County Wexford is an eastern county in Ireland, bordered by the Irish Sea. It is part of the South-East Region, it is named after the town of Wexford and was based on the historic Gaelic territory of Hy Kinsella, whose capital was Ferns. Wexford County Council is the local authority for the county; the population of the county was 149,722 at the 2016 census. The county is rich in evidence of early human habitation. Portal tombs exist at Newbawn -- and date from the Neolithic period or earlier. Remains from the Bronze Age period are far more widespread. Early Irish tribes formed the Kingdom of Uí Cheinnsealaig, an area, larger than the current County Wexford. County Wexford was one of the earliest areas of Ireland to be Christianised, in the early 5th century. From 819 onwards, the Vikings invaded and plundered many Christian sites in the county. Vikings settled at Wexford town near the end of the 9th century. In 1169, Wexford was the site of the invasion of Ireland by Normans at the behest of Diarmuid Mac Murrough, King of Uí Cheinnsealaig and king of Leinster.
This was followed by the subsequent colonisation of the country by the Anglo-Normans. The native Irish began to regain some of their former territories in the 14th century in the north of the county, principally under Art MacMurrough Kavanagh. Under Henry VIII, the great religious houses were dissolved, 1536–41. On 23 October 1641, a major rebellion broke out in Ireland, County Wexford produced strong support for Confederate Ireland. Oliver Cromwell and his English Parliamentarian Army captured it; the lands of the Irish and Anglo-Normans were confiscated and given to Cromwell's soldiers as payment for their service in the Parliamentarian Army. At Duncannon, in the south-west of the county, James II, after his defeat at the Battle of the Boyne, embarked for Kinsale and to exile in France. County Wexford was the most important area in which the Irish Rebellion of 1798 was fought, during which significant battles occurred at The Battle of Oulart Hill during the 1798 rebellion. Vinegar Hill and New Ross.
The famous ballad "Boolavogue" was written in remembrance of the Wexford Rising. At Easter 1916, a small rebellion occurred on cue with that in Dublin. During World War II, German planes bombed Campile. In 1963 John F. Kennedy President of the United States, visited the county and his ancestral home at Dunganstown, near New Ross. Wexford is the 13th largest of Ireland's thirty-two counties in area, 14th largest in terms of population, it is the largest of Leinster's 12 counties in size, fourth largest in terms of population. The county is located in the south-east corner of the island of Ireland, it is bounded by the sea on two sides—on the south by the Atlantic Ocean and on the east by St. George's Channel and the Irish Sea; the River Barrow forms its western boundary. The Blackstairs Mountains form part of the boundary to the north, as do the southern edges of the Wicklow Mountains; the adjoining counties are Waterford, Kilkenny and Wicklow. County Town: Wexford Market Town: Gorey County Wexford is known as Ireland's "sunny southeast" because, in general, the number of hours of sunshine received daily is higher than in the rest of the country.
This has resulted in Wexford becoming one of the most popular places in Ireland in. The county has a changeable, oceanic climate with few extremes; the North Atlantic Drift, a continuation of the Gulf Stream, moderates winter temperatures. There is a meteorological station located at Rosslare Harbour. January and February are the coldest months, with temperatures ranging from 4–8 °C on average. July and August are the warmest months, with temperatures ranging from 12–18 °C on average; the prevailing winds are from the south-west. Precipitation falls throughout the year. Mean annual rainfall is 800–1,200 millimetres; the county receives less snow than more northerly parts of Ireland. Heavy snowfalls are rare, but can occur; the one exception is Mount Leinster, visible from a large portion of the county, covered with snow during the winter months. Frost is frequent in coastal areas. Low-lying fertile land is the characteristic landscape of the county; the highest point in the county is Mount Leinster at 795 metres, in the Blackstairs Mountains in the north-west on the boundary with County Carlow.
