United States Department of Defense
The Department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 801,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services and it is headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, just outside of Washington, D. C. The Department of Defense is headed by the Secretary of Defense, Military operations are managed by nine regional or functional Unified Combatant Commands. The Department of Defense operates several joint services schools, including the National Defense University, the history of the defense of the United States started with the Continental Congress in 1775. The creation of the United States Army was enacted on 14 June 1775 and this coincides with the American holiday Flag Day. The Second Continental Congress would charter the United States Navy, on 13 October 1775, both the Navy and the Marine Corps are separate military services subordinate to the Department of the Navy. The Preamble of the United States Constitution gave the authority to federal government, to defend its citizens and this first Congress had a huge agenda, that of creating legislation to build a government for the ages.
Legislation to create a military defense force stagnated, two separate times, President George Washington went to Congress to remind them of their duty to establish a military. In a special message to Congress on 19 December 1945, the President cited both wasteful military spending and inter-departmental conflicts, deliberations in Congress went on for months focusing heavily on the role of the military in society and the threat of granting too much military power to the executive. The act placed the National Military Establishment under the control of a single Secretary of Defense, the National Military Establishment formally began operations on 18 September, the day after the Senate confirmed James V. Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense. The National Military Establishment was renamed the Department of Defense on 10 August 1949, under the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, channels of authority within the department were streamlined, while still maintaining the authority of the Military Departments.
Also provided in this legislation was a centralized authority, the Advanced Research Projects Agency. The Act moved decision-making authority from the Military Departments to the Joint Chiefs of Staff and it strengthened the command channel of the military over U. S. forces from the President to the Secretary of Defense. Written and promoted by the Eisenhower administration, it was signed into law 6 August 1958, because the Constitution vests all military authority in Congress and the President, the statutory authority of the Secretary of Defense is derived from their constitutional authorities. Department of Defense Directive 5100.01 describes the relationships within the Department. The latest version, signed by former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates in December 2010, is the first major re-write since 1987, the Office of the Secretary of Defense is the Secretary and Deputy Secretarys civilian staff. S. Government departments and agencies, foreign governments, and international organizations, OSD performs oversight and management of the Defense Agencies and Department of Defense Field Activities.
OSD supervises the following Defense Agencies, Several defense agencies are members of the United States Intelligence Community and these are national-level intelligence services that operate under the jurisdiction of the Department of Defense but simultaneously fall under the authorities of the Director of National Intelligence
Constitutional Convention (United States)
The Constitutional Convention took place from May 25 to September 17,1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The delegates elected George Washington to preside over the Convention, the result of the Convention was the creation of the United States Constitution, placing the Convention among the most significant events in the history of the United States. Most of the time during the Convention was spent on deciding these issues, while the powers of legislature, once the Convention began, the delegates first agreed on the principles of the Convention, they agreed on Madisons Virginia Plan and began to modify it. A Committee of Detail assembled during the July 4 recess eventually produced a draft of the constitution. Most of the draft remained in place, and can be found in the final version of the constitution. After the final issues were resolved, the Committee on Style produced the final version, before the Constitution was drafted, the nearly 4 million inhabitants of the 13 newly independent states were governed under the Articles of Confederation, created by the Second Continental Congress.
It soon became evident to all that the chronically underfunded Confederation government. As the Articles of Confederation could only be amended by unanimous vote of the states, in addition, the Articles gave the weak federal government no taxing power, it was wholly dependent on the states for its money, and had no power to force delinquent states to pay. Once the immediate task of winning the American Revolutionary War had passed, the states began to look to their own interests, another impetus for the convention was Shays Rebellion. A political conflict between Boston merchants and rural farmers over issues such as property seizures for tax debts had broken out into an open rebellion. This rebellion was led by a former Revolutionary War captain, Daniel Shays, himself a farmer with tax debts. The rebellion took months for Massachusetts to put down completely, in September 1786, at the Annapolis Convention, delegates from five states called for a Constitutional Convention in order to discuss possible improvements to the Articles of Confederation.
