The Sasanian Empire known as the Sassanian, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire, was the last kingdom of the Persian Empire before the rise of Islam. Named after the House of Sasan, it ruled from 224 to 651 AD; the Sasanian Empire succeeded the Parthian Empire and was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire for a period of more than 400 years. The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Eastern Arabia, the Levant, the Caucasus, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani; the Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important, influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam.
In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa and India, it played a prominent role in the formation of both Asian medieval art. Much of what became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world. Conflicting accounts shroud the details of the fall of the Parthian Empire and subsequent rise of the Sassanian Empire in mystery; the Sassanian Empire was established in Estakhr by Ardashir I. Papak was the ruler of a region called Khir. However, by the year 200 he had managed to overthrow Gochihr and appoint himself the new ruler of the Bazrangids, his mother, was the daughter of the provincial governor of Pars. Papak and his eldest son Shapur managed to expand their power over all of Pars; the subsequent events are due to the elusive nature of the sources.
It is certain, that following the death of Papak, who at the time was the governor of Darabgerd, became involved in a power struggle of his own with his elder brother Shapur. Sources reveal that Shapur, leaving for a meeting with his brother, was killed when the roof of a building collapsed on him. By the year 208, over the protests of his other brothers who were put to death, Ardashir declared himself ruler of Pars. Once Ardashir was appointed shah, he moved his capital further to the south of Pars and founded Ardashir-Khwarrah; the city, well protected by high mountains and defensible due to the narrow passes that approached it, became the centre of Ardashir's efforts to gain more power. It was surrounded by a high, circular wall copied from that of Darabgird. Ardashir's palace was on the north side of the city. After establishing his rule over Pars, Ardashir extended his territory, demanding fealty from the local princes of Fars, gaining control over the neighbouring provinces of Kerman, Isfahan and Mesene.
This expansion came to the attention of Artabanus V, the Parthian king, who ordered the governor of Khuzestan to wage war against Ardashir in 224, but Ardashir was victorious in the ensuing battles. In a second attempt to destroy Ardashir, Artabanus himself met Ardashir in battle at Hormozgan, where the former met his death. Following the death of the Parthian ruler, Ardashir went on to invade the western provinces of the now defunct Parthian Empire. At that time the Arsacid dynasty was divided between supporters of Artabanus V and Vologases VI, which allowed Ardashir to consolidate his authority in the south with little or no interference from the Parthians. Ardashir was aided by the geography of the province of Fars, separated from the rest of Iran. Crowned in 224 at Ctesiphon as the sole ruler of Persia, Ardashir took the title shahanshah, or "King of Kings", bringing the 400-year-old Parthian Empire to an end, beginning four centuries of Sassanid rule. In the next few years, local rebellions occurred throughout the empire.
Nonetheless, Ardashir I further expanded his new empire to the east and northwest, conquering the provinces of Sistan, Khorasan, Margiana and Chorasmia. He added Bahrain and Mosul to Sassanid's possessions. Sassanid inscriptions claim the submission of the Kings of Kushan and Mekran to Ardashir, although based on numismatic evidence it is more that these submitted to Ardashir's son, the future Shapur I. In the west, assaults against Hatra and Adiabene met with less success. In 230, Ardashir raided deep into Roman territory, a Roman counter-offensive two years ended inconclusively, although the Roman emperor, Alexander Severus, celebrated a triumph in Rome. Ardashir I's son Shapur I continued the expansion of the empire, conquering Bactria and the western portion of the Kushan Empire, while leading several campaigns against Rome. Invading Roman Mesopotamia, Shapur I captured Carrhae and Nisibis, but in 243 the Roman general Timesitheus defeated the Persians at Rhesaina and regained the lost territories.
