Argentine comics are one of the most important comic traditions internationally, the most important within Latin America, living its "Golden Age" between the 1940s and the 1960s. Soon after, in 1970, the theorist Oscar Masotta synthesized its contributions in the development of their own models of action comics, humor comics and folkloric comics and the presence of other artists; the first cartoons to appear in Argentina were editorial cartoons in political satire magazines at the end of the 19th century. These cartoons single panels evolved to multiple panel constructions with sequential action. Many used methods such as text indicating dialogue emanating from the speaker's mouth, or text below the drawings for dialogue and explanation. In the 1900s, comics continued to be political satire and commentary, but strips about normal life, called cuentos vivos began to appear. Text still appeared below each drawing with dialogue or explanation. Comics continued to be published in magazines. During this time, translations of comics from the United States, such as Cocoliche by Frederick Burr Opper, showed up in Argentina.
During the 1910s, the amount of comics made in Argentina grew by bounds. In 1912, the first Argentine comic strip proper, with speech balloons and recurring characters, Las aventuras de Viruta y Chicharrón, by Manuel Redondo, began being published in Caras y Caretas. Comics, such as Aventuras de un matrimonio aun sin bautizar, by 1917, Las diabluras de Tijereta was one of the lone strips that still put text at the bottom of each picture. Billiken, a children's magazine started in 1919 included some cartoons; the popularity of comics grew in the 1920s, children's comics gained popularity. The newspaper La Nación started publishing comics daily in 1920, comics, both foreign and domestic, were a big reason for the popularity of the newspaper Crítica. In 1928, the first publication containing comics, the magazine El Tony, began its run of more than 70 years. The'20s saw the first characters created and drawn by Dante Quinterno. In 1928 Quinterno's most important character, Patoruzú, first appeared.
The 1930s saw most important newspapers featuring comic strips. Patoruzú had its own magazine, which began publication in November 1936, it became one of the most important humor magazines of the 1940s, with a record of over 300,000 copies printed for one edition. During the late 1930s superheroes from the United States, such as Superman and Batman, began appearing in local magazines such as Pif Paf, giving a place to action comics; the Argentine comic had its golden age between the mid-1940s and the 1960s, the so-called Golden Age of Argentine Comics, when a number of foreign artists, including many Italians, arrived in Argentina following World War II. José Antonio Guillermo Divito's magazine Rico Tipo, launched on 16 November 1944, contained many comic strips and was published until 1972, it included Oscar Conti's Amarroto and many others. Intervalo magazine appeared in 1945, containing longer dialogs and text in comparison with comics edited in other houses. Patoruzito magazine appeared in 1945, containing a number of children's comics in addition to the adventures of young Paturuzú.
In 1948, local superhero Misterix got his own magazine, which included other action comics, which would become one of the most important the time period. It contained several Italian comics translated into Spanish, but that gave way to local creations; the late 1940s saw the arrival to Argentina of a circle of Italian writers and artists, which further improved the quantity and quality of the comics in Argentina. These included Mario Faustinelli, Hugo Pratt, Ivo Pavone, Dino Battaglia, who were known as the Venice Group; some Argentines, notably Alberto Breccia and Solano López, were considered honorary members of the Venice Group. A number of new publications appeared, such as Fantasía. During this decade, Héctor Oesterheld, one of the most prolific writers, Solano López created the Hora Cero magazine. Between the mid-1950s and mid-1960s, some of the most important Argentine comics were created, such as Héctor Oesterheld's El Eternauta. Another illustrator, Landrú, launched Tía Vicenta in 1957.