Other high points: Black Rock Mountain, 599 m. It is located within County Wexford. Croghan Mountain on the Wexford-Wicklow border - 606 m Annagh Hill, 454 m, near the Wicklow border Slieveboy, 420 m Notable hills include: Carrigbyrne Hill; the major rivers are the Barrow. At 192 km in length, the river Barrow is the second-longest river on the island of Ireland. Smaller rivers of note are the Owenduff, Corrock, Boro, Owenavorragh and Bann rivers. There are no significant fresh-water lakes in the county. Small seaside lakes or lagoons exist at two locations – one is called Lady's Island Lake and the other Tacumshin Lake; the Wexford Cot is a flat bottomed boat used for fishing on the tidal mudflats in Wexford a canoe shaped
County Leitrim is a county in the Republic of Ireland. It is part of the Border Region, it is named after the village of Leitrim. Leitrim County Council is the local authority for the county, which had a population of 32,044 according to the 2016 census; the county encompasses the historic Gaelic territory of West Breffny corresponding to the northern part of the county, Muintir Eolais or Conmaicne Réin, corresponding to the southern part. Leitrim is the 26th largest of the smallest by population on the island, it is the smallest of Connacht's 5 counties in both population. Leitrim is bordered by the counties of Donegal to the north, Fermanagh to the north-east, Cavan to the east, Longford to the south, Roscommon to the south-west and Sligo to the west. Fermanagh is in Northern Ireland while all the other neighbouring counties are within the Republic of Ireland. There are five historic baronies in the county. While baronies continue to be defined units, they are no longer used for many administrative purposes.
Their official status is illustrated by Placenames Orders made since 2003, where official Irish names of baronies are listed under "Administrative units". They are Carrigallen, Leitrim and Rosclogher; as of the 2016 census: Carrick-on-Shannon*, 4,062 Manorhamilton, 1,466 Kinlough, 1,032 Ballinamore, 914 Drumshanbo, 902 Mohill, 855 Dromahair, 808 Leitrim, 594 Roosky*, 564 Dromod, 555 Allentown, County Leitrim Askill Ballinaglera Buckode Cloonsheerevagh Drumkeeran Dromahair Dowra Fivemilebourne Friarstown Glenfarne Glenade Kiltyclogher Kinlough Killarga Largydonnell Lurganboy Manorhamilton Rossinver Tullaghan Aghamore Ballinamore Carrick-on-Shannon Carrigallen Cloone Drumcong Dromod Drumshanbo Drumsna Fenagh Eslinbridge Jamestown Keshcarrigan Leitrim Mohill Newtowngore Roosky Leitrim has a hilly and mountainous landscape in its north-west and is flat in the south-east, each separated from the other by Lough Allen in the middle of the county. Leitrim has the shortest length of coastline of any Irish county.
At Tullaghan, the coastline is only 2.5 miles long. The Shannon is linked to the Erne via the Shannon-Erne Waterway. Notable lakes include: Lough Melvin Lough Allen Lough Gill is to the northwest of Dromahair. Belhavel Lough is located in Dromahair, within the parish of Killargue. Lough Scur, Saint John's Lough, on the Shannon–Erne Waterway. Other lakes include Upper Lough MacNean, Glencar Lough, Glenade Lough, Garadice Lough, Rinn Lough, Lough Scannal, Lough Erril and Lough Machugh. In ancient times Leitrim formed the western half of the Kingdom of Breifne; this region was long influenced by the O'Rourke family of Dromahair, whose heraldic lion occupies the official county shield to this day. Close ties existed with the O'Reilly clan in the eastern half of the kingdom, however a split occurred in the 13th century and the kingdom was divided into East Breifne, now County Cavan, West Breifne, now County Leitrim; the Normans invaded south Leitrim in the 13th century but were defeated at the Battle of Áth an Chip in 1270.
