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National parks of England and Wales

The national parks of England and Wales are areas of undeveloped and scenic landscape that are designated under the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949. Despite their similar name, national parks in England and Wales are quite different from national parks in many other countries, which are owned and managed by the government as a protected community resource, which do not include permanent human communities. In England and Wales, designation as a national park may include substantial settlements and human land uses which are integral parts of the landscape, land within a national park remains in private ownership. There are thirteen national parks in England and Wales; each park is operated by its own national park authority, with two "statutory purposes": to conserve and enhance the natural beauty and cultural heritage of the area, to promote opportunities for the understanding and enjoyment of the park's special qualities by the public. The Broads differs from the other twelve in having a third purpose.

When national parks carry out these purposes they have the duty to: seek to foster the economic and social well-being of local communities within the national parks. An estimated 110 million people visit the national parks of Wales each year. Recreation and tourism bring visitors and funds into the parks, to sustain their conservation efforts and support the local population through jobs and businesses; these visitors bring problems, such as erosion and traffic congestion, conflicts over the use of the parks' resources. Access to cultivated land is restricted to public rights of way and permissive paths, with most uncultivated areas in England and Wales having right of access for walking under the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000. Archaeological evidence from prehistoric Britain shows that the areas now designated as national parks have been occupied by humans since the Stone Age, at least 5,000 years ago and in some cases much earlier. Before the 19th century wild, remote areas were seen as uncivilised and dangerous.

In 1725 Daniel Defoe described the High Peak as "the most desolate and abandoned country in all England". However, by the early 19th century, romantic poets such as Byron and Wordsworth wrote about the inspirational beauty of the "untamed" countryside. Wordsworth described the English Lake District as a "sort of national property in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy" in 1810; this early vision, based in the Picturesque movement, took over a century, much controversy, to take legal form in the UK with the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949. The idea for a form of national parks was first proposed in the United States in the 1860s, where national parks were established to protect wilderness areas such as Yosemite; this model has been used in many other countries since, but not in the United Kingdom. After thousands of years of human integration into the landscape, Britain lacks any substantial areas of wilderness. Furthermore, those areas of natural beauty so cherished by the romantic poets were only maintained and managed in their existing state by human activity agriculture.

By the early 1930s, increasing public interest in the countryside, coupled with the growing and newly mobile urban population, was generating increasing friction between those seeking access to the countryside and landowners. Alongside of direct action trespasses, such as the mass trespass of Kinder Scout, several voluntary bodies took up the cause of public access in the political arena. In 1931, Christopher Addison chaired a government committee that proposed a'National Park Authority' to choose areas for designation as national parks. A system of national reserves and nature sanctuaries was proposed: " to safeguard areas of exceptional natural interest against disorderly development and spoliation; the voluntary Standing Committee on National Parks first met on 26 May 1936 to put the case to the government for national parks in the UK. After World War II, the Labour Party proposed the establishment of national parks as part of the post-war reconstruction of the UK. A report by John Dower, secretary of the Standing Committee on National Parks, to the Minister of Town and Country Planning in 1945 was followed in 1947 by a Government committee, this time chaired by Sir Arthur Hobhouse, which prepared legislation for national parks, proposed twelve national parks.

Sir Arthur had this to say on the criteria for designating suitable areas: The essential requirements of a National Park are that it should have great natural beauty, a high value for open-air recreation and substantial continuous extent. Further, the distribution of selected areas should as far as practicable be such that at least one of them is accessible from each of the main centres of population in England and Wales. Lastly there is merit in variety and with the wide diversity of landscape, available in England and Wales, it would be wrong to confine the selection of National Parks to the more rugged areas of mountain and moorland, to exclude other districts which, though of less outstanding grandeur and wildness, have their own distinctive beauty and a high recreational value; the National Pa

Alan Cawley

Alan Cawley is a retired footballer. Before signing for Leeds United Alan attended Summerhill College in Sligo. Alan began his career at Leeds United and had a spell at Sheffield Wednesday before returning to Ireland to sign for UCD, his impressive performances for the students earned him a move to Shelbourne where he won a league winners medal. He had loan spells at Longford Town and Waterford United before returning for a second spell at Belfield. Alan made his debut for St Patrick's Athletic on the 18/02/09 vs a Chelsea XI where he scored his first goal for the club, a wonderful free kick into the top left corner. Alan signed for Dundalk on 24 December 2009, making him newly appointed manager Ian Foster, first signing at the club. Foster commented "I am pleased to be able to complete the first of my new signings for next season, Alan is a player who have impressed me over the last couple of seasons, he is a natural footballer who revels in playing the ball on the ground and is a natural fit for the attacking style that I want to employ."