The Constitutional Convention took place in Philadelphia on May 14,1787, Rhode Island, fearing that the Convention would work to its disadvantage, boycotted the Convention and, when the Constitution was put to the states, initially refused to ratify it. James Madison arrived first, and soon most of the Virginia delegation arrived, while waiting for the other delegates, the Virginia delegation produced the Virginia Plan, which was designed and written by James Madison. On May 25, the delegations convened in the Pennsylvania State House, George Washington was unanimously elected president of the Convention, and it was agreed that the discussions and votes would be kept secret until the conclusion of the meeting. Although William Jackson was elected as secretary, his records were brief, Madisons Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787, supplemented by the notes of Robert Yates, remain the most complete record of the Convention. Throughout the debate, delegates constantly referred to precedents from history in support of their position, most commonly, they referred to the history of England, in particular the Glorious Revolution, classical history, and recent precedents from Holland and Germany.
Outside the Convention in Philadelphia, there was a convening of the Society of the Cincinnati
United States National Security Council
Since its inception under Harry S. Truman, the function of the Council has been to advise and assist the president on national security and foreign policies. The Council serves as the principal arm for coordinating these policies among various government agencies. The Council has counterparts in the national security councils of other nations. The National Security Council was created in 1947 by the National Security Act and it was created because policymakers felt that the diplomacy of the State Department was no longer adequate to contain the USSR in light of the tension between the Soviet Union and the United States. On May 26,2009, President Barack Obama merged the White House staff supporting the Homeland Security Council, the HSC and NSC each continue to exist by statute as bodies supporting the President. The name of the organization was changed back to National Security Council Staff in 2014. On April 5,2017, President Trump removed Steve Bannon from the Security Council, Chief of Staff Reince Priebus clarified the next day that they still are invited to attend meetings.
The reorganization placed the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development as a permanent member of the Deputies Committee, in 1949, as part of the Reorganization Plan, the Council was placed in the Executive Office of the President. The High Value Detainee Interrogation Group reports to the NSC, a secret National Security Council panel pursues the killing of an individual, including American citizens, who has been called a suspected terrorist. In this case, no record of this decision or any operation to kill the suspect will be made available. Reuters has reported that Anwar al-Awlaki, an American citizen, was on such a kill list and was killed accordingly, the National Security Council is chaired by the President. Its members are the Vice President, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Energy, the National Security Advisor, and the Secretary of the Treasury. The Chief of Staff to the President, Counsel to the President, the Attorney General, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget and The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency are invited to attend meetings pertaining to their responsibilities.
The heads of executive departments and agencies, as well as other senior officials, are invited to attend meetings of the NSC when appropriate. The Principals Committee of the National Security Council is the Cabinet-level senior interagency forum consideration of security policy issues. The Principals Committee is convened and chaired by the National Security Advisor, the National Security Council Deputies Committee is the senior sub-Cabinet interagency forum for consideration of national security policy issues. The Deputies Committee is responsible for reviewing and monitoring the national security process including for establishing and directing the Policy Coordination Committees. The Deputies Committee is convened and chaired by the Deputy National Security Advisor or the Deputy Homeland Security Advisor, the Executive Secretary and the Deputy White House Counsel attend
United States Secretary of Defense
The Secretary of Defense is the leader and chief executive officer of the Department of Defense, an Executive Department of the Government of the United States of America. The Secretary of Defenses power over the United States military is only to that of the President. This position corresponds to what is known as a Defense Minister in many other countries. The Secretary of Defense is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, Secretary of Defense is a statutory office, and the general provision in 10 U. S. C. This is extended to the United States Coast Guard during any period of time in which its command, only the Secretary of Defense can authorize the transfer of operational control of forces between the three Military Departments and the nine Combatant Commands. The current Secretary of Defense is retired United States Marine Corps general James Mattis, the Army and Marine Corps were established in 1775, in concurrence with the American Revolution. Based on the experiences of World War II, proposals were made on how to more effectively manage the large combined military establishment.
The Army generally favored centralization while the Navy had institutional preferences for decentralization, the resulting National Security Act of 1947 was largely a compromise between these divergent viewpoints. The Act merged the Department of War with the Department of the Navy to form the National Military Establishment, the Act separated the Army Air Forces from the Department of the Army to become its own branch of service, the Department of the Air Force. At first, each of the service secretaries maintained quasi-cabinet status, the position of the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the number two position in the department, was created at this time. The last major revision of the framework concerning the position was done in the Goldwater–Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986. In particular, it elevated the status of joint service for commissioned officers, making it in practice a requirement before appointments to general officer and flag officer grades could be made.