Prominently featuring his own political cartoons and those of colleagues such as Oski and Hermenegildo Sábat, its circulation grew to nearly half a million and became the most read magazine in Argentina before its banning order by the military government installed in 1966. Around 1960, of the 6 best selling publications, only one was foreign; the arrival of foreign publications from Mexico, with better paper and ink quality and lower prices, started a financial crisis in the Argentine comic industry, several publishers, including Oesterheld's Ediciones Frontera, had to close or be sold, which forced several artists and writers to go abroad. After the 1966 coup d'état, the comics industry suffered from both some censorship and from recurring economic downturns; the 1968 biographic graphic novel of Che Guevara by Oesterheld and Breccia was removed from circulation by the government and the originals destroyed. Never
Argentine cuisine is described as a cultural blending of Mediterranean influences with and small inflows, within the wide scope of agricultural products that are abundant in the country. Argentine annual consumption of beef has averaged 100 kg per capita, approaching 180 kg per capita during the 19th century. Beyond asado, no other dish more genuinely matches the national identity; the country's vast area, its cultural diversity, have led to a local cuisine of various dishes. The great immigratory waves imprinted a large influence in the Argentine cuisine, after all Argentina was the second country in the world with the most immigrants with 6.6 million, only second to the United States with 27 million, ahead of other immigratory receptor countries such as Canada, Australia, etc. Argentine people have a reputation for their love of eating. Social gatherings are centered on sharing a meal. Invitations to have dinner at home is viewed as a symbol of friendship and integration. Sunday family lunch is considered the most significant meal of the week, whose highlights include asado or pasta.
Another feature of Argentine cuisine is the preparation of homemade food such as french fries and pasta to celebrate a special occasion, to meet friends, or to honor someone. The tradition of locally preparing food is passed down from generation to generation. Homemade food is seen as a way to show affection. Argentine restaurants include a great variety of cuisines and flavors. Large cities tend to host everything from high-end international cuisine, to bodegones, less stylish restaurants, bars and canteens offering a range of dishes at affordable prices. Native Americans lived in Argentina thousands of years. Members of an Indian tribe in the southern part of Argentina were farmers who grew squash and sweet potatoes. Spanish settlers came to Argentina in 1536. Between 1853 and 1955, 6.6 million immigrants came to live in Argentina from diverse sources such as Europe, the Near and Middle East and Japan, contributing to the development of Argentine cuisine and making Argentina the second country with most immigrants only second to the United States.
Most of the immigrants were from Spain. The Italians introduced pizza, as well as a variety of pasta dishes, including spaghetti and lasagna. British, German and other immigrants settled in Argentina, all bringing their styles of cooking and favorite foods with them; the British brought tea. All of these cultures influenced the dishes of Argentina. Most regions of Argentina are known for their beef-oriented diet. Grilled meat from the asado is a staple, with steak and beef ribs common; the term asado. Popular items such as Chorizo, chinchulines and other parts of the animal are enjoyed. In Patagonia, however and chivito are eaten more than beef. Whole lambs and goats are traditionally cooked over an open fire in a technique known as asado a la estaca; the most common condiment for asado is Chimichurri, a sauce of herbs and vinegar. Unlike other preparations, Argentines do not include chili in their version of chimichurri. Breaded and fried meats — milanesas — are used as snacks, in sandwiches, or eaten warm with mashed potatoes — purée.
Empanadas — small pastries of meat, sweet corn, a hundred other fillings — are a common sight at parties and picnics, or as starters to a meal. A variation, the "empanada gallega", is a big, round meat pie made most with tuna and mackerel. Vegetables and salads are eaten by Argentines. Italian staples, such as pizza and pasta, are eaten as as beef. Fideos, tallarines, ñoquis and canelones can be bought freshly made in many establishments in the larger cities. Italian-style ice cream is served in large parlours and drive-through businesses. In Chubut, the Welsh community is known for its teahouses, offering scones and torta galesa, rather like torta negra. Sandwiches de miga are delicate sandwiches made with crustless buttered white bread thinly sliced cured meat and lettuce, they are purchased from entrepreneurial home cooks and may be eaten for a light evening meal. A sweet paste, dulce de leche is another treasured national food, used to fill cakes and pancakes, spread over toasted bread for breakfast, or served with ice cream.
