1995 Rugby World Cup
The 1995 Rugby World Cup was the third Rugby World Cup. It was hosted and won by South Africa, was the first Rugby World Cup in which every match was held in one country; the World Cup was the first major sporting event to take place in South Africa following the end of apartheid. It was the first World Cup in which South Africa was allowed to compete; the World Cup would be the last major event of rugby union's amateur era. In the final, held at Ellis Park in Johannesburg on 24 June, South Africa defeated New Zealand 15–12, with Joel Stransky scoring a drop goal in extra time to win the match. Following South Africa's victory, Nelson Mandela, the President of South Africa, wearing a Springboks rugby shirt and cap, presented the Webb Ellis Cup to the South African captain François Pienaar; the eight quarter-finalists from the 1991 Rugby World Cup all received automatic entry, as did South Africa, as hosts. The remaining seven of the 16 positions available in the tournament were filled by regional qualifiers.
The qualifying tournaments were broken up into regional associations: Africa, the Americas, Asia and Oceania. Côte d'Ivoire qualified through Africa, Japan through Asia, Argentina through the Americas, Italy and Wales through Europe, Tonga through Oceania; the 1995 tournament was the first Rugby World Cup to be hosted by just one country, thus, all the venues are within the one country. In total, nine stadiums were used for the World Cup, most being owned by local municipalities, the majority of the venues were upgraded prior to the tournament. Six of the nine stadiums were South African Test grounds; the four largest stadiums were used for the finals, with the final taking place at Johannesburg's Ellis Park. There were games scheduled to have been played in Brakpan, Germiston and Witbank, but these games were reallocated to other venues; this reduced the number of venues from 14 to 9. The reasons cited for this change had to do with facilities for both the press and spectators, as well as the security.
The change in the itinerary occurred in January 1994. Further changes occurred in April, so that evening games were played at stadiums with good floodlighting, it is thought that Potchefstroom was an original venue. Venues were paired: Pool 1: Cape Town, Port Elizabeth and Stellenbosch Pool 2: Durban and East London Pool 3: Johannesburg and Bloemfontein Pool 4: Pretoria and Rustenburg The tournament was contested by 16 different nations using the same format, used in 1987 and 1991 and in total 32 matches were played; the competition began on 25 May, when the hosts South Africa defeated Australia 27–18 at Newlands in Cape Town. The tournament culminated with the final between South Africa and the All Blacks at Ellis Park in Johannesburg on 24 June. In total, the tournament ran for thirty days; the nations were broken up into four pools of four, with each pool consisting of two teams that were automatically qualified and two that went through the qualifying tournaments. The points system, used in the pool stage was unchanged from 1991: 3 points for a win 2 points for a draw 1 point for playing Pool winners were drawn against opposite pool runners-up in the quarter-finals.
For example, the winner of A faces the runner up of B, the winner of B face the runner-up of A. The whole finals stage adopts a knock-out format, the winners of the quarter-finals advance to the semi-finals, where winner 1 faces winner 2, winner 3 faces winner 4; the winners advance to the final, the losers contest a third/fourth place play-off two days before the final. A total of 32 matches were played throughout the tournament over 30 days from 25 May to 24 June 1995. Three minutes into the match between Ivory Coast and Tonga, the Ivorian winger Max Brito was crushed beneath several other players, leaving him paralysed below the neck; the final was contested by hosts South Africa. Both nations finished undefeated at the top of their pools. South Africa defeated Western Samoa in the quarter finals, France in the semi-finals to reach the final; the final was refereed by Ed Morrison of England. To this point, New Zealand had led the tournament in production, outscoring their opponents 315–104, while South Africa had outscored their opponents 129–55.