The emperor Gordian III's subsequent advance down the Euphrates was defea
Armenian–Tatar massacres of 1905–07
The Armenian–Tatar-Azerbaijani massacres refers to the bloody inter-ethnic confrontation between Armenians and Azerbaijanis throughout the Russian Caucasus in 1905–1907. The massacres started during the Russian Revolution of 1905, claimed hundreds of lives; the most violent clashes occurred in 1905 in February in Baku, in May in Nakhchivan, in August in Shusha and in November in Elizavetopol damaging the cities and the Baku oilfields. Some violence, although of lesser scale, broke out in Tbilisi. According to professor Firuz Kazemzadeh, "it is impossible to pin the blame for the massacres on either side, it seems that in some cases the Azerbaijanis fired the first shots, in other cases the Armenians." The clashes were not confined to the towns, according to Swietochowswki, citing Armenian sources 128 Armenian and 158 Azerbaijani villages were destroyed or pillaged, while the overall estimates of lives lost vary ranging from 3,000 to 10,000, with Azerbaijanis suffering higher losses, which stemmed from Azeri mobs being organized poorly and Dashnaks on the Armenian side being more effective.
According to Van Der Leeuw clashes started in early February 1905 over the killing of a Tatar schoolboy and shopkeeper by Armenians. 126 Tatars and 218 Armenians were killed during four days of fighting in Baku. Other sources such as Dasnabedian, or Walker claim that Azeris had started the conflict which gave Armenians a reason to give a strong response, Tatars had killed many unarmed Armenians in Baku, in February 1905. Walker said that, "Tatars were free to massacre with impunity". According to Baku statistic bureau and Tartar-Russian-Armenian committee of Assistance to Victims, 205 Armenians were killed and 13 elderly, along with 121 wounded; these statistics contradict Van Der Leeuw's claims. High amount of Azerbaijani people killed including childs and womans. In attacks Armenias/Jews got killed too. By their own people. Armenias did everything, but after years the bones/ashes of victims matched Azerbaijani/Jew DNA which showed that victims were Muslims/Jews/Tatars. After that things happenned in theese villages 6 Armenia villages got attacked by Tatars under name of revenge and about 40-50 Armenia got killed.
After the Baku clashes, Muslim communities in the Nakhichevan district began smuggling consignments of weapons from Persia. By April, murders of Armenians in the district began to assume alarming proportions and they applied to the Russian authorities for protection. However, Luigi Villari describes the district's governor as "bitterly anti-Armenian", the vice-governor in Yerevan as an "Armenophobe". On 25 May, acting on a prearranged plan, bands of armed Tartars attacked the market area in the district capital, the town of Nakhichevan and burning Armenian businesses and killing any Armenians they could find. About 50 Armenians were murdered and some of the shopkeepers were burnt alive in their shops; the same day, Tartar villagers from the countryside began attacking their Armenian neighbours. Villari cites official reports mentioning that "out of a total of 52 villages with Armenian or mixed Armenian-Tartar populations, 47 were attacked, of that 47, 19 were destroyed and abandoned by their inhabitants.
The total number of dead, including those in Nachichevan town, was 239. In a revenge attack, Armenians attacked a Tartar village, killing 36 people". According to Thomas de Waal in Shusha, "the number of killed and wounded amounted to about 300, of whom about two thirds were Tartars, for the Armenians were better shots and enjoyed the advantage of position." In Ganja Azerbaijani caravan got attacked by 300 Armenians and everyone in caravan got killed including childs and womans. Their Bodies got burnt by Armenias. Before everything starts in 29 August the Armenias made terrorist attack to Ganja; this was just looking like genocide. Armenias/Tatars/Azerbaijani people died, but who started it? Answer of this question is Armenias. in 1905 - 1906 years the workers stopped to work at russia they resisted againts goverment because of life standarts was bad. This wave came to Azerbaijan too; the Soviet union saw it. Seeing it they created opportunity for Armenias to attack on muslims; the facts that prove it is the newspapers, Journals Soviet union developed: "Dashnaksutyun party showed its strength again".