Much of the county was given to Villiers and Hamilton. Their initial objective was to plant the county with English settlers. However, this proved unsuccessful. English Deputy Sir John Perrot had ordered the legal establishment of "Leitrim County" a half-century prior, in 1565. Perrott demarcated the current county borders around 1583. Long ago Ireland was covered in woodland, five great forests are traditionally said to have stood in Leitrim, with a 19th century county survey stating- "a hundred years ago the whole country was one continued, undivided forest, so that from Drumshanbo to Drumkeeran, a distance of nine or ten miles, one could travel the whole way from tree to tree by branches". Many of these great forests were denuded for the making of charcoal for iron works around Slieve Anierin. Working of the county's rich deposits of iron ore began in the 15th century and continued until the mid 18th century. Coal mining became prominent in the 19th century to the east of Lough Allen at Slieve Anierin and to the west in Arigna, on the Roscommon border.
The last coal mine closed in July 1990 and there is now a visitor centre. Sandstone was quarried in the Glenfarne region. Writing in 1791, the geographer Beaufort suggested the county housing population encompassed 10,026 homes with "upwards of 50,000 inhabitants", the primary agriculture being cattle production, the growth of flax sustaining the linen industry. Leitrim was first hit by the recession caused by the mechanisation of linen weaving in the 1830s and its 155,000 residents were ravaged by the Great Famine and the population dropped to 112,000 by 1851; the population subsequently continued to decrease due to emigration. After many years, the wounds of such rapid population decline have started to heal. Agriculture improved over the last century. Leitrim now has the fastest growing population in Connacht; the Book of Fenagh is the most famous medieval manuscript originating here. In the 19th century the poet John McDonald lived in the county, William Butler Yeats spent the turn of the twentieth century fascinated with Lough Allen and much of Leitrim.
Glencar Waterfall, 11 kilometres from Manorhamilton, inspired Yeats and is mentioned in his poem The Stolen Child. Leitrim has the fastest growing population of any county in Connacht; as measured by census, the population rose by 12.2% between 2002 and 2006 to 29,000. 2005 HEA stat
County Limerick is a county in Ireland. It is located in the province of Munster, is part of the Mid-West Region, it is named after the city of Limerick. Limerick City and County Council is the local council for the county; the county's population at the 2016 census was 194,899 of whom 94,192 lived in Limerick City, the county capital. Limerick borders four other counties: Kerry to the west, Clare to the north, Tipperary to the east and Cork to the south, it is the fifth largest of Munster's six counties in size, the second largest by population. The River Shannon flows through the city of Limerick into the Atlantic Ocean at the north of the county. Below the city, the waterway is known as the Shannon Estuary; because the estuary is shallow, the county's most important port is several kilometres west of the city, at Foynes. Limerick City is the county town and is Ireland's third largest city, it serves as a regional centre for the greater Mid-West Region. Newcastle West, Kilmallock & Abbeyfeale are other important towns in the county.
There are fourteen historic baronies in the county. While baronies continue to be defined units, they are no longer used for many administrative purposes, their official status is illustrated by Placenames Orders made since 2003, where official Irish names of baronies are listed under "Administrative units". Clanwilliam - Clann Liam Connello Lower - Conallaigh Íochtaracha Connello Upper - Conallaigh Uachtaracha Coonagh - Uí Chuanach Coshlea - Cois Laoi Coshma - Cois Máighe Glenquin - Gleann an Choim Kenry - Caonraí Kilmallock - Cill Mocheallóg North Liberties - Na Líbeartaí Thuaidh Owneybeg - Uaithne Beag Pubblebrien - Pobal Bhriain Shanid - Seanaid Smallcounty - An Déis Bheag Limerick City is the county capital and is shown in bold. One possible meaning for the county's name in Irish Luimneach is "the flat area". Moreover, the county is ringed by mountains: the Slieve Felims to the northeast, the Galtees to the southeast, the Ballyhoura Mountains to the south, the Mullaghareirk Mountains to the southwest and west.