The tight Springbok defence would keep the high scoring All Blacks in check – Jonah Lomu and Marc Ellis, who had scored a World Cup record seven tries each in the tournament – with neither team scoring a try in the match. South Africa led 9–6 at half time, New Zealand levelled the scores at 9–9 with a drop goal in the second half. Though Andrew Mehrtens kicked a late drop goal for the All Blacks, the score remained tied at full-time, forcing the game into extra time. Both teams scored penalty goals in the first half of extra time, but Joel Stransky scored a drop goal to win the final for South Africa. What happened. Nelson Mandela, wearing a Springbok rugby jersey and baseball cap, presented the Webb Ellis Cup to South African captain François Pienaar to the delight of the capacity crowd; the moment is thought by some to be one of the most famous finals of any sport. The event was broadcast in Australia by Network Ten and in the United Kingdom by ITV; the South Afri
History of South Africa (1994–present)
South Africa since 1994 transitioned from the system of apartheid to one of majority rule. The election of 1994 resulted in a change in government with the African National Congress coming to power; the ANC retained power after subsequent elections in 1999, 2004, 2009 and 2014. Children born during this period are known as the born-free generation, those aged eighteen or older, were able to vote for the first time in 2014. Following the election of 27 April 1994, Nelson Mandela was sworn in as President of South Africa; the Government of National Unity was established. Thabo Mbeki and F. W. de Klerk were made deputy presidents. Economically, the government embarked on the Reconstruction and Development Programme to address the socio-economic consequences of apartheid, including alleviating poverty and addressing the massive shortfalls in social services across the country - something that the government acknowledged would rely upon a stronger macroeconomic environment. In 1995, the interim constitution agreed to during the negotiations to end apartheid was replaced by a new constitution.
The government established the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to expose the crimes of the apartheid era. The commission heard many stories of horrific brutality and injustice from all sides of the struggle, offered some catharsis to people and communities shattered by their past experiences; the TRC operated by allowing victims to tell their stories and by allowing perpetrators to confess their guilt, with amnesty on offer to those who made a full confession. Those who chose not to appear before the commission would face criminal prosecution if the authorities could prove their guilt, but while some soldiers and ordinary citizens confessed their crimes, few of those who had given the orders presented themselves. For example, former State President P. W. Botha and then-Deputy President Thabo Mbeki refused to appear before the Commission. A Growth and Redistribution strategy was adopted in June 1996; the GEAR strategy was influenced by the economic ideas that became known as the Washington Consensus.
Trevor Manuel had just been appointed Minister of Finance. The GEAR strategy was adopted under some pressure from international investors. In 1995, South Africa won the 1995 Rugby World Cup. Nelson Mandela wore a Springbok rugby jersey to present the William Webb Ellis Cup to South African captain Francois Pienaar, a symbolic image of reconciliation between the races. In 1999, South Africa held its second multiracial elections; the governing ANC increased their majority, putting the party within one seat of the two-thirds majority that would allow it to alter the constitution. Thabo Mbeki was elected as the nation's second ethnically Black President; the National Party, restyled as the New National Party, lost two-thirds of its seats, as well as official opposition status to the Democratic Party. The DP had traditionally functioned as a stronghold of liberal whites, now gained new support from conservatives disenchanted with the NP, from some middle-class blacks. Just behind the DP came the KwaZulu-Natal Inkatha Freedom Party the voice of Zulu nationalism.
While the IFP lost some support, its leader, Mangosuthu Buthelezi, continued to exercise power as the national Home Affairs minister. While the ANC grassroots held Mbeki in far less affection than the beloved "Madiba", Mbeki proved himself to be a shrewd politician, maintaining his political pre-eminence by isolating or co-opting opposition parties. However, Mbeki's effective denial of the HIV crisis invited global criticism, his conspicuous failure to condemn the deteriorating situation in neighbouring Zimbabwe unnerved South African landowners. In June 2005, corruption allegations related to a national arms deal surfaced against the country's deputy president, Jacob Zuma, after his financial advisor, Schabir Shaik, was convicted of corruption and fraud. In the aftermath of the conviction, Mbeki dismissed Zuma as deputy president. Zuma was subsequently charged with corruption in a case, still unresolved as of 2009. Popular support for Mbeki suffered from the feeling that his government's economic policies had failed to generate inclusive development.
The Black Economic Empowerment programme was implemented from 2003 to redress the inequalities of the apartheid era. It was criticised as benefiting a narrow stratum of disadvantaged groups, the programme was re-launched in 2007 as Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment. Crime in South Africa remained a massive problem; the Economist reports the killing of 1,500 white farmers in attacks since 1991, in both 1995 and 1998, the country led the world in reported murders. In an effort to combat the alarming murder rates, the government has published statistics showing a steady, albeit tiny decrease in the murder rate since 1994, however this varies across the country. In 2001, a South African was more to be murdered than die in a car crash. According to The Economist, an estimated 250,000 white South Africans emigrated between 1994-2005. At the 52nd National Conference of the African National Congress at Polokwane in December 2007, Mbeki lost the race for the presidency of the ANC to his former Deputy President, Jacob Zuma.
