The USA PATRIOT Act is an Act of the U. S. Congress, signed into law by President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001; the title of the Act is a contrived three letter initialism preceding a seven letter acronym, which in combination stand for Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001. The acronym was created by Chris Kyke. In response to the September 11 attacks and the 2001 anthrax attacks, Congress swiftly passed legislation to strengthen national security. On October 23, 2001, Republican Rep. Jim Sensenbrenner introduced H. R. 3162 incorporating provisions from a previously-sponsored House bill and a Senate bill introduced earlier in the month. The next day, the Act passed the House by a vote of 357–66, with Democrats comprising the overwhelming portion of dissent; the three Republicans voting "no" were Robert Ney of Ohio, Butch Otter of Idaho, Ron Paul of Texas. On October 25, the Act passed the Senate by a 98–1 vote, the only dissident being Russ Feingold of Wisconsin.
Those opposing the law have criticized its authorization of indefinite detentions of immigrants. Since its passage, several legal challenges have been brought against the act, federal courts have ruled that a number of provisions are unconstitutional. Many of the act's provisions were to sunset beginning December 31, 2005 four years after its passage. In the months preceding the sunset date, supporters of the act pushed to make its sun-setting provisions permanent, while critics sought to revise various sections to enhance civil liberty protections. In July 2005, the U. S. Senate passed a reauthorization bill with substantial changes to several of the act's sections, while the House reauthorization bill kept most of the act's original language; the two bills were reconciled in a conference committee criticized by Senators from both the Republican and Democratic parties for ignoring civil liberty concerns. The bill, which removed most of the changes from the Senate version, passed Congress on March 2, 2006, was signed by President Bush on March 9 and 10 of that year.
On May 26, 2011, President Barack Obama signed the PATRIOT Sunsets Extension Act of 2011, a four-year extension of three key provisions in the Act: roving wiretaps, searches of business records, conducting surveillance of "lone wolves"—individuals suspected of terrorist-related activities not linked to terrorist groups. Following a lack of Congressional approval, parts of the Patriot Act expired on June 1, 2015. With passing the USA Freedom Act on June 2, 2015, the expired parts were restored and renewed through 2019. However, Section 215 of the law was amended to stop the National Security Agency from continuing its mass phone data collection program. Instead, phone companies will retain the data and the NSA can obtain information about targeted individuals with permission from a federal court. Title I authorizes measures to enhance the ability of domestic security services to prevent terrorism; the title established a fund for counter-terrorist activities and increased funding for the Terrorist Screening Center, administered by the FBI.
The military was authorized to provide assistance in some situations that involve weapons of mass destruction when so requested by the Attorney General. The National Electronic Crime Task Force was expanded, along with the President's authority and abilities in cases of terrorism; the title condemned the discrimination against Arab and Muslim Americans that happened soon after the September 11 terrorist attacks. The impetus for many of the provisions came from earlier bills, for instance the condemnation of discrimination was proposed by Senator Tom Harkin in an amendment to the Combatting Terrorism Act of 2001, though in a different form, it included "the prayer of Cardinal Theodore McCarrick, the Archbishop of Washington in a Mass on September 12, 2001 for our Nation and the victims in the immediate aftermath of the terrorist hijackings and attacks in New York City, Washington, D. C. and Pennsylvania reminds all Americans that'We must seek the guilty and not strike out against the innocent or we become like them who are without moral guidance or proper direction.'"
Further condemnation of racial vilification and violence is spelled out in Title X, where there was condemnation of such activities against Sikh Americans, who were mistaken for Muslims after the September 11th terrorist attack. Title II is titled "Enhanced Surveillance Procedures", covers all aspects of the surveillance of suspected terrorists, those suspected of engaging in computer fraud or abuse, agents of a foreign power who are engaged in clandestine activities, it made amendments to FISA, the ECPA, many of the most controversial aspects of the USA PATRIOT Act reside in this title. In particular, the title allows government agencies to gather "foreign intelligence information" from both U. S. and non-U. S. Citizens, changed FISA to make gaining foreign intelligence information the significant purpose of FISA-based surveillance, where it had been the primary purpose; the change in definition was meant to remove a legal "wall" between criminal investigations and surveillance for the purposes of gathering foreign intelligence, which hampered in
National Security Act of 1947
The National Security Act of 1947 was a major restructuring of the United States government's military and intelligence agencies following World War II. The majority of the provisions of the Act took effect on September 18, 1947, the day after the Senate confirmed James Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense; the Act merged the Department of War and the Department of the Navy into the National Military Establishment, headed by the Secretary of Defense. It created the Department of the Air Force and the United States Air Force, which separated the Army Air Forces into its own service, it protected the Marine Corps as an independent service, under the Department of the Navy. Aside from the military reorganization, the act established the National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency, the U. S.'s first peacetime non-military intelligence agency. The National Security Act of 1947 was a major restructuring of the United States government's military and intelligence agencies following World War II.