The highest point in the county is located in its south-east corner at Galtymore, which separates Limerick from County Tipperary. The county is not a a plain, its topography consists of hills and ridges; the eastern part of the county is part of the Golden Vale, well known for dairy produce and consists of rolling low hills. This gives way to flat land around the centre of the county, with the exception being Knockfierna at 288 m high. Towards the west, the Mullaghareirk Mountains push across the county offering extensive views east over the county and west into County Kerry. Volcanic rock is to be found in numerous areas in the county, at Carrigogunnell, at Knockfierna, principally at Pallasgreen/Kilteely in the east, described as the most compact and for its size one of the most varied and complete carboniferous volcanic districts in either Britain and Ireland. Tributaries of the Shannon drainage basin located in the county include the rivers Mulcair, Maigue, Morning Star and the Feale, it is thought that humans had established themselves in the Lough Gur area of the county as early as 3000 BC, while megalithic remains found at Duntryleague date back further to 3500 BC.
The arrival of the Celts around 400 BC brought about the division of the county into petty kingdoms or túatha. From the 4th to the 11th century, the ancient kingdom of the Uí Fidgenti was co-extensive with what is now County Limerick, with some of the easternmost part the domain of the Eóganacht Áine; the establishment of Limerick as a town and base by the Danes in the mid 900's, their alliance with Irish families, including their alliance with Donnubán mac Cathail of the O'Donovans, resulted in significant conflicts with neighbouring clans, principally the O'Briens of Dál gCais, who raided into the Limerick area on a regular basis. The O'Briens retained their political power until late in the 1100s; the establishment of King John's castle in Limerick, the granting of Ui Fidgenti lands to the FitzGeralds, both circa 1200, the resultant competition for Ui Fidgenti lands by other Anglo Norman families, resulted in a transfer of power from the Ui Fidgenti's leading families to the new landholders.
The ancestors of both Michael Collins and the famous O'Connells of Derrynane were among the septs of the Uí Fidgenti. As the Ui Fidgenti were the ruling clan in the Limerick after 400 a.d. the Uí Fidgenti still made a substantial contribution to the population of the central and western regions of County Limerick. Their capital was Dún Eochair, the great earthworks of which still remain and can be found close to the modern town of Bruree, on the River Maigue. Bruree is Fort of the King. Catherine Coll, the mother of Éamon de Valera, was a native of Bruree and this is where he was taken by her brother to be raised. St. Patrick brought Christianity to Limerick area in the 5th Century. Various annals record that St. Patrick quarreled with the chief of the Ui Fidgenti but was embraced by the brother of the chief; the adoption of Christianity resulted in the establishment of important monasteries in Limerick, at Ardpatrick and Kileedy. From this golden age in Ireland of learning and art comes one of Ireland's greatest artifacts, The Ardagh Chalice, a masterpiece of metalwork, found in a west Limerick fort in 1868.
It is believed that the chalice had been
Connacht spelled Connaught, is one of the provinces of Ireland, in the west of the country. Up to the 9th century it consisted of several independent major kingdoms. Between the reigns of Conchobar mac Taidg Mór and his descendant, Aedh mac Ruaidri Ó Conchobair, it became a kingdom under the rule of the Uí Briúin Aí dynasty, whose ruling sept adopted the surname Ua Conchobair. At its greatest extent, it incorporated the independent Kingdom of Breifne, as well as vassalage from the lordships of western Mide and west Leinster. Two of its greatest kings, Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair and his son Ruaidri Ua Conchobair expanded the kingdom's dominance, so much so that both became Kings of Ireland; the Kingdom of Connacht collapsed in the 1230s because of civil war within the royal dynasty, which enabled widespread Anglo-Irish settlement under Richard Mór de Burgh, 1st Baron of Connaught, his successors. The English colony in Connacht shrank from c. 1300-c. 1360, with events such as the 1307 battle of Ahascragh, the 1316 Second Battle of Athenry and the murder in June 1333 of William Donn de Burgh, 3rd Earl of Ulster, all leading to Gaelic resurgence and colonial withdrawal to towns such as Ballinrobe, Loughrea and Galway.
