural historian whose Baroque architecture profoundly influenced and shaped the tastes of the Habsburg Empire. His influential book A Plan of Civil and Historical Architecture was one of the first and most popular comparative studies of world architecture, his major works include Schönbrunn Palace and the Austrian National Library in Vienna, Schloss Klessheim, Holy Trinity Church, the Kollegienkirche in Salzburg. Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach was born in Graz and baptized in the parish church of Heiligen Blut on 20 July 1656, his parents came from notable Graz families: his father was a provincial sculptor and artisan, his grandfather was a bookseller, his mother was the daughter of a joiner and married to a sculptor prior to her second marriage. Raised in the tradition of Styrian craftsmanship in a city of significant architectural achievements, Johann received his early training as a sculptor in the workshop of his father, Johann Baptist Fischer, who contributed to the interior sculptural decorations of the Landhaus and Eggenberg Palace in Graz.
During the seventeenth century, the Princes of Eggenberg had emerged as important patrons of the arts in Styria. In 1671, at the age of sixteen, Johann moved to Rome and joined the workshop of his fellow Austrian Johann Paul Schor and of the great Gian Lorenzo Bernini, who gave him ample opportunities to study both ancient and modern sculpture and architecture. By 1685, he had followed Schor to Naples, where he was reported to have amassed a considerable fortune serving the Spanish viceroy. Back in Austria in 1687, Fischer von Erlach was installed as a fashionable and sought-after architect. Commissions were plentiful, as royalty and highest echelons of aristocracy sought to repair damage inflicted on their country residences by the Ottoman Turks in the course of their 1683 campaign. Fischer's understanding of an urbane Baroque idiom appeared superior to that prevalent in Central Europe, in 1687 he secured the key position of court architect, which he would retain in the service of three emperors.
During the 1690s, which have been described as the most fruitful period of Fischer's career, he adapted the Italian Baroque to local needs and traditions. In 1690, he won great acclaim for two temporary triumphal arches constructed in Vienna to celebrate Joseph I's coronation, he personally instructed Joseph in architectural arts, so that in 1696 the monarch elevated Johann Fischer to the nobility, as Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach. In his 17th-century designs and commissions, Fischer von Erlach embraced Berniniesque powerful curving lines, seeking to convey a sense of movement, his other inspirations included Mansart's country residences and the Palladian classical villas, which he would study during his journeys to Prussia, the Netherlands, England in 1704 and Venice in 1707. Thus Fischer presided over the genesis and early evolution of a distinctive brand of Baroque architecture, which would shape architectural tastes of the Austrian aristocracy for decades to come, his emblematic design from the 1690s was the Winter Palace of Prince Eugene of Savoy, commenced in 1695 in Vienna.
As Hans Aurenhammer put it, this edifice represented "a new type of town palace characterized by impressive form, structural clarity, the dynamic tension of its decoration". Fischer's expertise in town planning made itself felt in designs he executed for the Archbishop of Salzburg. Accomplished are two churches, the Holy Trinity Church and the, whose pitched domes and towers, convex facades, dynamic forms irrevocably changed the outline of Salzburg, they say that masses of stone were designed by Fischer so as to give the appearance of billows of cloud and smoke. The archbishop's country seat, Schloss Klessheim, was designed by him. Fischer's visit to Dalmatia brought back to Western Europe the influence of the classical Diocletian's Palace and provided Europe with one of the first professional architectural glimpses of this notable Roman monument. After Joseph I's death in 1711, Fischer von Erlach was entrusted with new commissions, as the more pleasing and less demanding designs of his rival Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt proved more popular with the young monarch Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor and his court.
He found an opportunity to draw some of the finest architectural reconstructions of the buildings of Antiquity, which were published in his groundbreaking Plan of Civil and Historical Architecture in 1721. He was made responsible for various administrative tasks, which would take a large portion of his energy and time. Clam-Gallas Palace in Prague, commenced in 1713, was one of his last designs for a stately town residence; the structure, much imitated by architects, highlights Fischer's enthusiasm for Palladian facades, which became more pronounced during the last period of his work. But it is Karlskirche in Vienna, started in 1715, that most illustrates his late synthetic style. In this structure, completed by his son Joseph Emanuel, Fischer's ambition was to harmonize the principal elements and ideas that underlie the most significant churches in the history of Western architecture: the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem, Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, the Pantheon and Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome, the Dome des Invalides in Paris and Saint Paul's Cathedral in London.
Pestsäule, Vienna, Austria, 1687 Pilgrimage Church Maria Straßengel high altar, Austria, 1687 Ruprecht von Eggenberg mausoleu