The act and its changes, along with the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, were major components of the Truman administration's Cold War strategy. The bill signing took place aboard Truman's VC-54C presidential aircraft Sacred Cow, the first aircraft used for the role of Air Force One; the majority of the provisions of the Act took effect on September 18, 1947, the day after the Senate confirmed James Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense. His power was limited and it was difficult for him to exercise the authority to make his office effective; this was changed in the amendment to the act in 1949, creating what was to be the Department of Defense. The Act merged the Department of War and the Department of the Navy into the National Military Establishment, headed by the Secretary of Defense, it created the Department of the Air Force, which separated the Army Air Forces into its own service. It protected the Marine Corps as an independent service, under the Department of the Navy; each of the three service secretaries maintained quasi-cabinet status, but the act was amended on August 10, 1949, to ensure their subordination to the Secretary of Defense.
At the same time, the NME was renamed as the Department of Defense. The purpose was to unify the Army and Air Force into a federated structure; the Joint Chiefs of Staff was established under Title II, Section 211 of the original National Security Act of 1947 before Sections 209–214 of Title II were repealed by the law enacting Title 10 and Title 32, United States Code to replace them. Aside from the military reorganization, the act established the National Security Council, a central place of coordination for national security policy in the executive branch, the Central Intelligence Agency, the U. S.'s first peacetime intelligence agency. The council's function was to advise the president on domestic and military policies, to ensure cooperation between the various military and intelligence agencies. Goldwater–Nichols Act McFarland, Keith D. "The 1949 Revolt of the Admirals." Parameters 11.2: 53+. Stevenson, Charles A. "The Story Behind the National Security Act of 1947." Military Review 88.3: 13+.
Online Stevenson, Charles A. "Underlying assumptions of the National Security Act of 1947." Joint Force Quarterly 48.1: 129-133. Trager, Frank N. "The National Security Act of 1947: Its Thirtieth Anniversary." Air University Review, November–December. Text at the United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Information at the Department of State Bibliography of sources relating to the Act, including many links to online, public-domain sources "National Security Act of 1947". Enrolled Acts and Resolutions of Congress, compiled 1789 - 2008. U. S. National Archives and Records Administration. July 26, 1947
An intelligence agency is a government agency responsible for the collection and exploitation of information in support of law enforcement, national security and foreign policy objectives. Means of information gathering are both overt and covert and may include espionage, communication interception, cooperation with other institutions, evaluation of public sources; the assembly and propagation of this information is known as intelligence analysis or intelligence assessment. Intelligence agencies can provide the following services for their national governments. Give early warning of impending crises. There is a distinction between "security intelligence" and "foreign intelligence". Security intelligence pertains to domestic threats. Foreign intelligence involves information collection relating to the political, or economic activities of foreign states; some agencies have been involved in assassination, arms trafficking, coups d'état, the placement of misinformation as well as other covert operations, in order to support their own or their governments' interests.
List of intelligence agencies List of defunct intelligence agencies List of intelligence gathering disciplines Security agency Secret police Secret service Books Encyclopedia of Espionage and Security, hrg. von K. Lee Lerner und Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, 3 Bände, Detroit: Gale, 2004 Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones and Dollar: A History of American Secret Intelligence, Yale University Press, 2002 Richard C. S. Trahair, Encyclopedia of Cold War Espionage and Secret Operations, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2004 Amy B. Zegart, Flawed by Design: The Evolution of the CIA, JCS, NSC, Calif.: Stanford Univ. Press, 1999 Цибулькін В. В. Рожен Л. М. Вєдєнєєв Д. В. та ін. Нариси з історії розвідки суб'єктів державотворення на теренах України / Заг. ред. П. Д. Морозов. — К.: «Преса України», 2011. — 536 с. іл. Journals The Journal of Intelligence HistoryReports Ruiz, Victor H. 2010. "A Knowledge Taxonomy for Army Intelligence Training: An Assessment of the Military Intelligence Basic Officer Leaders Course Using Lundvall's Knowledge Taxonomy".