Alfajores are shortbread cookies sandwiched together with chocolate and dulce de leche or a fruit paste. The "policeman's" or "truck driver's" sweet is cheese with dulce de membrillo. Dulce de batata is made of sweet potato/yam: this with cheese is the Martín Fierro's sweet. Apples, peaches, kiwifruits and plums are major exports. A traditional drink of Argentina is an infusion called mate; the name comes from the hollow gourd. The mate or other small cup is filled about three-quarters full with yerba mate, the dried leaves and twigs of the Ilex paraguariensis; the drink, rather bitter, is sipped through a metal or cane straw called a bombilla. M
Manuel José Joaquín del Corazón de Jesús Belgrano y González referred to as Manuel Belgrano, was an Argentine economist, lawyer and military leader. He created the Flag of Argentina, he is regarded as one of the main Libertadores of the country. Belgrano was born in Buenos Aires, the fourth child of Italian businessman Domingo Belgrano y Peri and Josefa Casero, he came into contact with the ideas of the Age of Enlightenment while at university in Spain around the time of the French Revolution. Upon his return to the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, where he became a notable member of the criollo population of Buenos Aires, he tried to promote some of the new political and economic ideals, but found severe resistance from local peninsulars; this rejection led him to work towards a greater autonomy for his country from the Spanish colonial regime. At first, he unsuccessfully promoted the aspirations of Carlota Joaquina to become a regent ruler for the Viceroyalty during the period the Spanish King Ferdinand VII was imprisoned during the Peninsular War.
He favoured the May Revolution, which removed the viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros from power on 25 May 1810. He was elected as a voting member of the Primera Junta; as a delegate for the Junta, he led the ill-fated Paraguay campaign. His troops were defeated by Bernardo de Velasco at the battles of Campichuelo and Paraguarí. Though he was defeated, the campaign initiated the chain of events that led to the Independence of Paraguay in May 1811, he retreated to the vicinity of Rosario, to fortify it against a possible royalist attack from the Eastern Band of the Uruguay River. While there, he created the flag of Argentina; the First Triumvirate did not approve the flag, but because of slow communications, Belgrano would only learn of that many weeks while reinforcing the Army of the North at Jujuy. There, knowing he was at a strategic disadvantage against the royalist armies coming from Upper Peru, Belgrano ordered the Jujuy Exodus, which evacuated the entire population of Jujuy Province to San Miguel de Tucumán.
His counter-offensive at the Battle of Tucumán resulted in a key strategic victory, it was soon followed by a complete victory over the royalist army of Pío Tristán at the Battle of Salta. However, his deeper incursions into Upper Perú led to defeats at Vilcapugio and Ayohuma, leading the Second Triumvirate to order his replacement as Commander of the Army of the North by the newly arrived José de San Martín. By the Asamblea del Año XIII had approved the use of Belgrano's flag as the national war flag. Belgrano went on a diplomatic mission to Europe along with Bernardino Rivadavia to seek support for the revolutionary government, he returned in time to take part in the Congress of Tucumán. He promoted the Inca plan to create a constitutional monarchy with an Inca descendant as Head of State; this proposal had the support of San Martín, Martín Miguel de Güemes, many provincial delegates, but was rejected by the delegates from Buenos Aires. The Congress of Tucumán approved the use of his flag as the national flag.
After this, Belgrano again took command of the Army of the North, but his mission was limited to protecting San Miguel de Tucumán from royalist advances while San Martín prepared the Army of the Andes for an alternative offensive across the Andes. When Buenos Aires was about to be invaded by José Gervasio Artigas and Estanislao López, he moved the Army southwards, but his troops mutinied in January 1820. Belgrano died of dropsy on 20 June 1820, his last words were: "¡Ay, Patria mía!". Manuel José Joaquín del Corazón de Jesús Belgrano was born in Buenos Aires on 3 June 1770, at his father's house, it was located near the Santo Domingo convent, at Santo Domingo street, between the streets Martín de Tours and Santísima Trinidad. Though the city was still rather small, the Belgranos lived at one of the wealthiest neighbourhoods. Manuel Belgrano was baptised at the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral the following day; as he was born in the Americas he was considered a social class below the Peninsulars.