Because the Constitution vests all military authority in Congress and the President, as the head of DoD, all officials and service members are under the Secretary of Defense. All of these positions and military, require Senate confirmation. Department of Defense Directive 5100.01 describes the relationships within the Department. The latest version, signed by former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates in December 2010, is the first major re-write since 1987, the name of the principally military staff organization, organized under the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, is the Joint Staff. In addition, there is the Joint Meritorious Unit Award, which is the ribbon and unit award issued to joint DoD activities. While the approval authority for DSSM, DMSM, JSCM, JSAM and JMUA is delegated to inferior DoD officials, Permanent Representative to NATO in recognition of U. S
National Security Act of 1947
The National Security Act of 1947 was a major restructuring of the United States governments military and intelligence agencies following World War II. The majority of the provisions of the Act took effect on September 18,1947, the Act merged the Department of War and the Department of the Navy into the National Military Establishment, headed by the Secretary of Defense. It created the Department of the Air Force, which separated the Army Air Forces into its own service and it protected the Marine Corps as an independent service, under the Department of the Navy, prohibiting it from ever being absorbed into the Army. Aside from the reorganization, the act established the National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency. The National Security Act of 1947 was a restructuring of the United States governments military. The act and its changes, along with the Truman Doctrine, the bill signing took place aboard Trumans VC-54C presidential aircraft Sacred Cow, the first aircraft used for the role of Air Force One.
The majority of the provisions of the Act took effect on September 18,1947 and his power was initially limited and it was difficult for him to exercise the authority to make his office effective. This was changed in the amendment to the act in 1949, the Act merged the Department of War and the Department of the Navy into the National Military Establishment, headed by the Secretary of Defense. It created the Department of the Air Force, which separated the Army Air Forces into its own service and it protected the Marine Corps as an independent service, under the Department of the Navy, prohibiting it from ever being absorbed into the Army. Initially, each of the three service secretaries maintained quasi-cabinet status, but the act was amended on August 10,1949, at the same time, the NME was renamed as the Department of Defense. The purpose was to unify the Army and Air Force into a federated structure. S. s first peacetime intelligence agency. The councils function was to advise the president on domestic and military policies, the 1949 Revolt of the Admirals.
The Story Behind the National Security Act of 1947, underlying assumptions of the National Security Act of 1947. The National Security Act of 1947, Its Thirtieth Anniversary, enrolled Acts and Resolutions of Congress, compiled 1789 -2008. U. S. National Archives and Records Administration
The concept developed all in the United States after World War II. Accordingly, in order to possess national security, a nation needs to possess economic security, energy security, environmental security, the variety of definitions provide an overview of the many usages of this concept. National security objectively means the absence of threats to acquired values and subjectively, in 1990, Harvard University history professor Charles Maier defined national security through the lens of national power, National security. The variety of definitions provide an overview of the usages of this concept. National security objectively means the absence of threats to acquired values and subjectively, in 1990, Harvard University history professor Charles Maier defined national security through the lens of national power, National security. To be truly secure, a nation needs other forms of security, authorities differ in their choice of nation security elements. Besides the military aspect of security, the aspects of diplomacy or politics, environment and natural resources, the elements of national security correlate closely to the concept of the elements of national power.
Romm lists security from narcotic cartels, economic security, environmental security, military security is traditionally the earliest recognised form of national security. Military security implies the capability of a nation to defend itself, military security implies the capability of a nation to enforce its policy choices by use of military force. The term military security is considered synonymous with security in much of its usage, diplomacy and other interactions form the means of interaction between the objects. Historically, conquest of nations has made conquerors rich through plunder, access to new resources, economic security today forms, arguably, as important a part of national security as military security. The creation and protection of jobs that supply defense and non-defense needs are vital to national security, third world countries are less secure due to lack of employment for their citizens. Environmental security deals with issues which threaten the national security of a nation in any manner.
The scope and nature of environmental threats to security and strategies to engage them are a subject of debate. While all environmental events are not considered significant of being categorised as threats, many transnational issues, romm classifies these as, Transnational environmental problems that threaten a nations security, in its broad defined sense. These include global environmental problems such as climate change due to warming and loss of biodiversity. Environmental or resource problems that threaten a nations security, traditionally defined and these would be problems whose outcomes would result in conventional threats to national security as first or higher order outcomes. Environmentally threatening outcomes of warfare, e. g. Prabhakaran Paleris 2008 definition of a resource is. a support inventory, biotic or abiotic, renewable or expendable. for sustaining life at a heightened level of well-being
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
President of the United States
The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president directs the executive branch of the government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is considered to be one of the worlds most powerful political figures, the role includes being the commander-in-chief of the worlds most expensive military with the second largest nuclear arsenal and leading the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP. The office of President holds significant hard and soft power both in the United States and abroad, Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The president is empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves. The president is responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of the party to which the president is a member. The president directs the foreign and domestic policy of the United States, since the office of President was established in 1789, its power has grown substantially, as has the power of the federal government as a whole.