Applied Research Projects. Texas State University Paper 331. Txstate.edu Outsourcing Intelligence Proposal for a Privacy Protection Guideline on Secret Personal Data Gathering and Transborder Flows of Such Data in the Fight against Terrorism and Serious Crime by Marcel Stuessi The Literature of Intelligence: A Bibliography of Materials, with Essays and Comments International Intelligence History Association
Constitutional Convention (United States)
The Constitutional Convention took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in the old Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia. Although the Convention was intended to revise the league of states and first system of government under the Articles of Confederation, the intention from the outset of many of its proponents, chief among them James Madison of Virginia and Alexander Hamilton of New York, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one; the delegates elected George Washington of Virginia, former commanding general of the Continental Army in the late American Revolutionary War and proponent of a stronger national government, to preside over the Convention. The result of the Convention was the creation of the Constitution of the United States, placing the Convention among the most significant events in American history. At the time, the convention was not referred to as a "Constitutional" convention, nor did most of the delegates arrive intending to draft a new constitution.
Many assumed that the purpose of the convention was to discuss and draft improvements to the existing Articles of Confederation, would have not agreed to participate otherwise. Once the Convention began, most of the delegates – though not all – came to agree in general terms that the goal would be a new system of government, not a revised version of the Articles of Confederation. Several broad outlines were proposed and debated, most notably James Madison's Virginia Plan and William Paterson's New Jersey Plan; the Virginia Plan was selected as the basis for the new government, but several issues delayed further progress and put the success of the Convention in doubt. The most contentious disputes revolved around composition and election of the upper legislative house in the future bicameral Congress, to be known as the Senate, how "proportional representation" was to be defined, whether to divide the executive power between three persons or invest the power into a single chief executive to be called the President, how to elect the President, how long his term was to be and whether he could run for reelection, what offenses should be impeachable, the nature of a fugitive slave clause, whether to allow the abolition of the slave trade, whether judges should be chosen by the legislature or executive.
Most of the time during the Convention was spent on deciding these issues. Progress was slow until mid-July, when the Connecticut Compromise resolved enough lingering arguments for a draft written by the Committee of Detail to gain acceptance. Though more modifications and compromises were made over the following weeks, most of the rough draft remained in place and can be found in the finished version of the Constitution. After several more issues were resolved, the Committee on Style produced the final version in early September, it was voted on by the delegates, inscribed on parchment with engraving for printing, signed by thirty-nine of fifty-five delegates on September 17, 1787. The completed proposed Constitution was released to the public to begin the debate and ratification process. Before the Constitution was drafted, the nearly 4 million inhabitants of the 13 newly independent states were governed under the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, created by the Second Continental Congress, first proposed in 1776, adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1778 and only unanimously ratified by the Original Thirteen States by 1781.
It soon became evident to nearly all that the chronically underfunded Confederation government, as organized, was inadequate for managing the various conflicts that arose among the states. As the Articles of Confederation could only be amended by unanimous vote of the states, any state had effective veto power over any proposed change. In addition, the Articles gave the weak federal government no taxing power: it was wholly dependent on the states for its money, had no power to force delinquent states to pay. Once the immediate task of winning the American Revolutionary War of 1775 to 1783 had passed, the states began to look to their own interests, disputes arose; these included a dispute between Maryland and Virginia over the Potomac River and opposition to Rhode Island's imposing taxes on all traffic passing through it on the post road. James Madison suggested that state governments should appoint commissioners "to take into consideration the trade of the United States. Another impetus for the convention was Shays' Rebellion of 1786-1787.