His father Domenico was Ligurian, from the town of Italy. His maternal last name was Peri, he changed his name "Domenico" to the Spanish "Domingo" as well. He was an Italian merchant authorised by the King of Spain to move to the Americas, had contacts in Spain, Rio de Janeiro, Britain, he promoted the establishment of the Commerce Consulate of Buenos Aires, which his son Manuel would lead years later. Belgrano's mother was María Josefa González Islas y Casero, born in the city of Santiago del Estero, Argentina; the family was the second richest in Buenos Aires, after the Escaladas. They had 16 sons. Domingo Belgrano Pérez managed a family business, arranged for his four daughters to marry merchants who would become his trusted agents in the Banda Oriental, Misiones Province, Spain; the eight living male sons followed different paths: Domingo José Estanislao became canon at the local cathedral, while Carlos José and José Gregorio joined the army. Manuel Belgrano was meant to follow his father's work, but when he developed other interests, it was his brother Francisco José María de Indias who continued the family business.
Belgrano completed his first studies at the San Carlos school, where he learned Latin, logic, physics
Argentine painting refers to all the pictorial production done in the territory of Argentina throughout the centuries. The Cueva de las Manos, one of the masterpieces of paleolithic painting, is located in the Santa Cruz Province of Argentina, it has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Other important prehistoric artwork is located in the north of Córdoba. A collection of more than 35,000 pictographs is found in the hills of Colorado, Veladero and Unmount. More the pre-Hispanic cultures that inhabited the present territory of Argentina left a number of pictoral records. In the Andean northeast, the Ceramic Period cultures, from the Condorhuasi culture to the La Aguada and Santa María, show a comprehensive development in the painting of ceramics and stone. During the Spanish colonial era, painting developed as a religious art in churches, designed to Christianize indigenous peoples. Colonial-era religious painting was done by forced indigenous artists and African slaves under the power of the religious orders.
Colonial painting is seen in the books and manuscripts made by colonists, priests and visitors. Notable among these are the watercolors of the German Jesuit Florian Paucke. In what is now northwest Argentina in Jujuy, the Cuzco School developed in the churches, with its images of ángeles arcabuceros and triangular virgins. In the first years of the 19th century, many foreign artists visited and resided in Argentina, leaving their works. Among them were English mariner Emeric Essex Vidal, a watercolorist who left important graphic evidence of Argentine history. In the 1830s, Carlos Morel, considered the first Argentine painter, came to prominence. Soon after followed Prilidiano Pueyrredón and Cándido López, who painted the life of gauchos and the wars of premodern Argentina. In the middle of the 19th century the first Argentine artistic institutions began to be organized; these included La Sociedad Estímulo de Bellas Artes and El Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, whose first director was the painter Eduardo Schiaffino.
The great wave of European immigration established a strong relationship to European painting through Italian painters or children of Italians. Eduardo Sívori introduced naturalism with works such as El despertar de la criada, followed by painters like Reynaldo Giudici and Ernesto de la Cárcova, Ángel Della Valle developed a painting movement depicting the customs of the countryside, with works like La vuelta del malón. At a 1902 exhibition, Martín Malharro introduced impressionism to Argentina, he was followed by painters including Walter de Navazio and Ramón Silva. Soon after, Fernando Fader and the artists of the Nexus group began to push for the development of artistic currents that, without ignoring or disavowing the painting fashionable in Paris, would be capable of expressing independent views of painting; the first major artistic movements in Argentina coincided with the first signs of political liberty in the country, such as the 1913 sanction of the secret ballot and universal male suffrage, the first president to be popularly elected, the cultural revolution that involved the University Reform of 1918.