"Muslims got what they deserverd" At the war Armenias died too. But it was because the muslim population resisten in Jabrail the youngs and adults of the village resisted againts Armenia powers barehanded/woods and made them go back, but other villages got burnt. It is why casualities of Azerbaijani side isnt clear and known the statistics say 500-600 people were living in a simple village and the facts that shows they got attacked during night/midnight increases deaths because they couldnt run. Armenias got killed at public under name of revenge, but murderers of them got arrested unlike murderers of muslims. This years are accepted as bloodiest days againts workers; the reason that it is accepted bloody days for workers too is when Russia saw workers want more money, less working times they killed their own peoples near parliament building in 1905 and this action called Bloody Market. Armenias: 500+ Azerbaijani: Unknown/More than 1000 figured Tatars: Unknown Armenia–Azerbaija
The October Revolution known in Soviet historiography as the Great October Socialist Revolution and referred to as the October Uprising, the October Coup, the Bolshevik Revolution, the Bolshevik Coup or the Red October, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolshevik Party of Vladimir Lenin, instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917. It took place with an armed insurrection in Petrograd on 7 November 1917, it followed and capitalized on the February Revolution of the same year, which overthrew the Tsarist autocracy and resulted in a provisional government after a transfer of power proclaimed by Grand Duke Michael, the younger brother of Tsar Nicholas II, who declined to take power after the Tsar stepped down. During this time, urban workers began to organize into councils wherein revolutionaries criticized the provisional government and its actions. After the Congress of Soviets, now the governing body, had its second session, it elected members of the Bolsheviks and other leftist groups such as the Left Socialist Revolutionaries to important positions within the new state of affairs.
This initiated the establishment of the Russian Soviet Republic. On 17 July 1918, his family were executed; the revolution was led by the Bolsheviks, who used their influence in the Petrograd Soviet to organize the armed forces. Bolshevik Red Guards forces under the Military Revolutionary Committee began the occupation of government buildings on 7 November 1917; the following day, the Winter Palace was captured. The long-awaited Constituent Assembly elections were held on 12 November 1917. In contrast to their majority in the Soviets, the Bolsheviks only won 175 seats in the 715-seat legislative body, coming in second behind the Socialist Revolutionary Party, which won 370 seats, although the SR Party no longer existed as a whole party by that time, as the Left SRs had gone into coalition with the Bolsheviks from October 1917 to March 1918; the Constituent Assembly was to first meet on 28 November 1917, but its convocation was delayed until 5 January 1918 by the Bolsheviks. On its first and only day in session, the Constituent Assembly came into conflict with the Soviets, it rejected Soviet decrees on peace and land, resulting in the Constituent Assembly being dissolved the next day by order of the Congress of Soviets.
As the revolution was not universally recognized, there followed the struggles of the Russian Civil War and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922. At first, the event was referred to as the October coup or the Uprising of 3rd, as seen in contemporary documents. In Russian, however, "переворот" has a similar meaning to "revolution" and means "upheaval" or "overturn", so "coup" is not the correct translation. With time, the term October Revolution came into use, it is known as the "November Revolution" having occurred in November according to the Gregorian Calendar. The February Revolution had toppled Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, replaced his government with the Russian Provisional Government. However, the provisional government was riven by internal dissension, it continued to wage World War I, which became unpopular. A nationwide crisis developed in Russia, affecting social and political relations. Disorder in industry and transport had intensified, difficulties in obtaining provisions had increased.
Gross industrial production in 1917 had decreased by over 36% from what it had been in 1914. In the autumn, as much as 50% of all enterprises were closed down in the Urals, the Donbas, other industrial centers, leading to mass unemployment. At the same time, the cost of living increased sharply. Real wages fell about 50% from what they had been in 1913. Russia's national debt in October 1917 had risen to 50 billion rubles. Of this, debts to foreign governments constituted more than 11 billion rubles; the country faced the threat of financial bankruptcy. Throughout June and August 1917, it was common to hear working-class Russians speak about their lack of confidence and misgivings with those in power in the Provisional Government. Factory workers around Russia felt unhappy with the growing shortages of food and other materials, they blamed their own managers or foremen and would attack them in the factories. The workers blamed many rich and influential individuals, such as elites in positions of power, for the overall shortage of food and poor living conditions.
Workers labelled these rich and powerful individuals as opponents of the Revolution, called them words such as "bourgeois and imperialist."In September and October 1917, there were mass strike actions by the Moscow and Petrograd workers, miners in Donbas, metalworkers in the Urals, oil workers in Baku, textile workers in the Central Industrial Region, railroad workers on 44 railway lines. In these months alone, more than a million workers took part in strikes. Workers established control over production and distribution in many factories and plants in a social revolution. Workers were able to organize these strikes through factory committees; the factory committees represented the workers and were able to negotiate better working conditions and hours. Though workplace conditions may have been increasing in quality, the overall quality of life for workers was not improving. There were still shortages of food and the increased wages workers had obtained did little to provide for their families.