A political conflict between Boston merchants and rural farmers over issues including tax debts had broken out into an open rebellion. This rebellion was led by a former Revolutionary War captain, Daniel Shays, a small farmer with tax debts, who had never received payment for his service in the Continental Army; the rebellion took months for Massachusetts to put down and some desired a federal army that would be able to put down such insurrections. These and other issues worried many of the Founders that the Union as it existed up to that point was in danger of breaking apart, being subject to the persuasion of foreign powers. In September 1786, at the Annapolis Convention, delegates from five states called f
Emergency management is the organization and management of the resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies. The aim is to reduce the harmful effects including disasters; the World Health Organization defines an emergency as the state in which normal procedures are interrupted, immediate measures need to be taken to prevent that state turning into a disaster. Thus, emergency management is crucial to avoid the disruption transforming into a disaster, harder to recover from. Emergency management should not be equated to disaster management. Emergency planning, a discipline of urban planning and design, first aims to prevent emergencies from occurring, failing that, should develop a good action plan to mitigate the results and effects of any emergencies; as time goes on, more data become available through the study of emergencies as they occur, a plan should evolve. The development of emergency plans is a cyclical process, common to many risk management disciplines, such as business continuity and security risk management, as set out below: Recognition or identification of risks Ranking or evaluation of risks Responding to significant risks Tolerating Treating Transferring Terminating Resourcing controls and planning Reaction planning Reporting and monitoring risk performance Reviewing the risk management frameworkThere are a number of guidelines and publications regarding emergency planning, published by professional organizations such as ASIS, National Fire Protection Association, the International Association of Emergency Managers.
There are few emergency management specific standards, emergency management as a discipline tends to fall under business resilience standards. In order to avoid or reduce significant losses to a business, emergency managers should work to identify and anticipate potential risks. In the event that an emergency does occur, managers should have a plan prepared to mitigate the effects of that emergency, as well as to ensure business continuity of critical operations after the incident, it is essential for an organization to include procedures for determining whether an emergency situation has occurred and at what point an emergency management plan should be activated. An emergency plan must be maintained, in a structured and methodical manner, to ensure it is up-to-date in the event of an emergency. Emergency managers follow a common process to anticipate, prevent, prepare and recover from an incident. Cleanup during disaster recovery involves many occupational hazards; these hazards are exacerbated by the conditions of the local environment as a result of the natural disaster.
While individual workers should be aware of these potential hazards, employers are responsible for minimizing exposure to these hazards and protecting workers, when possible. This includes identification and thorough assessment of potential hazards, application of appropriate personal protective equipment, the distribution of other relevant information in order to enable safe performance of the work. Maintaining a safe and healthy environment for these workers ensures that the effectiveness of the disaster recovery is unaffected. Flood-associated injuries: Flooding disasters expose workers to trauma from sharp and blunt objects hidden under murky waters causing lacerations, as well as open and closed fractures; these injuries are further exacerbated with exposure to the contaminated waters, leading to increased risk for infection. When working around water, there is always the risk of drowning. In addition, the risk of hypothermia increases with prolonged exposure to water temperatures less than 75 degrees Fahrenheit.
Non-infectious skin conditions may occur including miliaria, immersion foot syndrome, contact dermatitis. Earthquake-associated injuries: The predominant injuries are related to building structural components, including falling debris with possible crush injury, trapped under rubble and electric shock. Chemicals can pose a risk to human health. After a natural disaster, certain chemicals can be more prominent in the environment; these hazardous materials can be released indirectly. Chemical hazards directly released after a natural disaster occur concurrent with the event so little to no mitigation actions can take place for mitigation. For example, airborne magnesium, chloride and ammonia can be generated by droughts. Dioxins can be produced by forest fires, silica can be emitted by forest fires. Indirect release of hazardous chemicals can be unintentionally released. An example of intentional release is insecticides used after a flood or chlorine treatment of water after a flood. Unintentional release is.
The chemical released is toxic and serves beneficial purpose when released to the environment. These chemicals can be controlled through engineering to minimize their release when a natural disaster strikes. An example of this is agrochemicals from inundated storehouses or manufacturing facilities poisoning the floodwaters or asbestos fibers released from a building collapse during a hurricane; the flowchart to the right has been adopted from research performed by Stacy Young, et al. and can be found here. Exposure limits Below are TLV-TWA, PEL, IDLH values for common chemicals workers are exposed to after a natural disaster. Direct release Magnesium Phosphorus Ammonia SilicaIntentional release Insecticides Chlorine dioxideUnintentional release Crude oil components Benzene, N-hexane, hydrogen sulfi