Eglinton—Lawrence is a federal electoral district in Ontario, represented in the House of Commons of Canada since 1979. It covers a portion of Toronto northwest of downtown, it stretches from Yonge Street in the east to Caledonia in the west and from Highway 401 in the north to Eglinton Avenue in the south. Lawrence Avenue runs through the centre of the riding. Neighbourhoods in the riding include Bedford Park, Lawrence Manor, Lawrence Heights, the southwestern part of York Mills and the western part of Lawrence Park; the riding includes portions of the former cities of North York and York. As per the 2016 Census, Eglinton—Lawrence is the City of Toronto riding with the highest percentage of people of Polish ethnic origin and the second-highest percentage of people of Jewish ethnic origin. In the 2011 National Household Survey more than 15% of the residents of Eglinton—Lawrence filled in a Jewish ethnic origin; the riding was created in 1976 from parts of Eglinton, York Centre, York South, York West.
Federally, it was represented by Liberal Joe Volpe from 1988 to 2011, by Conservative Joe Oliver from 2011 to 2015, by Liberal Marco Mendicino since the 2015 federal election. This riding's boundaries were not changed during the 2012 electoral redistribution; this riding has elected the following Members of Parliament: Source: Elections Canada Eglinton - Lawrence is the name for two wards on Toronto City Council each represented by a city councillor: Eglinton - Lawrence - current councillor Josh Colle Eglinton - Lawrence - current councillor Christin Carmichael GrebThe combined ward boundaries corresponds to the federal electoral district. List of Canadian federal electoral districts Past Canadian electoral districts " Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-02. Federal riding history from the Library of Parliament Campaign expense data from Elections Canada
1997 Canadian federal election
The 1997 Canadian federal election was held on June 2 to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 36th Parliament of Canada. Prime Minister Jean Chrétien's Liberal Party of Canada won a second majority government; the Reform Party of Canada replaced the Bloc Québécois as the Official Opposition. The election results followed the pattern of the 1993 election; the Liberals swept Ontario. Reform made sufficient gains in the West to allow Preston Manning to become Leader of the Official Opposition, but lost its only seat east of Manitoba; the most significant change was major gains in Atlantic Canada by the New Democratic Party and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. The Liberals faced major losses, including two cabinet ministers; the Liberals' victory was not in doubt, though some commentators on election night were predicting that they would be cut down to a minority government, that Chrétien might lose his seat. Chrétien narrowly won his riding, the Liberals maintained a four-seat majority thanks to gains in Quebec at the expense of the Bloc.
Jean Charest's Tories and Alexa McDonough's NDP both regained official party status in the House of Commons. A change of 718 votes in just five ridings from the Liberals to the second place candidate would have resulted in a minority government; this was the first time that five political parties held official party status in a single session of Canada's Parliament. Voter turnout was 67.0% low at the time for Canadian elections. Prime Minister Jean Chrétien announced his approved request by Governor General Roméo LeBlanc to dissolve Parliament on April 26, 1997, with an election to be held on June 2 of that year. Chrétien's election call was one year and a half before the mandate of the government would expire, aside from the 1911 election, the earliest called by a party with a majority. Opinion polls at the time predicted that the Liberal Party was expected to win a landslide victory capturing at least 180 to 220 of the 301 seats in the House of Commons, with the fragmentation of the opposition meaning that one party was not expected to be able to defeat the government.
The election call was controversial both for being early and for occurring during Manitoba's recovery from the Red River Flood earlier in the year. Reg Alcock and several others inside the Liberal Party had opposed the timing of the vote, the poor results prompted Paul Martin's supporters to organize against Chrétien; the Liberal Party under Jean Chrétien campaigned on promising to continue to cut the federal deficit to allow for a budget surplus, to spend one half of the surplus on repaying Canada's national debt and cutting taxes while the other half of the surplus would be used to increase funding to health care, assistance for Canadian children in poverty, job creation. The platform was called Securing Our Future Together; the Liberal Party was attacked by the opposition parties for failing to keep many of the promises that the party campaigned on in the 1993 federal election. The Liberals attacked the Progressive Conservatives and the Reform Party for prematurely calling for tax cuts while a deficit still remained while attacking the New Democratic Party for proposing to increase government spending while Canada faced a deficit.
The Liberals suffered from a number of gaffes in their campaign. In one incident, when Jean Chrétien was questioned by reporters over the cost of the Liberals' election proposal of a national pharmacare program, reporters claimed that Chrétien was unsure of what the cost would be. Chrétien turned down invitations for interviews by Canada's national media outlet, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and MuchMusic. In the televised debates between the five major political parties, Chrétien apologized to Canadians for his government having cut funding for social programs to reduce the deficit. On election day, the Liberals won with a reduced majority. While they lost much of their support in Atlantic Canada, they won all but two seats in Ontario and improved on their numbers in Quebec, they were only assured of a majority. The Reform Party under Preston Manning campaigned on preserving national unity through decentralization of multiple federal government powers to all of the provinces, cutting taxes, reducing the size of government, reducing spending, opposing distinct society status for Quebec.