By October 1917, peasant uprisings were common. By autumn the peasant movement ag
History of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. It is bounded by Caspian Sea to the east, Russia's Daghestan region to the north, Georgia to the north-west and Turkey to the south-west, Iran to the south. Azerbaijan is a home to various ethnicities, majority of which are Azerbaijani, a Turkic ethnic group which numbers close to 9 million in the independent Republic of Azerbaijan. During Median and Persian rule, many Caucasian Albanians adopted Zoroastrianism and switched to Christianity prior to coming of Muslim Arabs and more Muslim Turks; the Turkic tribes are believed to have arrived as small bands of ghazis whose conquests led to the Turkification of the population as native Caucasian and Iranian tribes adopted the Turkic language of the Oghuz and converted to Islam over a period of several hundred years. Following the Russo-Persian Wars of 1813 and 1828, the Qajar Empire was forced to cede all its Caucasian territories to the Russian Empire and the treaties of Gulistan in 1813 and Turkmenchay in 1828 finalized the borders between Czarist Russia and Qajar Iran.
The area to the North of the river Aras, among which the territory of the contemporary republic of Azerbaijan were Iranian territory until they were occupied by Russia in the course of the 19th century. Under the Treaty of Turkmenchay, Qajar Iran recognized Russian sovereignty over the Erivan Khanate, the Nakhchivan Khanate and the remainder of the Lankaran Khanate, comprising the last parts of the soil of the modern-day Azerbaijani Republic that were still in Iranian hands. After more than 80 years of being under the Russian Empire in the Caucasus, the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was established in 1918; the name of "Azerbaijan" which the leading Musavat party adopted, for political reasons, prior to the establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in 1918 used to identify the adjacent region of contemporary northwestern Iran. The state was invaded by Soviet forces in 1920 and remained under Soviet rule until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, after which the modern-day Republic was founded.
The cave of Azykh in the territory of the Fizuli district in the Republic of Azerbaijan is considered to be the site of one of the most ancient proto-human habitations in Eurasia. Remnants of the pre-Acheulean culture were found in the lowest layers of the Azykh cave that are at least 700,000 years old. In 1968, Mammadali Huseynov discovered a 300,000-year-old partial jawbone of an early human, this was the oldest human remains discovered in the Soviet Union; the Paleolithic period in what is now Azerbaijan is represented by finds at Aveidag, Damjily, Dash Salakhly and some other sites. Carved drawings etched on rocks in Qobustan, south of Baku, demonstrate scenes of hunting, fishing and dancing, are dated to the Mesolithic period; the Eneolithic or Chalcolithic period was the period of transition from the Stone Age to the Bronze Age. Many Eneolithic settlements have been discovered in Azerbaijan, carbon-dated artefacts show that during this period, people built homes, made copper tools and arrowheads, were familiar with no-irrigated agriculture.
The influence of ancient peoples and civilizations came to a crossroads in the territory of Azerbaijan. A variety of Caucasian peoples appear to be the earliest inhabitants of the South Caucasus with the notable Caucasian Albanians being their most prominently known representative. Caucasian Albanians are believed to be the earliest inhabitants of Azerbaijan. Early invaders included the Scythians in the 9th century BCE; the South Caucasus was conquered by the Achaemenids around 550 BCE. During this period, Zoroastrianism spread in Azerbaijan; the Achaemenids in turn were defeated by Alexander the Great in 330 BCE. Following the decline of the Seleucids in Persia in 247 BCE, an Armenian Kingdom exercised control over parts of modern Azerbaijan between 190 BCE to 428 CE; this Armenian Kingdom, the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia, was a branch of the eponymous Arsacid dynasty of Parthia. All of Caucasian Albania fell, after the deposing of the Seleucids, under Parthian rule for the next centuries to come.