After being plagued with injury throughout the 2010 season Cawley made only ten appearances. On February 6 Cawley signed for Portadown. Alan is Sligo native and has represented Ireland at all levels up to Under 18. Known for his spoof, Alan is a regular pundit on Soccer Republic on RTE and on Game on on RTE 2FM RTE radio's daily sports show from 7p.m.-8p.m. Monday to Friday. ShelbourneLeague of Ireland: 2004

Fear of a Bot Planet

"Fear of a Bot Planet" is the fifth episode in season one of Futurama. It aired on the Fox network in the United States on April 20, 1999; the episode was written by Heather Lombard and Evan Gore and directed by Peter Avanzino and Carlos Baeza. The episode focuses on a delivery the Planet Express Crew must make to a robot planet named Chapek 9; the robot inhabitants hate all humans and Bender decides to join them because he is tired of robots being treated like second class citizens. The episode is a light-hearted satire on racism, an idea reinforced by the title, a reference to Public Enemy's 1990 album Fear of a Black Planet. While attending a New New York Yankees blernsball game at Madison Cube Garden, Bender is offended that humans will not let robots compete in the game. Hermes tells the crew to report back to the office for a delivery mission; the delivery is to Chapek 9, a planet inhabited by human-hating robot separatists who kill humans on sight, so Bender is assigned to deliver the package.

Bender claims that it is a robot holiday and refuses to work. Hermes, insists that Bender must go, on the grounds that Bender has used up all his time off. Upon arriving at the planet, a resentful Bender is lowered to the surface. Meanwhile and Leela decide to throw a Robanukah party for Bender to show their appreciation, they receive a rushed message from Bender: the robot separatists found out he worked for humans, he has been captured. In order to avoid being killed on sight and Leela disguise themselves as robots and infiltrate the robot society. Fry and Leela discover Bender is alive and playing the robots' prejudice for his own benefit, claiming he has killed billions of humans on Earth. Fry and Leela reunite with Bender in an abandoned robot porn shop. Before Fry and Leela can leave, the other robots arrive, the two are placed on trial for being human, they are found guilty of the charge and are sentenced to a life of tedious robot-type labor. A trapdoor opens and they fall into a room where they meet the five Robot Elders.

The Elders reveal that the trial was a show trial for the masses, command Bender to kill Fry and Leela, but Bender refuses, stating that the pair are his friends, that humans pose no threat to robots. The Robot Elders reveal that despite being aware of this, humans provide them with a useful scapegoat to distract the population from their actual problems: lug nut shortages and an incompetent government of corrupt Robot Elders; the Robot Elders decide the three must be killed. Fry threatens throwing them into a state of confusion; the crew flees. As the crew escapes on the winch, the robots stack on top of each other, keeping pace with the winch. Bender remembers that he never delivered the package, puts it into the hands of the robot on top; the unbalanced tower topples to the ground. The package bursts open; the robots renounce their human-hating ways. The crew, headed back to Earth, celebrate Robanukah with Bender, who confesses the holiday is fictitious; the planet Chapek 9 is named after Karel Čapek, the Czech writer, attributed with coining the term "robot" in his play R.