In this context, in which there continued to be influence from the Paris School, three main groups arose. The Florida group was characterized by paying the highest attention to aesthetics, its members belonged to the middle and upper classes. They met in the Richmond confectionery on the elegant and central calle Florida, from which the group takes its name, its painters included Aquiles Badi, Héctor Basaldúa, Antonio Berni, Norah Borges, Horacio Butler, Emilio Centurión, Juan del Prete, Raquel Forner, Ramón Gomez Cornet, Alfredo Guttero, Emilio Pettoruti, Xul Solar, Lino Enea Spilimbergo. The Boedo group struggles as its central themes. El Grupo Boedo, with painters such as José Arato, Adolfo Bellocq, Guillermo Hebécquer and Abraham Vigo, they were centered on the socialist Claridad publishing house, which had its workshops on calle Boedo, in the working-class suburbs of the city. Boedo group painters included José Arato, Adolfo Bellocq, Guillermo Hebécquer, Abraham Vigo; the La Boca group was influenced by Italian immigration and developed a distinctive style centered on labor and immigrant neighborhoods.
These artists included Victor Cúnsolo, Eugenio Daneri, Fortunato Lacámera, Alfredo Lazzari, Benito Quinquela Martín, Miguel Carlos Victorica. In the second avant-garde movement, or the wave of innovations in Argentine painting developed in the 1930s, many painters of the first avant-garde movement evolved and changed their artistic position. Among the leading artistic groups were: The Orion Group, composed of Luis Barragán, Vicente Forte, Leopoldo Presas, among others; the Sensitive painters, characterized by the use of color as an emotional tool. Raúl Soldi was the most prominent of this group. Th
Coat of arms of Argentina
The coat of arms of the Argentine Republic or Argentine shield was established in its current form in 1944, but has its origins in the seal of the General Constituent Assembly of 1813. It is supposed that it was chosen because of the existence of a decree signed on February 22 sealed with the symbol; the first mention of it in a public document dates to March 12 of that same year, in which it is stated that the seal had to be used by the executive power, that is, the second triumvirate. On April 13 the National Assembly coined the new silver and gold coins, each with the seal of the assembly on the reverse, on April 27 the coat of arms became a national emblem. Although the coat of arms is not shown on flags, the Buenos Aires-born military leader Manuel Belgrano ordered to paint it over the flag he gave to the city of San Salvador de Jujuy, during the Argentine War of Independence most flags had the coat of arms, it is unknown. It is mentioned that there were three men involved: Alvear and Vieytes, but it is known that a few years before, President Bernardino Rivadavia asked the Peruvian Antonio Isidoro Castro to create an Argentine coat of arms.
The coat of arms is a figure, in which at the top we find the gold-yellowed Sun of May found on the flag of Argentina. The rising sun symbolizes the rising of Argentina, as described in the first version of the Argentine National Anthem, se levanta a la faz de la tierra una nueva y gloriosa nación, meaning "a new and glorious nation rises to the surface of the Earth", it must be noticed how the verb "rise", in English and Spanish can be used to describe the motion of the Sun. In the center ellipse there are two shaking hands, connoting the unity of the provinces of Argentina; the hands come together to hold a pike, which represents power and willingness to defend freedom, epitomized by the Phrygian cap on the top of the spear. The blue and white colors are symbols of the Argentine people and the same colors of the Argentine flag; those derive from those utilised in the cockade promoting liberation from Spain, in the May Revolution in 1810, which in turn came about from the colours of the Borbonic dynasty.
The hands stand for friendship, peace and brotherhood. The pike is brown, the Phrygian cap is red, like the traditional French liberty cap; the proximity of the hands and the Phrygian cap, in addition to their individual meanings, represent the national motto of Argentina, en unión y libertad, illustrate the idea that in unity there is power, in power there is freedom. The Phrygian cap was worn by the inhabitants of Phrygia, in the Anatolian peninsula, is mistaken for being a Pileus; the Pileus was a hat that in ancient Rome became a symbol of freed slaves, who were touched by their owners with a wooden pike before setting them free. Laurel is another classical symbol. At the end of the ancient Olympic Games, the winner was given a laurel crown, since it has symbolized triumph and glory. Símbolos Nacionales de la República Argentina. Buenos Aires: Comisión Administradora de la Biblioteca del Congreso de la Nación. 1997. ISBN 950-691-036-7
A national anthem is a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. The majority of national anthems are hymns in style; the countries of Latin America, Central Asia, Europe tend towards more ornate and operatic pieces, while those in the Middle East, Oceania and the Caribbean use a more simplistic fanfare. Some countries that are devolved into multiple constituent states have their own official musical compositions for them. A national anthem is most in the national or most common language of the country, whether de facto or official, there are notable exceptions. Most states with more than one national language may offer several versions of their anthem, for instance: The "Swiss Psalm", the national anthem of Switzerland, has different lyrics for each of the country's four official languages; the national anthem of Canada, "O Canada", has official lyrics in both English and French which are not translations of each other, is sung with a mixture of stanzas, representing the country's bilingual nature.