All leadership positions within the ANC went to Zuma supporters, representing a major power shift within the ruling party. The ejection of Mbeki was followed by a gradua
A national anthem is a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. The majority of national anthems are hymns in style; the countries of Latin America, Central Asia, Europe tend towards more ornate and operatic pieces, while those in the Middle East, Oceania and the Caribbean use a more simplistic fanfare. Some countries that are devolved into multiple constituent states have their own official musical compositions for them. A national anthem is most in the national or most common language of the country, whether de facto or official, there are notable exceptions. Most states with more than one national language may offer several versions of their anthem, for instance: The "Swiss Psalm", the national anthem of Switzerland, has different lyrics for each of the country's four official languages; the national anthem of Canada, "O Canada", has official lyrics in both English and French which are not translations of each other, is sung with a mixture of stanzas, representing the country's bilingual nature.
The song itself was written in French. "The Soldier's Song", the national anthem of Ireland, was written and adopted in English, but an Irish translation, although never formally adopted, is nowadays always sung instead. The current South African national anthem is unique in that five of the country's eleven official languages are used in the same anthem, it was created by combining two different songs together and modifying the lyrics and adding new ones. One of the two official national anthems of New Zealand, "God Defend New Zealand", is now sung with the first verse in Māori and the second in English; the tune is the same but the words are not a direct translation of each other. "God Bless Fiji" has lyrics in Fijian which are not translations of each other. Although official, the Fijian version is sung, it is the English version, performed at international sporting events. Although Singapore has four official languages, with English being the current lingua franca, the national anthem, "Majulah Singapura" is in Malay and by law can only be sung with its original Malay lyrics, despite the fact that Malay is a minority language in Singapore.
This is because Part XIII of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore declares, “the national language shall be the Malay language and shall be in the Roman script ” There are several countries that do not have official lyrics to their national anthems. One of these is the national anthem of Spain. Although it had lyrics those lyrics were discontinued after governmental changes in the early 1980s after Francisco Franco's dictactorship. In 2007 a national competition to write words was held. Other national anthems with no words include "Inno Nazionale della Repubblica", the national anthem of San Marino, that of Bosnia and Herzegovina and that of Kosovo, entitled "Europe"; the national anthem of India, "Jana Gana Mana", the official lyrics are in the Devnagari. The lyrics were adopted from a Bengali poem written by Rabindranath Tagore. Despite the most common language in Wales being English, the Welsh regional anthem "Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau" is sung in the Welsh language; the national anthem of Finland, was first written in Swedish and only translated to Finnish.
It is nowadays sung in both languages as there is a Swedish speaking minority of about 6% in the country. National anthems rose to prominence in Europe during the 19th century, but some originated much earlier; the presumed oldest national anthem belongs to the Netherlands and is called the "Wilhelmus". It was written between 1568 and 1572 during the Dutch Revolt and its current melody variant was composed shortly before 1626, it was a popular orangist march during the 17th century but it did not become the official Dutch national anthem until 1932. The Japanese national anthem, "Kimigayo", has the oldest lyrics, which were taken from a Heian period poem, yet it was not set to music until 1880; the Philippine national anthem "Lupang Hinirang" was composed in 1898 as wordless incidental music for the ceremony declaring independence from the Spanish Empire. The Spanish poem "Filipinas" was written the following year to serve as the anthem's lyrics. "God Save the Queen", the national anthem of the United Kingdom and the royal anthem reserved for use in the presence of the Monarch in some Commonwealth realms, was first performed in 1619 under the title "God Save the King".