Caucasian Albanians established a kingdom in the 1st century BCE and remained independent, though as a vassal state, until the Parthians were deposed Sassanids, made Caucasian Albani a province in 252 CE. Caucasian Albania's ruler, King Urnayr adopted Christianity as the state religion in the 4th century CE, Albania would remain a Christian state until the 8th century. While subordinate to Sassanid Persia, Caucasian Albania retained its monarchy. Sassanid control ended with their defeat by Muslim Arabs in 642 CE, as the whole empire, including all of Azerbaijan would be conquered through the Muslim conquest of Persia; the successive migration and settlement of Eurasian and Central Asian nomads continued to be a familiar pattern in the history of the Caucasus since ancient times, from the era of Sassanid-Persian empire to emergence of Azerbaijani Turks by the 20th century. Among the Iranian nomads who made incursion into and from Azerbaijan are the Scythians and Cimmerians. Nomads such as Khazars and Huns made incursions during the Khazar era.
The walls and fortification of Darband were built during the Sassanid era in order to block nomads coming from beyond the North Caucasus pass. However, they did not make permanent settlements. Following the overthrow of the Median Empire, all of what is today Azerbaijan was invaded by the Persian king Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BCE; this earliest Persian Empire had a profound impact upon local population as the religion of Zoroastrianism became ascendant as did various early Persian cultural influences. Many of the local peoples of Caucasian
Bodies of water of Azerbaijan
The water bodies of Azerbaijan were formed over a long geological timeframe and changed throughout that period. This is evidenced by remnants of ancient rivers found throughout the country; the country's water systems are continually changing under the influence of natural forces and human introduced industrial activities. Artificial rivers and ponds are a part of Azerbaijan's water systems; the hydrography of Azerbaijan belongs to the Caspian Sea basin. Rivers form the principal part of the water systems of Azerbaijan. There are 8,359 rivers of various lengths within Azerbaijan. Of them 8,188 rivers are less than 25 kilometres long. Only 24 rivers are over 100 kilometres long; the largest rivers that flow through the country are: Kür, main water source and the artery of the country Araz Qanıx, located in Alazan Qabırlı known as Iori Khrami Samur Pirsaatçay Bolgar-Chay, located in Jalilabad District Ağstafa Hekeriychay known as Hekeri Kurekchay Tərtərçay Ağdabançay Levçay Turağayçay Türyançay Vilesh Qarqarçay The rivers in Azerbaijan can be divided into three groups: The Kur basin rivers The Araz basin rivers Rivers, flowing directly into the Caspian Sea Azerbaijan river systems are changing and evolving under the influence of various physiographic factors: climate, geological structure and vegetation.
The density of the river network increases gradually decreases with higher altitudes. Except for the Talysh region, the river system density is the highest at 1,000-2,500 kilometers, while in the area of the Talysh mountains it peaks at 1.6-2.2 km/km² at 500-1,000 km. The average density of the river system of Azerbaijan is 0.39 km/km². The density is lower than 0.05 km/km² in the plains. The Kur and Aras are the longest rivers in Azerbaijan, they run through the Kur-Araz Lowland. The rivers that directly flow into the Caspian Sea, originate from the north-eastern slope of the Greater Caucasus and Talysh Mountains and run along the Samur-Devechi and Lenkeran lowlands; the Kura River basin area up to the junction with the Aras River is smaller than the Aras water basin. The river is still called Kura on the junction because the water level of the Kura is twice as high as that of the Aras River. Ağgöl Ajinohur Alagöl Boyukshor Göygöl Hajikabul Jandari Maral-gol Masazirgol Sarysu, the largest lake by area and volume Over 60 water reservoirs have been constructed in order to regulate the river flow in Azerbaijan.
The formation of these reservoirs is one of the measures, undertaken in order to ration the utilization of water and energy resources. The largest water reservoirs are: Agstafachay Araz Jeyranbatan Khanbulanchay Mingachevir, the largest reservoir by area Sarsang Shamkir Varvara Vileshchay YenikendThe reservoirs in Azerbaijan are designed to be utilized for various purposes, while most other ponds are used for irrigation. Environment of Azerbaijan Scientific-Research Institute for Hydrometeorology
Wheat is a grass cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain, a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus Triticum; the archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent around 9600 BCE. Botanically, the wheat kernel is a type of fruit called a caryopsis. Wheat is grown on more land area than any other food crop. World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined. In 2016, world production of wheat was 749 million tonnes, making it the second most-produced cereal after maize. Since 1960, world production of wheat and other grain crops has tripled and is expected to grow further through the middle of the 21st century. Global demand for wheat is increasing due to the unique viscoelastic and adhesive properties of gluten proteins, which facilitate the production of processed foods, whose consumption is increasing as a result of the worldwide industrialization process and the westernization of the diet.