However, nine vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having elected to the office. The Twenty-second Amendment prohibits anyone from being elected president for a third term, in all,44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. On January 20,2017, Donald Trump was sworn in as the 45th, in 1776, the Thirteen Colonies, acting through the Second Continental Congress, declared political independence from Great Britain during the American Revolution. The new states, though independent of each other as nation states, desiring to avoid anything that remotely resembled a monarchy, Congress negotiated the Articles of Confederation to establish a weak alliance between the states. Out from under any monarchy, the states assigned some formerly royal prerogatives to Congress, only after all the states agreed to a resolution settling competing western land claims did the Articles take effect on March 1,1781, when Maryland became the final state to ratify them.
In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies, with peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. Prospects for the convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washingtons attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. It was through the negotiations at Philadelphia that the presidency framed in the U. S. The first power the Constitution confers upon the president is the veto, the Presentment Clause requires any bill passed by Congress to be presented to the president before it can become law. Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options, Sign the legislation, the bill becomes law. Veto the legislation and return it to Congress, expressing any objections, in this instance, the president neither signs nor vetoes the legislation
Classified information is material that a government body claims is sensitive information that requires protection of confidentiality, integrity, or availability. Access is restricted by law or regulation to particular groups of people, a formal security clearance is often required to handle classified documents or access classified data. The clearance process requires a satisfactory background investigation. Documents and other assets are typically marked with one of several levels of sensitivity—e. g. Restricted, confidential and top secret and this often includes security clearances for personnel handling the information. Although classified information refers to the formal categorization and marking of material by level of sensitivity, a distinction is often made between formal security classification and privacy markings such as commercial in confidence. Classifications can be used with additional keywords that give more detailed instructions on how data should be used or protected, with the passage of time much classified information becomes much less sensitive, and may be declassified and made public.
Sometimes documents are released with information still considered confidential obscured, as in the example at right, the purpose of classification is to protect information. Higher classifications protect information that might endanger national security, Classification formalises what constitutes a state secret and accords different levels of protection based on the expected damage the information might cause in the wrong hands. However, classified information is leaked to reporters by officials for political purposes. Several U. S. presidents have leaked information to get their point across to the public. Although the classification systems vary from country to country, most have levels corresponding to the following British definitions Top Secret is the highest level of classified information. Information is further compartmented so that specific access using a word after top secret is a legal way to hide collective. Such material would cause exceptionally grave damage to security if made publicly available.
The Washington Post reports in an investigation entitled Top Secret America, hold top-secret security clearances in the United States. Secret material would cause damage to national security if it were publicly available. In the United States, operational Secret information can be marked with an additional LIMDIS, Confidential material would cause damage or be prejudicial to national security if publicly available. Restricted material would cause undesirable effects if publicly available, some countries do not have such a classification, in public sectors, such as commercial industries, such a level is called and known as Private Information
United States Army Air Forces
Each of these forces had a commanding general who reported directly to the Army Chief of Staff. S. Army to control its own installations and support personnel, the peak size of the AAF during the Second World War was over 2.4 million men and women in service and nearly 80,000 aircraft by 1944, and 783 domestic bases in December 1943. By V-E Day, the Army Air Forces had 1.25 million men stationed overseas, in its expansion and conduct of the war, the AAF became more than just an arm of the greater organization. By the end of World War II, the Army Air Forces had become virtually an independent service and this contrast between theory and fact is. fundamental to an understanding of the AAF. Gen. Billy Mitchell that led to his court-martial, a strategy stressing precision bombing of industrial targets by heavily armed, long-range bombers emerged, formulated by the men who would become its leaders. Since 1920, control of units had resided with commanders of the corps areas. Both were created in 1933 when a conflict with Cuba seemed possible following a coup détat.