It is not the national anthem of the UK, though it became such through custom and usage. Spain's national anthem, the "Marcha Real", written in 1761, was among the first to be adopted as such, in 1770. Denmark adopted the older of its two national anthems, "Kong Christian stod ved højen mast", in 1780. Serbia became the first Eastern European nation to have a national anthem – "Rise up, Serbia!" – in 1804."Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu", the national anthem of Kenya, is one of the first national anthems to be specifical
Afrikaners are a Southern African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving in the 17th and 18th centuries. They traditionally dominated South Africa's agriculture and politics prior to 1994. Afrikaans, South Africa's third most spoken home language, is the mother tongue of Afrikaners and most Cape Coloureds, it evolved from the Dutch vernacular of South Holland, incorporating words brought from the Dutch East Indies and Madagascar by slaves. Afrikaners make up 5.2% of the total South African population based on the number of white South Africans who speak Afrikaans as a first language in the South African National Census of 2011. The arrival of Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama at Calicut in 1498 opened a gateway of free access to Asia from Western Europe around the Cape of Good Hope. One European power followed another, all eager to trade along this route; the Portuguese landed in Mossel Bay in 1500, explored Table Bay two years and by 1510 had started raiding inland.
Shortly afterwards the Dutch Republic sent merchant vessels to India, in 1602 founded the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie. As the volume of traffic rounding the Cape increased, the Company recognised its natural harbour as an ideal watering point for the long voyage around Africa to the Orient and established a victualling station there in 1652. VOC officials did not favour the permanent settlement of Europeans in their trading empire, although during the 140 years of Dutch rule many VOC servants retired or were discharged and remained as private citizens. Furthermore, the exigencies of supplying local garrisons and passing fleets compelled the administration to confer free status upon employees and oblige them to become independent farmers. Encouraged by the success of this experiment, the Company extended free passage from 1685 to 1707 for Hollanders wishing to settle at the Cape. In 1688 it sponsored the immigration of 200 French Huguenot refugees forced into exile by the Edict of Fontainebleau.
The terms under which the Huguenots agreed to immigrate were the same offered to other VOC subjects, including free passage and requisite farm equipment on credit. Prior attempts at cultivating vineyards or exploiting olive groves for fruit had been unsuccessful, it was hoped that Huguenot colonists accustomed to Mediterranean agriculture could succeed where the Dutch had failed, they were augmented by VOC soldiers returning from Asia, predominantly Germans channeled into Amsterdam by the Company's extensive recruitment network and thence overseas. Despite their diverse nationalities, the colonists used a common language and adopted similar attitudes towards politics; the attributes they shared came to serve as a basis for the evolution of Afrikaner identity and consciousness. Afrikaner nationalism has taken the form of political parties and secret societies such as the Broederbond in the twentieth century. In 1914 the National Party was formed to promote Afrikaner economic interests and sever South Africa's ties to the United Kingdom.
Rising to prominence by winning the 1948 general elections, it has been noted for enforcing a harsh policy of racial segregation while declaring South Africa a republic and withdrawing from the British Commonwealth. The term "Afrikaner" presently denotes the politically and dominant group among white South Africans, or the Afrikaans-speaking population of Dutch origin—although their original progenitors included smaller numbers of Flemish, French Huguenot, German immigrants; the terms "burgher" and "Boer" have both been used to describe white Afrikaans speakers as a group. The term was in common usage in both the Boer republics and the Cape Colony by the late nineteenth century. At one time, burghers denoted Cape Dutch, settlers who were influential in the administration, able to participate in urban affairs, did so regularly. Boers referred to the settled European farmers or nomadic cattle herders. During the Batavian Republic, "burgher" was popularised among Dutch communities both at home and abroad as a popular revolutionary form of address, or citizen.
In South Africa, it remained in use as late as the Second Boer War. The first recorded instance of a colonist identifying as an "Afrikaner" occurred in March 1707, during a disturbance in Stellenbosch; when the magistrate, Johannes Starrenburg, ordered an unruly crowd to desist, a white teenager named Hendrik Biebouw retorted, "Ik ben een Afrikaander - al slaat de landdrost mij dood, of al zetten hij mij in de tronk, ik zal, nog wil niet zwijgen!". Biebouw was flogged for his insolence and banished to Jakarta, it is believed that "Afrikaner" in question indicated Cape Coloureds or other groups claiming mixed ancestry. Biebouw himself may have identified with Coloureds socially. However, this defiant secession from Dutch law and sovereignty was a leap towards defining another consciousness for white South Africa, suggesting for the first time a group identification with the Cape Colony rather than any ancestral homeland in Europe; the Dutch East India Company had no intention of planting a permanent European settlement at the Cape of Good Hope.