The song itself was written in French. "The Soldier's Song", the national anthem of Ireland, was written and adopted in English, but an Irish translation, although never formally adopted, is nowadays always sung instead. The current South African national anthem is unique in that five of the country's eleven official languages are used in the same anthem, it was created by combining two different songs together and modifying the lyrics and adding new ones. One of the two official national anthems of New Zealand, "God Defend New Zealand", is now sung with the first verse in Māori and the second in English; the tune is the same but the words are not a direct translation of each other. "God Bless Fiji" has lyrics in Fijian which are not translations of each other. Although official, the Fijian version is sung, it is the English version, performed at international sporting events. Although Singapore has four official languages, with English being the current lingua franca, the national anthem, "Majulah Singapura" is in Malay and by law can only be sung with its original Malay lyrics, despite the fact that Malay is a minority language in Singapore.
This is because Part XIII of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore declares, “the national language shall be the Malay language and shall be in the Roman script ” There are several countries that do not have official lyrics to their national anthems. One of these is the national anthem of Spain. Although it had lyrics those lyrics were discontinued after governmental changes in the early 1980s after Francisco Franco's dictactorship. In 2007 a national competition to write words was held. Other national anthems with no words include "Inno Nazionale della Repubblica", the national anthem of San Marino, that of Bosnia and Herzegovina and that of Kosovo, entitled "Europe"; the national anthem of India, "Jana Gana Mana", the official lyrics are in the Devnagari. The lyrics were adopted from a Bengali poem written by Rabindranath Tagore. Despite the most common language in Wales being English, the Welsh regional anthem "Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau" is sung in the Welsh language; the national anthem of Finland, was first written in Swedish and only translated to Finnish.
It is nowadays sung in both languages as there is a Swedish speaking minority of about 6% in the country. National anthems rose to prominence in Europe during the 19th century, but some originated much earlier; the presumed oldest national anthem belongs to the Netherlands and is called the "Wilhelmus". It was written between 1568 and 1572 during the Dutch Revolt and its current melody variant was composed shortly before 1626, it was a popular orangist march during the 17th century but it did not become the official Dutch national anthem until 1932. The Japanese national anthem, "Kimigayo", has the oldest lyrics, which were taken from a Heian period poem, yet it was not set to music until 1880; the Philippine national anthem "Lupang Hinirang" was composed in 1898 as wordless incidental music for the ceremony declaring independence from the Spanish Empire. The Spanish poem "Filipinas" was written the following year to serve as the anthem's lyrics. "God Save the Queen", the national anthem of the United Kingdom and the royal anthem reserved for use in the presence of the Monarch in some Commonwealth realms, was first performed in 1619 under the title "God Save the King".