Wheat is an important source of carbohydrates. Globally, it is the leading source of vegetal protein in human food, having a protein content of about 13%, high compared to other major cereals but low in protein quality for supplying essential amino acids; when eaten as the whole grain, wheat is a source of dietary fiber. In a small part of the general population, gluten – the major part of wheat protein – can trigger coeliac disease, noncoeliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis. Cultivation and repeated harvesting and sowing of the grains of wild grasses led to the creation of domestic strains, as mutant forms of wheat were preferentially chosen by farmers. In domesticated wheat, grains are larger, the seeds remain attached to the ear by a toughened rachis during harvesting. In wild strains, a more fragile rachis allows the ear to shatter and disperse the spikelets. Selection for these traits by farmers might not have been deliberately intended, but have occurred because these traits made gathering the seeds easier.
As the traits that improve wheat as a food source involve the loss of the plant's natural seed dispersal mechanisms domesticated strains of wheat cannot survive in the wild. Cultivation of wheat began to spread beyond the Fertile Crescent after about 8000 BCE. Jared Diamond traces the spread of cultivated emmer wheat starting in the Fertile Crescent sometime before 8800 BCE. Archaeological analysis of wild emmer indicates that it was first cultivated in the southern Levant, with finds dating back as far as 9600 BCE. Genetic analysis of wild einkorn wheat suggests that it was first grown in the Karacadag Mountains in southeastern Turkey. Dated archeological remains of einkorn wheat in settlement sites near this region, including those at Abu Hureyra in Syria, suggest the domestication of einkorn near the Karacadag Mountain Range. With the anomalous exception of two grains from Iraq ed-Dubb, the earliest carbon-14 date for einkorn wheat remains at Abu Hureyra is 7800 to 7500 years BCE. Remains of harvested emmer from several sites near the Karacadag Range have been dated to between 8600 and 8400 BCE, that is, in the Neolithic period.
With the exception of Iraq ed-Dubb, the earliest carbon-14 dated remains of domesticated emmer wheat were found in the earliest levels of Tell Aswad, in the Damascus basin, near Mount Hermon in Syria. These remains were dated by Willem van Zeist and his assistant Johanna Bakker-Heeres to 8800 BCE, they concluded that the settlers of Tell Aswad did not develop this form of emmer themselves, but brought the domesticated grains with them from an as yet unidentified location elsewhere. The cultivation of emmer reached Greece and Indian subcontinent by 6500 BCE, Egypt shortly after 6000 BCE, Germany and Spain by 5000 BCE. "The early Egyptians were developers of bread and the use of the oven and developed baking into one of the first large-scale food production industries." By 3000 BCE, wheat had reached Scandinavia. A millennium it reached China; the oldest evidence for hexaploid wheat has been confirmed through DNA analysis of wheat seeds, dating to around 6400-6200 BCE, recovered from Çatalhöyük.
The first identifiable bread wheat with sufficient gluten for yeasted breads has been identified using DNA analysis in samples from a granary dating to 1350 BCE at Assiros in Macedonia. From Asia, wheat continued to spread across Europe. In the British Isles, wheat straw was used for roofing in the Bronze Age, was in common use until the late 19th century. Technological advances in soil preparation and seed placement at planting time, use of crop rotation and fertilizers to improve plant growth, advances in harvesting methods have all combined to promote wheat as a viable crop; when the use of seed drills replaced broadcasting sowing of seed in the 18th century, another great increase in productivity occurred. Yields of pure wheat per unit area increased as methods of crop rotation were applied to long cultivated land, the use of fertilizers became widespread. Improved agricultural husbandry has more included threshing machines and reaping machines, tractor-drawn cultivators and planters, better varieties.