From the VOC's perspective, there
Government of South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a parliamentary republic with three-tier system of government and an independent judiciary, operating in a parliamentary system. Legislative authority is held by the Parliament of South Africa. Executive authority is vested in the President of South Africa, head of state and head of government, his Cabinet; the President is elected by the Parliament to serve a fixed term. South Africa's government differs from those of other Commonwealth nations; the national and local levels of government all have legislative and executive authority in their own spheres, are defined in the South African Constitution as "distinctive and interrelated". Operating at both national and provincial levels are advisory bodies drawn from South Africa's traditional leaders, it is a stated intention in the Constitution that the country be run on a system of co-operative governance. The national government is composed of three inter-connected branches: Legislative: Parliament, consisting of the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces Executive: The President, both Head of State and Head of Government Judicial: The Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court of Appeal, the High CourtAll bodies of the South African government are subject to the rule of the Constitution, the Supreme law in South Africa.
The bicameral Parliament of South Africa makes up the legislative branch of the national government. It consists of the National Council of Provinces; the National Assembly consists of 400 members elected by popular vote using a system of party-list proportional representation. Half of the members are elected from parties' provincial lists and the other half from national lists. Following the implementation of the new constitution on 3 February 1997 the National Council of Provinces replaced the former Senate with no change in membership and party affiliations, although the new institution's responsibilities have been changed. In ordinary legislation, the two chambers have coordinate powers, but all proposals for appropriating revenue or imposing taxes must be introduced in the National Assembly; the President is elected by the members of the General Assembly. Upon election the President resigns as an MP and appoints a Cabinet of Ministers from among the members. Ministers however retain their parliamentary seats.
The President and the Ministers are responsible to the Parliament, of which they must be elected members. General elections are held at least once every five years; the last general election was held on 7 May 2014. The President, Deputy President and the Ministers make up the executive branch of the national government. Ministers are Members of Parliament who are appointed by the President to head the various departments of the national government; the president is elected by parliament from its members. The ministers individually, the Cabinet collectively, are accountable to Parliament for their actions; each minister is responsible for one or more departments, some ministers have a deputy minister to whom they delegate some responsibility. The portfolios, incumbent ministers and deputies, departments are shown in the following table; the third branch of the national government is an independent judiciary. The judicial branch interprets the laws, using as a basis the laws as enacted and explanatory statements made in the Legislature during the enactment.
The legal system is based on Roman-Dutch law and English common law and accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations. The constitution's bill of rights provides for due process including the right to a fair, public trial within a reasonable time of being charged and the right to appeal to a higher court. To achieve this, there are four major tiers of courts: Magistrates' Courts – The court where civil cases involving less than R100 000, cases involving minor crimes, are heard. High Courts – The court of appeal for cases from the magistrates courts, as well as the court where major civil and criminal cases are first heard. Supreme Court of Appeal – The final court of appeal for matters not pertaining to the constitution. Constitutional Court – The final court of appeal for matters related to the constitutionIn addition provision is made in the constitution for other courts established by or recognised in terms of an Act of Parliament; the provincial governments of the nine provinces of South Africa have their own executive and legislative branches, but not separate judicial systems.
In each province the legislative branch consists of a provincial legislature, varying in size from 30 to 80 members, elected through party-list proportional representation. The legislature elects one of its members as Premier to lead the executive branch, the Premier appoints between five and ten members of the legislature as an executive council to lead the various departments of the provincial government. Local government in South Africa consists of municipalities of various types; the largest metropolitan areas are governed by metropolitan municipalities, while the rest of the country is divided into district municipalities, each of which consists of several local municipalities. After the municipal election of 18 May 2011 there were eight metropolitan municipalities, 44 district municipalities and 226 local municipalities. Municipalities are governed by municipal councils; the councils of metropolitan and local municipalities are elected by a system of mixed-member proportional representation, while the councils of district municipalities
Methodism known as the Methodist movement, is a group of related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley. George Whitefield and John's brother Charles Wesley were significant early leaders in the movement, it originated as a revival movement within the 18th-century Church of England and became a separate denomination after Wesley's death. The movement spread throughout the British Empire, the United States, beyond because of vigorous missionary work, today claiming 80 million adherents worldwide. Wesley's theology focused on the effect of faith on the character of a Christian. Distinguishing Methodist doctrines include the new birth, an assurance of salvation, imparted righteousness, the possibility of perfection in love, the works of piety, the primacy of Scripture. Most Methodists teach that Jesus Christ, the Son of God, died for all of humanity and that salvation is available for all; this teaching rejects the Calvinist position that God has pre-ordained the salvation of a select group of people.