It is not the national anthem of the UK, though it became such through custom and usage. Spain's national anthem, the "Marcha Real", written in 1761, was among the first to be adopted as such, in 1770. Denmark adopted the older of its two national anthems, "Kong Christian stod ved højen mast", in 1780. Serbia became the first Eastern European nation to have a national anthem – "Rise up, Serbia!" – in 1804."Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu", the national anthem of Kenya, is one of the first national anthems to be specifical
Argentine National Anthem
The "Argentine National Anthem" is the national anthem of Argentina. Its lyrics were written by the Buenos Aires-born politician Vicente López y Planes and the music was composed by the Spanish musician Blas Parera; the work was adopted as the sole official song on May 11, 1813, three years after the May Revolution. Some first, quite different, anthems were composed from 1810; the present, much shorter, anthem comprises only the first and last verses and the chorus of the 1813 Patriotic March, omitting much emotional text about the struggle for independence from Spain. The third Argentine national anthem was named "Marcha Patriótica" renamed "Canción Patriótica Nacional", "Canción Patriótica", it has been called "Himno Nacional Argentino" since it was published with that name in 1847. The first Argentine national anthem was the "Patriotic March", published on 15 November 1810 in the Gazeta de Buenos Ayres, it had lyrics by music by Blas Parera. This original composition made no reference to the name of Argentina or an independentist will, talked instead about Spain being conquered by France in the Peninsular War, the absolutist restoration begun by the Council of Regency, the need to keep the republican freedoms achieved so far in the Americas: "Spain was victim / of the plotting Gaul / because to the tyrants / she bent her neck / If there treachery / has doomed a thousands cities / let sacred freedom and union reign here / Let the father to the sons / be able to say / enjoy rights / that I did not enjoy".
In mid-1812, the ruling triumvirate ordered the Buenos Aires Cabildo to commission a national anthem. Cayetano Rodríguez, a Franciscan friar, wrote a text, approved on 4 August; the Catalan musician Blas Parera, music director of the local theater, set it to music and performed it for the first time with the orchestra he conducted on 1 November. Less than a year the Assembly of Year XIII estimated that the song was not effective enough to serve as a national anthem. On 6 March 1813 several poets were asked to submit lyrics; the poem by the lawyer Vicente López y Planes was unanimously considered the best. It was approved as the "sole national march" on May 11, 1813. Parera was asked to compose a new musical setting around the same date, he must have finished the piece in a few days. Oral tradition has it that the premiere took place on May 14, 1813 at the home of the aristocrat Mariquita Sánchez de Thompson, but there is no documentary evidence of that. If this episode is true Parera, contrary to certain misconceptions and under no visible coercion.
The published song sheet is dated 14 May 1813. He again conducted the official premiere in the theater on May 28, was paid 200 pesos; the composition was known as Canción Patriótica Nacional, simply as Canción Patriótica, but in Juan Pedro Esnaola's early arrangement, dated around 1848, it appeared under the title Himno Nacional Argentino, the name has been retained until today. In the complete version of the Anthem of May it is noted that the political vision portrayed is not only Argentine, but Latin American; the lyrics are ardently pro-independence and anti-Spanish, as the country was at that time fighting for its independence from Spain. The song became popular immediately. Within ten years documented performances took place throughout Argentina, in Chile and Colombia until they had their own national anthems. Different versions emerged. In 1860 Esnaola was commissioned to create an official version, he took the task to heart, making many changes to the music, including a slower tempo, a fuller texture, alterations to the melody, enrichment of the harmony.
In 1927 a committee produced a historicist version that undid several of Esnaola's changes, but introduced new problems in the sung line. After a heated public debate fueled by the newspaper La Prensa, this version was rejected and, following the recommendations of a second committee, Esnaola's arrangement was reinstated. In 1944 it was confirmed as the official state anthem. Throughout the 19th century the anthem was sung in its entirety. However, once harsh feelings against Spain had dissipated, the country had become home to many Spanish immigrants, a modification was introduced by a decree of President Julio Argentino Roca on March 30, 1900: "Without producing alterations in the lyrics of the National Anthem, there are in it verses that describe the concept that nations universally have regarding their anthems in peaceful times, that harmonize with the serenity and dignity of thousands of Spanish that share our living, those that can and must be preferred to be sung in official parties, for they respect the traditions and the law in no offense to anyone, the President of the Republic decrees that: In official or public parties, as well as in public schools, shall be sung only the first and last verses and the chorus of the National Song sanctioned by the General Assembly on May 11, 1813."
The song includes a line that has given rise to controversy: Buenos--Ayres se pone á la frente De los pueblos de la ínclita union. In the manuscript and an early printed song-sheet the word opone is used.