Well into the 16th-century kingdoms such as Uí Maine and Tír Fhíacrach Múaidhe remained beyond English rule, while many Anglo-Irish families such as de Burgh, de Bermingham, de Exeter, de Staunton, became Gaelicised. Only in the late 1500s, during the Tudor conquest of Ireland, was Connacht shired into its present counties; the province of Connacht has the highest number of Irish language speakers among the four Irish provinces. The total percentage of people who consider themselves as Irish speakers in Connacht is 39.8%. There are Gaeltacht areas in Counties Mayo; the province of Connacht has no official function for local government purposes, but it is an recognised subdivision of the Irish state. It is listed on ISO-3166-2 as one of the four provinces of Ireland and "IE-C" is attributed to Connacht as its country sub-division code. Along with counties from other provinces, Connacht lies in the Midlands–North-West constituency for elections to the European Parliament; the name comes from the medieval ruling dynasty, the Connacht Connachta, whose name means "descendants of Conn", from the mythical king Conn of the Hundred Battles.
Connacht was a singular collective noun, but it came to be used only in the plural Connachta by analogy with plural names of other dynastic territories like Ulaid and Laigin, because the Connachta split into different branches. Before the Connachta dynasty, the province was known as Cóiced Ol nEchmacht. In Modern Irish, the province is called Cúige Chonnacht, "the Province of Connacht", where Chonnacht is plural genitive case with lenition of the C to Ch; the usual English spelling in Ireland since the Gaelic revival is Connacht, the spelling of the disused Irish singular. The official English spelling during English and British rule was the anglicisation Connaught, pronounced or; this was used for the Connaught Rangers in the British Army. Usage of the Connaught spelling is now in decline. State bodies use Connacht, for example in Central Statistics Office census reports since 1926, the name of the Connacht–Ulster European Parliament constituency of 1979–2004, although Connaught occurs in some statutes.
Among newspapers, the Connaught Telegraph retains the anglicised spelling in its name, whereas the Connacht Tribune uses the Gaelic. Connacht Rugby who represent the region and are based in Galway, use the Gaelic spelling also; the Irish language is spoken in the Gaeltacht areas of Counties Mayo and Galway, the largest being in the west of County Galway. The Galway Gaeltacht is the largest Irish-speaking region in Ireland covering Cois Fharraige, parts of Connemara, Conamara Theas, Aran Islands, Dúithche Sheoigeach and Galway City Gaeltacht. Irish-speaking areas in County Mayo can be found in Iorras and Tourmakeady. According to the 2016 census Irish is spoken outside of the education system on a daily basis by 9,455 people in the Galway County Gaeltacht areas. There are 202,667 Irish speakers in the province, over 84,000 in Galway and more than 55,000 in Mayo. There is the 4,265 attending the 18 Gaelscoileanna and three Gaelcholáiste outside the Gaeltacht across the province. Between 7% and 10% of the province are either native Irish speakers from the Gaeltacht, in Irish medium education or native Irish speakers who no longer live in Gaeltacht areas but still live in the province.
The province is divided into five counties: Galway, Mayo and Sligo. Connacht is the smallest of the four Irish provinces, with a population of 550,742. Galway is the only official city in the province; the highest point of Connacht is Mweelrea, in County Mayo. The largest island in Connacht is Achill; the biggest lake is Lough Corrib. Much of the west coast is not conducive for agriculture, it contains the main mountainous areas in Connacht, including the Twelve Bens, Mweelrea, Croagh Patrick, Nephin Beg, Ox Mountains, Dartry Mountains. Killary Harbour, Ireland's only true fjord, is located at the foot of Mweelrea. Connemara National Park is in County Galway; the Aran Islands, featuring pre
County Kilkenny is a county in Ireland. It is part of the South-East Region, it is named after the city of Kilkenny. Kilkenny County Council is the local authority for the county; as of the 2016 census the population of the county was 99,232. The county was based on the historic Gaelic kingdom of Ossory, co-terminus with the Diocese of Ossory. Kilkenny is the 16th largest of the traditional 32 Counties of Ireland in area and the 21st largest in terms of population, it is the third largest county in the province Leinster and seventh largest in terms of population. The county is subdivided into called nine baronies which are in turn divided into civil parishes and townlands. There are about 800 townlands in Kilkenny; each barony was made up of a number of parts of parishes. Both civil parishes and baronies are now obsolete and are no longer used for local government purposes. Baronies in County Kilkenny: Callan Crannagh Fassadinin Barony of Galmoy Gowran Ida Iverk Kells Kilculliheen Kilkenny City Knocktopher Shillelogher For religious administration, the county was divided into parishes.