However and several other early leaders of the movement were considered Calvinistic Methodists and held to the Calvinist position. Methodism emphasises charity and support for the sick, the poor, the afflicted through the works of mercy; these ideals are put into practice by the establishment of hospitals, soup kitchens, schools to follow Christ's command to spread the gospel and serve all people. The movement has a wide variety of forms of worship, ranging from high church to low church in liturgical usage. Denominations that descend from the British Methodist tradition are less ritualistic, while American Methodism is more so, the United Methodist Church in particular. Methodism is known for its rich musical tradition, Charles Wesley was instrumental in writing much of the hymnody of the Methodist Church. Early Methodists were drawn from all levels of society, including the aristocracy, but the Methodist preachers took the message to labourers and criminals who tended to be left outside organised religion at that time.
In Britain, the Methodist Church had a major effect in the early decades of the developing working class. In the United States, it became the religion of many slaves who formed black churches in the Methodist tradition; the Methodist revival began with a group of men, including John Wesley and his younger brother Charles, as a movement within the Church of England in the 18th century. The Wesley brothers founded the "Holy Club" at the University of Oxford, where John was a fellow and a lecturer at Lincoln College; the club met weekly and they systematically set about living a holy life. They were accustomed to receiving Communion every week, fasting abstaining from most forms of amusement and luxury and visited the sick and the poor, as well as prisoners; the fellowship were branded as "Methodist" by their fellow students because of the way they used "rule" and "method" to go about their religious affairs. John, leader of the club, took the attempted mockery and turned it into a title of honour.
In 1735, at the invitation of the founder of the Georgia Colony, General James Oglethorpe, both John and Charles Wesley set out for America to be ministers to the colonists and missionaries to the Native Americans. Unsuccessful in their work, the brothers returned to England conscious of their lack of genuine Christian faith, they looked for help to other members of the Moravian Church. At a Moravian service in Aldersgate on 24 May 1738, John experienced what has come to be called his evangelical conversion, when he felt his "heart strangely warmed", he records in his journal: "I felt I did trust in Christ alone, for salvation. Charles had reported a similar experience a few days previously. Considered a pivotal moment, Daniel L. Burnett writes: "The significance of Wesley's Aldersgate Experience is monumental … Without it the names of Wesley and Methodism would be nothing more than obscure footnotes in the pages of church history."The Wesley brothers began to preach salvation by faith to individuals and groups, in houses, in religious societies, in the few churches which had not closed their doors to evangelical preachers.
John Wesley came under the influence of the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius. Arminius had rejected the Calvinist teaching that God had pre-ordained an elect number of people to eternal bliss while others perished eternally. Conversely, George Whitefield, Howell Harris, Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon were notable for being Calvinistic Methodists. George Whitefield, returning from his own mission in Georgia, joined the Wesley brothers in what was to become a national crusade. Whitefield, a fellow student of the Wesleys at Oxford, became well known for his unorthodox, itinerant ministry, in which he was dedicated to open-air preaching—reaching crowds of thousands. A key step in the development of John Wesley's ministry was, like Whitefield, to preach in fields and churchyards to those who did not attend parish church services. Accordingly, many Methodist converts were those disconnected from the Church of England. Faced with growing evangelistic and pastoral responsibilities and Whitefield appointed lay preachers and leaders.