Great expansion of wheat production occurred as new arable land was farmed in the Americas and Australia in the 19th and 20th centuries. Leaves emerge from the shoot apical meristem in a telescoping fashion until the transition to reprod
Flag of Azerbaijan
The flag of Azerbaijan is a horizontal tricolour featuring three sized fesses of blue and green, with a white crescent and an eight-pointed star in the center. The tricolour replaced an earlier design used by the Azerbaijan SSR; the blue symbolizes Azerbaijan's Turkic heritage, the red stands for progress, the green represents Islam. The official colors and size were adopted on 5 February 1991; this flag was used from 9 November 1918 to 1920, when Azerbaijan was independent, it was revived with slight variations on 5 February 1991. The nickname for the flag is Üçrəngli Bayraq; the flag is mentioned two times in the national anthem. On land, the flag is used as the civil and war flag; the flag has official status in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. A presidential decree declared 9 November, the date when in 1918 this flag was adopted as the national flag of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, as the national Flag Day; the national flag of Azerbaijan consists of three horizontal stripes of equal width, from top to bottom: light blue and green.
In the center are a white crescent and eight-pointed star. The basic description of the flag, along with the ratio, can be found in the Constitution of Azerbaijan, adopted 12 November 1995: State flag of the Azerbaijan Republic consists of three horizontal stripes of same width. Upper stripe is blue, middle stripe is red, the lower one is green. Width of the flag constitutes half of its length. Further specifications of the national flag were detailed in the Presidential Decree "On the National Flag of the Republic of Azerbaijan" issued on 5 February 1991; the ratio was kept at 1:2, used in the Soviet era. Each stripe extends the full length; the star and crescent were placed in a box that has a ratio of 3:4. The outside diameter of both the crescent and the red inside circle intersects with the diameter of the star; the diameter of the star is one-sixth the height of the flag. The flag is described in the technical specification "AZS 001-2006. Azərbaycan Respublikasının Dövlət Bayrağı. Texniki şərtlər."
Published by the State Committee on Standardization and Patents of the Republic of Azerbaijan in 2006. The colors of the national flag are green, sky blue, white. Exact specifications for its colors were issued in the 2004 decree "On the Rules of the National Flag of the Republic of Azerbaijan"; the colors updated in 2013, specified in Pantone, are as follows: The sky blue symbolizes Turkic Multinationalism, the red is for the progress to establish a modern state and the development of democracy, green shows the nation's relation to the Muslim world. In the middle of the flag, appearing on both front and back, are a white crescent and an eight-pointed star; the first President of the Azerbaijani National Council Mammed Amin Rasulzade noted in his speech, at the parliament's session of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, that the colors relate to Turkic freedom and Islamic culture. The composer of the anthem of Azerbaijan Uzeyir Hajibeyov includes in the song references to the meaning of the flag: blue for Azerbaijan's multinationalism, red for progress and culture, green for Islam.
According to historian Nasib Nasibli, Ali bey Huseynzade, one of the ideologists of Azerbaijan's independence, developed the combination based on colors used in 1895. While the crescent and star are seen as markers of Islam, some historians and researchers disagree about why an eight-pointed star is used on the flag of Azerbaijan. Fatali Khan Khoyski points to the eight letters in the word "Azerbaijan"; the eight points of the star are thought to stand for the eight Turkic peoples of Azerbaijan. The problem is there are only seven Turkic peoples: Azeris, Jagatais, Kipchaks and Turkomans. It's possible the Kipchaks reflect two peoples, the Kazakhs and Kyrgyz, which would make eight; the classification of Turkic peoples pre-Soviet era was different from. In 1828, after the last Russo-Persian War, several Khanates of the Caucasus were annexed to the Russian Empire; when the Russian Empire collapsed, Russian Azerbaijan declared its independence and joined the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, together with Georgia and Armenia.
This unified state hardly was soon dissolved. Since the Republic was short-lived, it did not use any symbols; some historians consider a horizontal gold and red tricolor, similar to that of the German flag but arranged differently, to have been flag of Transcaucasia. The federation was dissolved on 26 May 1918, when Georgia declared its independence as the Democratic Republic of Georgia. Both Armenia and Azerbaijan declared their independence two days on 28 May 1918, as the First Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, respectively. After gaining independence, the blue-red-green tricolour was adopted by the government of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan on 9 November 1918. Azerbaijan was the first modern democratic state in the Muslim world; the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic lasted only 23 months until the Bolshevik 11th Soviet Red Army invaded it, establishing the Azerbaijan SSR on 28 April 1920. Although the bulk of the newly formed Azerbaijani army was engaged in putting down an Arme