Activation of GHQ Air Force represented a compromise between strategic airpower advocates and ground force commanders who demanded that the Air Corps mission remain tied to that of the land forces. GHQ Air Force organized combat groups administratively into a force of three wings deployed to the Atlantic and Gulf coasts but was small in comparison to European air forces. Corps area commanders continued to control over airfields and administration of personnel. The expected activation of Army General Headquarters prompted Army Chief of Staff George C. Marshall to request a study from Chief of the Air Corps Maj. Gen. Henry H. Arnold resulting on 5 October 1940 in a proposal for creation of an air staff, unification of the air arm under one commander, and equality with the ground and supply forces. Marshall implemented a compromise that the Air Corps found entirely inadequate, naming Arnold as acting Deputy Chief of Staff for Air but rejecting all organizational points of his proposal. GHQ Air Force instead was assigned to the control of Army General Headquarters, although the latter was a training and not an operational component, when it was activated in November 1940.
A division of the GHQ Air Force into four air defense districts on 19 October 1940 was concurrent with the creation of air forces to defend Hawaii. The air districts were converted in March 1941 into numbered air forces with an organization of 54 groups. Marshall had come to the view that the air forces needed a simpler system and Marshall agreed that the AAF would enjoy a general autonomy within the War Department until the end of the war, while its commanders would cease lobbying for independence. Marshall, a proponent of airpower, left understood that the Air Force would likely achieve its independence following the war
Modern tactics of espionage and dedicated government intelligence agencies were developed over the course of the late 19th century. A key background to this development was the Great Game, a period denoting the strategic rivalry, as espionage became more widely used, it became imperative to expand the role of existing police and internal security forces into a role of detecting and countering foreign spies. The Austro-Hungarian Evidenzbureau was entrusted with the role from the late 19th century to counter the actions of the Pan-Slavist movement operating out of Serbia. The Okhrana was initially formed in 1880 to combat terrorism and left-wing revolutionary activity throughout the Russian Empire. Its main concern was the activities of revolutionaries, who worked and plotted subversive actions from abroad. It created an antenna in Paris run by Pyotr Rachkovsky to monitor their activities, the agency used many methods to achieve its goals, including covert operations, undercover agents, and perlustration—the interception and reading of private correspondence.
The Okhrana became notorious for its use of provocateurs who often succeeded in penetrating the activities of revolutionary groups including the Bolsheviks. Integrated counterintelligence agencies run directly by governments were established, the British Secret Service Bureau was founded in 1909 as the first independent and interdepartmental agency fully in control over all government counterintelligence activities. Its first director was Captain Sir George Mansfield Smith-Cumming alias C, the Secret Service Bureau was split into a foreign and counter intelligence domestic service in 1910. The latter was headed by Sir Vernon Kell and was aimed at calming public fears of large scale German espionage. Many governments organize counterintelligence agencies separate and distinct from their intelligence services for specialized purposes. In most countries the counterintelligence mission is spread over multiple organizations, there is usually a domestic counterintelligence service, usually part of a larger law enforcement organization such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation in the United States.
The Russian Federations major domestic security organization is the FSB, which came from the Second Chief Directorate. Canada separates the functions of general defensive counterintelligence, security intelligence, law enforcement intelligence, military organizations have their own counterintelligence forces, capable of conducting protective operations both at home and when deployed abroad. Depending on the country, there can be various mixtures of civilian, for example, while offensive counterintelligence is a mission of the US CIAs National Clandestine Service, defensive counterintelligence is a mission of the U. S. Diplomatic Security Service, Department of State, who work on security for personnel. In the United States, there is a careful line drawn between intelligence and law enforcement. In the United Kingdom, there is a distinction between the Security Service and the Special Branch of the Metropolitan Police, other countries deal with the proper organization of defenses against FIS, often with separate services with no common authority below the head of government
The armed forces of a country are its government-sponsored defense, fighting forces, and organizations. They exist to further the foreign and domestic policies of their body and to defend that body. Armed force is the use of armed forces to achieve political objectives, the study of the use of armed forces is called military science. Broadly speaking, this involves considering offense and defense at three levels, operational art, and tactics, all three levels study the application of the use of force in order to achieve a desired objective. In most countries the basis of the forces is the military. However, armed forces can include other paramilitary structures, the obvious benefit to a country in maintaining armed forces is in providing protection from foreign threats and from internal conflict. In recent decades armed forces personnel have used as emergency civil support roles in post-disaster situations. On the other hand, they may harm a society by engaging in counter-productive warfare. Expenditure on science and technology to develop weapons and systems sometimes produces side benefits, although some claim that greater benefits could come from targeting the money directly