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country's first black head of state and the first elected in a representative democratic election, his government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by tackling institutionalised racism and fostering racial reconciliation. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress party from 1991 to 1997. A Xhosa, Mandela was born to the Thembu royal family in British South Africa, he studied law at the University of Fort Hare and the University of Witwatersrand before working as a lawyer in Johannesburg. There he became involved in anti-colonial and African nationalist politics, joining the ANC in 1943 and co-founding its Youth League in 1944. After the National Party's white-only government established apartheid, a system of racial segregation that privileged whites, he and the ANC committed themselves to its overthrow.
Mandela was appointed President of the ANC's Transvaal branch, rising to prominence for his involvement in the 1952 Defiance Campaign and the 1955 Congress of the People. He was arrested for seditious activities and was unsuccessfully prosecuted in the 1956 Treason Trial. Influenced by Marxism, he secretly joined the banned South African Communist Party. Although committed to non-violent protest, in association with the SACP he co-founded the militant Umkhonto we Sizwe in 1961 and led a sabotage campaign against the government, he was arrested and imprisoned in 1962, subsequently sentenced to life imprisonment for conspiring to overthrow the state following the Rivonia Trial. Mandela served 27 years in prison, split between Robben Island, Pollsmoor Prison, Victor Verster Prison. Amid growing domestic and international pressure, with fears of a racial civil war, President F. W. de Klerk released him in 1990. Mandela and de Klerk led efforts to negotiate an end to apartheid, which resulted in the 1994 multiracial general election in which Mandela led the ANC to victory and became president.
Leading a broad coalition government which promulgated a new constitution, Mandela emphasised reconciliation between the country's racial groups and created the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights abuses. Economically, Mandela's administration retained its predecessor's liberal framework despite his own socialist beliefs introducing measures to encourage land reform, combat poverty, expand healthcare services. Internationally, he acted as mediator in the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial and served as Secretary-General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1998 to 1999, he declined a second presidential term, in 1999 was succeeded by his deputy, Thabo Mbeki. Mandela became an elder statesman and focused on combating poverty and HIV/AIDS through the charitable Nelson Mandela Foundation. Mandela was a controversial figure for much of his life. Although critics on the right denounced him as a communist terrorist and those on the far-left deemed him too eager to negotiate and reconcile with apartheid's supporters, he gained international acclaim for his activism.
Regarded as an icon of democracy and social justice, he received more than 250 honours—including the Nobel Peace Prize—and became the subject of a cult of personality. He is held in deep respect within South Africa, where he is referred to by his Xhosa clan name and described as the "Father of the Nation". Mandela was born on 18 July 1918 in the village of Mvezo in Umtata part of South Africa's Cape Province. Given the forename Rolihlahla, a Xhosa term colloquially meaning "troublemaker", in years he became known by his clan name, Madiba, his patrilineal great-grandfather, was king of the Thembu people in the Transkeian Territories of South Africa's modern Eastern Cape province. One of Ngubengcuka's sons, named Mandela, was the source of his surname; because Mandela was the king's child by a wife of the Ixhiba clan, a so-called "Left-Hand House", the descendants of his cadet branch of the royal family were morganatic, ineligible to inherit the throne but recognised as hereditary royal councillors.
Nelson Mandela's father, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa Mandela, was a local chief and councillor to the monarch. In 1926, Gadla was sacked for corruption, but Nelson was told that his father had lost his job for standing up to the magistrate's unreasonable demands. A devotee of the god Qamata, Gadla was a polygamist with four wives, four sons and nine daughters, who lived in different villages. Nelson's mother was Gadla's third wife, Nosekeni Fanny, daughter of Nkedama of the Right Hand House and a member of the amaMpemvu clan of the Xhosa. Mandela stated that his early life was dominated by traditional Thembu custom and taboo, he grew up with two sisters in his mother's kraal in the village of Qunu, where he tended herds as a cattle-boy and spent much time outside with other boys. Both his parents were illiterate, but being a devout Christian, his mother sent him to a local Methodist school when he was about seven. Baptised a Methodist, Mandela was given the English forename of "Nelson" by his teacher.
When Mandela was about nine, his father came to stay at Qunu, where he died of an undiagnosed ailment which Mandela believed to be lung disease. Feeling "cut adrift", he said that he inherited his father's "proud rebelliousness" and "stubborn sense of fairness". Mandela's mother took him to the "Great Place" palace at Mqhekezw