U. R.. Zack Handlen of The A. V. Club gave the episode an A-, stating, "While the show would go on to create more well-considered worlds, the depth of its cleverness is on fine display. Better, Fry and Bender all behave in consistent, somewhat illuminating ways. While Futurama’s storytelling is still in its most rudimentary form, it has its central trio down cold." "Fear of a Bot Planet" on IMDb "Fear of a Bot Planet" at Fear of a Bot Planet at The Infosphere

Kenneth Koedinger

Kenneth R. Koedinger is a professor of human–computer interaction and psychology at Carnegie Mellon University, he is the current director of the Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center. He is known for his role in the development of the Cognitive Tutor software, he is widely published in cognitive psychology, intelligent tutoring systems, educational data mining, his research group has won "Best Paper" awards at scientific conferences in those areas, such as the EDM2008 Best Paper, ITS2006 Best Paper, ITS2004 Best Paper, ITS2000 Best Paper. Koedinger received his bachelor's degree in Mathematics and Computer Science from the University of Wisconsin–Madison, working with Richard Lehrer, his M. S. in Computer Science from the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He obtained his Ph. D. in Cognitive Psychology from Carnegie Mellon University. His doctoral advisor was John Robert Anderson. Koedinger worked as a Research Scientist in the Human-Computer Interaction Institute at Carnegie Mellon University. Koedinger became an Associate Professor and subsequently a Professor at Carnegie Mellon University.

He has had many prestigious graduate students and post-doctoral fellows, in particular Neil Heffernan and Vincent Aleven. Knowledge-Learning-Instruction Framework Koedinger studied and developed the KLI framework of Learning Science. In 2012, along with his colleague Albert Corbett from the HCII and Charles Perfetti from the University of Pittsburgh, introduced the Knowledge-Learning-Instruction framework; the propositions within the KLI framework can help generate research questions within specific domains and instructional situations that, with further work, yield precise and falsifiable predictions. The KLI framework relates a set of observable and unobservable events: Learning Events, Instructional Events, Assessment Events and Knowledge Components. Instructional Events: Variations planned, in the learning environment that are intended to produce learning. Instructional Events cause Learning Events. Learning Events: Changes in cognitive and brain states that can be inferred from data, but cannot be directly observed or directly controlled.

Assessment Events: Involve student responses that are evaluated. Assessment Events are test items that can be directly observed, but they can be embedded in the context of instruction. Knowledge Components: A description of a mental structure or process that a learner uses, alone or in combination with other knowledge components, to accomplish steps in a task or a problem. A knowledge component is closely related to an assessment event, since it is an acquired unit of cognitive function or structure that can be inferred from performance on a set of related tasks. Cognitive Tutor Koedinger has a huge contribution to the Intelligent Tutoring System, developed several cognitive tutor software to aid the traditional classroom learning. Among which the "Cognitive Tutor Algebra" is one of the precursors of the ITS. In 2006, Koedinger and Albert Corbett invented the Cognitive Tutor Algebra from their Cognitive Tutor research, it is intended to provide students with immediate step by step hints and feedback, which traditional classroom practice can not provide.

In 2011, his colleagues Ido Roll, Vincent Aleven and Bruce McLaren introduced the Help Tutor, an enhanced version of the Geometry Cognitive Tutor, capable of giving immediate metacognitive feedback on students' help-seeking errors. As an enhanced version, the Help Tutor teaches help-seeking skills by giving metacognitive feedback on students' help-seeking errors in the context of learning a domain-specific problem-solving skill; the Help Tutor messages include only domain-independent metacognitive content for several reasons: to encourage students to focus more on the metacognitive feedback, to help students generalize the help-seeking skills, to make the Help Tutor reusable with different Cognitive Tutors. Koedinger's personal page at Carnegie Mellon Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center Authoring tool for intelligent tutoring systems Cognitive Tutor Learning sciences ACT-R John Robert Anderson


Mikulášovice is a town in the Czech Republic. Mikulášovice is a city with 2,375 inhabitants in the Czech Republic; the elongated village in the valley of the brook Mikulášovický is 414 m above sea level in the west of the Bohemian low country near the border with Germany and belongs to the Děčín District. Between Mikulášovice and 7 km north-west German neighbor Sebnitz is the 598 m high Tanečnice, the mountain of the community, it is the home town of the famous German soprano Anni Frind. The company Mikov, producing popular knife Rybička, has its seat in Mikulášovice. Franz Dittrich, native of Mikulášovice. Anni Frind, soprano opera singer, was born in Mikulášovice. Oskar Schäfer, Knight's Cross holder Municipal website