Every parish had at least one church. The barony boundaries and the parish boundaries were not connected. From the 17th to mid-19th centuries, civil parishes were based on early Christian and medieval monastic and church settlements; the civil parishes are divided into townlands. As the population grew, new parishes were created and the civil parish covered the same area as the established Church of Ireland; the Roman Catholic Church adapted to a new structure based on villages. There 2,508 civil parishes in Ireland, which break both barony and county boundaries; the county contains the city of Kilkenny, located at the center of the county, the towns of Ballyragget and Castlecomer to the north of the county and Graiguenamanagh, Mooncoin and Thomastown to the south. Ballyfoyle, Ballyragget, Bennettsbridge Callan, Castlecomer, Clogh, Coan Danesfort, Dunnamaggan Ferrybank, Freshford Galmoy, Gowran, Glenmore Hugginstown Inistioge Jenkinstown, Johnswell Kilkenny, Kilmacow, Knocktopher Kilmanagh Moneenroe, Mullinavat Paulstown, Piltown Redhouse, Tullogher-Rosbercon Slieverue, Stoneyford Thomastown, The Rower Urlingford Windgap The River Nore flows through the county and the River Suir forms the border with County Waterford.
Brandon Hill is the highest point with an elevation of 515 m. Most of the county has a hilly surface of moderate elevation with uplands in the north-east, the north-west and the South of the county; the county has an area of 512,222 acres. The county extends from 52 degrees 14 minutes to 52 degrees 52 minutes north latitude, from 6 degrees 56 minutes to 7 degrees 37 minutes west longitude; the north-south length of the county is 45 miles. Kilkenny extends southward from Laois to the valley of the Suir and eastward from the Munster–Leinster border to the River Barrow; the River Nore bisects the county and the River Barrow and River Suir are natural boundaries to the east and south of the county. County Kilkenny is bordered by Laois, Wexford and Tipperary; the geology of Kilkenny includes the Kiltorcan Formation, early Carboniferous in age. The Formation is located around Kiltoncan Hill near Ballyhale in the Knocktopher areas, it forms the uppermost part of the Old Red Sandstone and is the distinctive Upper Devonian–Lower Carboniferous unit in southern Ireland.
It contains non-red lithologies, green mudstones, fine sandstones and yellow sandstones. There is a fossil assemblage containing Archaeopteris and Archaeopteris hibernica. Most of the county is principally limestone of the upper and lower group, corresponding with the rest of Ireland. A large area in the north and east contains beds of coal, surrounded by limestone strata, alternated with shale, argilaceous ironstone, sandstone; this occurs eastward of the Nore around Castlecomer, along the border with Laois. It is accompanied by culm, used extensively for burning lime; the Environment of County Kilkenny contains a great variety of natural heritage, including rivers, woodlands and diverse landscapes and geological features. The main land use is grassland, dairy farming and tillage farming around Kilkenny City and in the fertile central plain of the Nore Valley. Conifer forests are found on the upland areas. Habitats of international and national importance, are designated under European Union and national legislation.
The four categories of designated site in effect in County Kilkenny are Special Areas of Conservation, Natural Heritage Areas, Statutory Nature Reserves and Wildfowl Sanctuaries. At present there are 36 designated natural heritage sites of international and national importance in County Kilkenny, covering 4.5% of the county. County Kilkenny is comparably low compared to other mountain ranges in Ireland with the highest peak being Brandon Hill, at 515 metres above sea level; the majority of res
Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region. Northern Ireland shares a border to the west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population. Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government. Northern Ireland co-operates with the Republic of Ireland in some areas, the Agreement granted the Republic the ability to "put forward views and proposals" with "determined efforts to resolve disagreements between the two governments". Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Unlike Southern Ireland, which would become the Irish Free State in 1922, the majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists, who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom.
Most of these were the Protestant descendants of colonists from Great Britain. However, a significant minority Catholics, were nationalists who wanted a united Ireland independent of British rule. Today, the former see themselves as British and the latter see themselves as Irish, while a distinct Northern Irish or Ulster identity is claimed both by a large minority of Catholics and Protestants and by many of those who are non-aligned. For most of the 20th century, when it came into existence, Northern Ireland was marked by discrimination and hostility between these two sides in what First Minister of Northern Ireland, David Trimble, called a "cold house" for Catholics. In the late 1960s, conflict between state forces and chiefly Protestant unionists on the one hand, chiefly Catholic nationalists on the other, erupted into three decades of violence known as the Troubles, which claimed over 3,500 lives and caused over 50,000 casualties; the 1998 Good Friday Agreement was a major step in the peace process, including the decommissioning of weapons, although sectarianism and religious segregation still remain major social problems, sporadic violence has continued.
Northern Ireland has been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown since the late 1990s; the initial growth came from the "peace dividend" and the links which increased trade with the Republic of Ireland, continuing with a significant increase in tourism and business from around the world. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17.2% in 1986, dropping to 6.1% for June–August 2014 and down by 1.2 percentage points over the year, similar to the UK figure of 6.2%. 58.2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sportspeople from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough and George Best; some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British. Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, the rest of the UK are complex, with Northern Ireland sharing both the culture of Ireland and the culture of the United Kingdom.
In many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games; the region, now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century. The English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Following Irish defeat at the Battle of Kinsale, the region's Gaelic, Roman Catholic aristocracy fled to continental Europe in 1607 and the region became subject to major programmes of colonialism by Protestant English and Scottish settlers. A rebellion in 1641 by Irish aristocrats against English rule resulted in a massacre of settlers in Ulster in the context of a war breaking out between England and Ireland fuelled by religious intolerance in government.
Victories by English forces in that war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and the Battle of the Boyne in this latter war are still celebrated by some Protestants. Popes Innocent XI and Alexander VIII had supported William of Orange instead of his maternal uncle and father-in-law James II, despite William being Protestant and James a Catholic, due to William's participation in alliance with both Protesant and Catholic powers in Europe in wars against Louis XIV, the powerful King of France, in conflict with the papacy for decades. In 1693, Pope Innocent XII recognised James as continuing King of Great Britain and Ireland in place of William, after reconciliation with Louis. In 1695, contrary to the terms of the Treaty of Limerick, a series of penal laws were passed by the Anglican ruling class in Ireland in intense anger at the Pope's recognition of James over William, felt to be a betrayal.
The intention of the la
County Sligo is a county in Ireland. It is part of the province of Connacht. Sligo is largest town in the county. Sligo County Council is the local authority for the county; the population of the county is 65,535 according to the 2016 census, making it the 3rd most populated county in the province. It is noted for one of Ireland's most distinctive natural landmarks; the county was formed in 1585 by the Lord Deputy Henry Sidney, but did not come into effect until the chaos of the Nine Years' War ended, in 1603. Its boundaries reflect the Ó Conchobhair Sligigh confederation of Lower Connacht as it was at the time of the Elizabethan conquest; this confederation consisted of the tuatha, or territories, of Cairbre Drumcliabh, Tír Fhíacrach Múaidhe, Tír Ollíol, Luíghne, Corann and Cúl ó bhFionn. Under the system of surrender and regrant each tuath was subsequently made into an English barony: Carbury, Leyny, Tirerril and Coolavin; the capital of the newly shired county was placed at Sligo. A causewayed enclosure discovered in 2003 at Maugheraboy is one of the earliest indications of Neolithic farming activity on the Cúil Irra peninsula.