Rodwell, a name of Anglo-Saxon origin, is a locational surname deriving from any one of various places in Bedfordshire and Kent, England. In English, the meaning of the name Rodwell is "lives by the spring near the road". Locational surnames were acquired by those former inhabitants of a place who had moved to another area to seek work, were thereafter best identified by the name of their birthplace; the places in Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire are called Radwell, both are recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 as "Radeuuelle". Rodwell, a parish in the diocese of Rochester, derives its name from the Olde English personal name "Hroda", a short form of various compound names with the first element "hrod", with "well", as before; the modern surname from this source can be found as Rodwell and Rudwell. The christening of Hugh, son of John Rodwell, was recorded at St. Michael Bassishaw, London on July 27, 1572, the marriage of Thomas Rodwell and Hanna Francknet was recorded in Eaton Socon, Bedfordshire, on October 27, 1624.

The first recorded spelling of the family name is shown to be that of Robert de Radewell, dated 1273, in the "Hundred Rolls of Bedfordshire", during the reign of King Edward I, known as "The Hammer of the Scots", 1272–1307. Surnames became necessary. In England this was known as Poll Tax. Throughout the centuries, surnames in every country have continued to "develop" leading to astonishing variants of the original spelling. Rodwell is used as a surname. Notable people with such include: Benjamin Rodwell, British lawyer and Conservative politician Brett Rodwell, Australian rugby league footballer Cecil Hunter-Rodwell, British colonial administrator and Governor Charles Herbert Rodwell, British golf-club maker and businessman Chris Rodwell, Australian veterinary surgeon and actor Craig Rodwell, American gay rights activist and founder of the first gay bookstore Crispin Rodwell, British-born photographer and writer Emerson Rodwell, Australian soldier, cricket player, umpire and administrator Eric Rodwell, American bridge player George Herbert Buonaparte Rodwell, English composer, musical director, author.

Jack Rodwell, English footballer James Rodwell, English rugby union sevens player Jim Rodwell, English footballer and former chairman of Boston United John Medows Rodwell, English translator of the Koran John S. Rodwell, British ecologist based at the University of Lancaster Lindy Rodwell, South African zoologist and conservationist Mary Rodwell, Australian professional counsellor, ufologist researcher and metaphysician Matt Rodwell, Australian rugby league footballer Nicholas Rodwell, British clarinet player Nick Rodwell, British businessman Roger de Rodwell, English medieval university chancellor Telen Rodwell, Australian actor and creative producer Tom Rodwell, English blues singer / guitarist Tommy Rodwell, American Christian musician/singer/songwriter and founder of Rodwell Music Tony Rodwell, English soccer footballer Warren Rodwell, former soldier, university teacher, hostage survivor and songwriter Warwick Rodwell, English author, architectural historian and academic William Rodwell, American actor Rodwell has been used a character name in literature and television.

For example: Michael Marlon Rodwell, a former convict in Coronation Street played by Les Dennis Fifth Married name of Gail Rodwell, in Coronation Street Lord Rodwell Stark, a former Lord of Winterfell in American TV series Game of Thrones In English-speaking and some other Western countries, a double-barrelled name is a family name with two parts, which may or may not be joined with a hyphen. It may be known as a hyphenated name. People with a Rodwell hyphenated or double-barrelled name include: Verna L. Jones-Rodwell, American politician Caitlin O'Connell-Rodwell American scientific consultant, author, co-founder and CEO of Utopia Scientific, elephant expert Sue Rodwell Williams, Australian nutritionist and author Lady Clarissa Rodwell was the wife of Cecil Hunter-Rodwell, Governor of the Southern Rhodesia. In 1932, Lady Rodwell Maternity Hospital located in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe was named after her. Births at this hospital could explain the use of Rodwell as a male first name. For example: Rodwell Ferguson, Belizean politician Rodwell Makoto, Zimbabwean chess international master Rodwell Munyenyembe, Malawi politician Rodwell Ngara, Zimbabwean diamond sawyer Rodwell Paul, American veteran pilot captain Rodwell Williams, Belizean lawyer Rodwell, California, US Rodwell Trail, Weymouth Dorset, England Rodwell Railway Station, England