The nearbly megalithic cemetery of Carrowmore forms part of a huge complex of Stone Age remains connecting Carrowkeel in south Sligo to the Ox Mountains, to the Cuil Irra Peninsula, where the passage tomb named after the legendary Queen Maeve, Miosgán Médhbh, dominates the western skyline from the crest of Knocknarea Mountain. The Caves of Kesh, famous in Irish mythology, are in south County Sligo. A recent decoding of the work of Marinus of Tyre and Ptolemy shows Sligo as he location of Nagnata, an important place of assembly in the Iron Age. Famous medieval manuscripts written in the area include the Book of Ballymote, written in the territory of Corran, the Great Book of Lecan, the Yellow Book of Lecan, both written in Tir Fhiacrach; the patron of the Annals of the Four Masters was Fearghal Ó Gadhra of Coolavin in south County Sligo. Sligo County Council is the governing body for the county, it is divided into five Local Electoral Areas Ballymote, Sligo-Drumcliff, Sligo-Strandhill and Tubbercurry.
There are 25 members elected to Sligo County Council. Sligo is part of the Sligo-Leitrim constituency and has four representatives in Dáil Éireann, Tony McLoughlin, Marc MacSharry Martin Kenny and Eamon Scanlon; this crest was adopted by Sligo County Council in 1980. The design on the black shield, which shows an open book on which there is a Celtic Cross and a red rose, represents collectively the literary and cultural history of Sligo; these refer to such early works as the Books of Ballymote and Lecan, while the rose was a significant theme in the poetry of W. B. Yeats; the escallop shells sprinkled on the shield refer to the origin of the word Sligeach -- "a place abounding in shells". The boar's head refers to the "wild boar of Benbulben" in the Gráinne myth; the colour scheme of the crest incorporates the Sligo GAA colours of white. The poet and Nobel laureate William Butler Yeats spent much of his childhood in northern Sligo and the county's landscapes were the inspiration for much of his poetry.
Yeats said, "the place that has influenced my life most is Sligo." He is buried in North County Sligo. County Sligo has a long history of traditional music; the south of the county is noted with such musical luminaries as James Morrison, Michael Coleman, Paddy Killoran, Fred Finn, Peter Horan, Joe O'Dowd, Jim Donoghue, Martin Wynne, Oisín Mac Diarmada, tin-whistle player Carmel Gunning and the band Dervish. The county has many traditional music festivals and one of the most well known is the Queen Maeve International Summer School, a traditional Irish Music summer school of music and dance, held annually in August in Sligo Town. On the more contemporary music scene there are Westlife, Tabby Callaghan and The Conway Sisters who are from Sligo. Strandhill, about 9 km west of Sligo, hosts the Strandhill Guitar Festival each year, featuring a wide variety of guitar music and musicians. Unlike its neighbouring counties, Sligo has had more success at soccer rather than Gaelic games; the county is home to League of Ireland Premier Division club Sligo Rovers, who have played home matches at The Showgrounds since they were founded in 1928.
Brother Walfrid, the founder of Celtic Football Club, was born in Ballymote. The county is represented in Gaelic Games by Sligo GAA. Sligo is the 22nd largest of Ireland's 32 counties in area and 26th largest in terms of population, it is the fourth largest of Connacht's 5 counties in size and third largest in terms of population. The County borders County Mayo to the west, County Roscommon to the south and south-east and County Leitrim to the north-east. Sligo, 19,452 Tubbercurry, 1,986 Strandhill, 1,753 Collooney, 1,610 Ballymote, 1,549 Ballisodare, 1,350 Enniscrone, 1,223 Coolaney, 990 Rosses Point, 883 Grange, 586 Feldmarschall The 3rd Earl of Carlingford - a senior-ranking military commander for the Hapsburg Monarchy in the Holy Roman Empire. Lord Carlingford was born in Ballymote and served for many years as the chief minister of the Duchy of Lorraine. Kian Egan – member of pop band Westlife Mark Feehily – member of pop band Westlife Shane Filan – member of pop band Westlife El Marqués de Osorno – Spanish colonial administrator Feldmarschall Nicholas Graf von Taaffe and 6th Viscount Taaffe - senior-ranking military commander for the Hapsburg Empire.
Born in Ballymote, the Graf was a cousin