Feeling that the general acceptance of deficit reduction at the federal and provincial level had been encouraged by their party, Reform saw a chance to make the party a national in scope by making political inroads outside of the west in Ontario. Their platform was titled the Fresh Start for all Canadians; the Reformers ran a full slate of candidates in Quebec, making this the first and last election in which it would run candidates in every region of Canada. Reform's campaign ran into multiple problems; the party was accused by other parties and the media of holding intolerant views due to comments made by a number of Reform MPs during the writ period. Critics had accused the party's performance during the 1993-1997 parliament of being disorganized. Tension between the party's democratic nature and the leader-centric model of modern campaigning led to Manning's leadership abilities being questioned by a number of former members, including Stephen Harper, who accused Manning of inappropriately using a C$31,000 personal expens
A perennial candidate is a political candidate who runs for an elected office but wins. The term is not extended to incumbent politicians who defend their seats repeatedly. Perennial candidates can vary in nature; some are independents who lack the support of the major political parties in an area or are members of alternative parties. Others may be mainstream candidates who can win a party's nomination, but because their district is gerrymandered or a natural safe seat for another party, the candidate never gets elected. Still others may run in primary elections for a party's nomination and lose repeatedly. Numerous perennial candidates, although not all, run with the full knowledge of their inability to win elections and instead use their candidacy for satire, to advance non-mainstream political platforms, or to take advantage of benefits afforded political candidates. José Saúl Wermus a.k.a. Jorge Altamira, leader of the trotskyist Workers' Party, has run for President five times, his best performance was with 2.30 % of the votes.
Charles Bellchambers contested the Division of Barton six times between 1966 and 1987 polling a negligible proportion of the vote. Alex Bhathal, a social worker, has unsuccessfully stood for the Greens in the Division of Batman six times between 2001 and 2017, increasing the Greens' percentage of the vote from 4.60% in 1998 to 39.49% in 2017. Ben Buckley, a farmer, has unsuccessfully contested Gippsland in the House of Representatives on 11 occasions, he first contested the seat in 1984, has contested every election since 2001. An independent on six occasions, Buckley ran as a One Nation candidate in 2004, has run as a Liberal Democrat in the past four elections, his best result came in 2010. Shirley de la Hunty, a multiple Olympic gold medallist in athletics, unsuccessfully contested six state elections in Western Australia and seven federal elections, her candidacies spanned from 1971 to 1996, included runs for the lower and upper houses at both state and federal level. She stood a number of times for the Australian Democrats, while the rest of her runs were made as an independent candidate.
Teresa van Lieshout, a resident of Perth, has unsuccessfully contested seven state and federal elections standing for various constituencies in Western Australia. She has stood for the Parliament of Western Australia as a One Nation candidate at the 2005 election, as an independent at the 2006 Victoria Park by-election, 2013 state election, 2014 Vasse by-election. For Federal Parliament, she ran as an independent at the 2004 election and 2014 special senate election, as a Protectionist candidate at the 2013 election. In August 2015, she announced she would be contested an eighth election, the 2015 Canning by-election. Teresa stood for the Senate in NSW in the 2016 Federal Election, as an independent in the 2018 Batman By Election. Bruno Amoussou, leader of the Social Democratic Party, ran for President four times. Due to the complex and intricate political system in Brazil concerning political parties, there are more than 30 political parties. In this scenario, it is useful to have hopeless candidates who can make a good number of votes and beef up the overall votes count of a party.
As a consequence, there are thousands of small perennial candidates for local elections around the country, whose sole purpose is helping others get elected ask for a job in the elected government structure. Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva ran for President of Brazil in 1989, 1994 and 1998, ranking second votes on each occasion, he won by landslide in 2002, was reelected in 2006. José Maria Eymael, a fringe political figure, ran for the Presidency four times, he unsuccessfully ran for mayor of São Paulo in 1985 and 1992, though he won two terms on the lower house of the National Congress of Brazil, from 1987 to 1995. Rui Costa Pimenta and founder of the Trotskyist Workers' Cause Party, ran for the Presidency in 2002, 2010 and 2014, he has placed last in all his runs, with his best performance being 0.04% of votes in 2002. Vera Guasso, labor union leader and member of the Unified Socialist Workers Party, ran for the Porto Alegre city assembly, mayor of Porto Alegre, the Brazilian Senate and other positions in a non-stop serial candidacy from the early 90s on.
In her best results, she had numbers of votes in local Porto Alegre elections similar to those of lesser-voted elected candidates, but did not get a seat due to her party's overall voting being small. PSTU traditionally enters elections with no visible chance to "put a leftist set of points in discussion" and "build the party" but has achieved some expressive numbers. Michael Baldasaro of the pro-marijuana Church of the Universe has run on numerous occasions for positions at various levels. Douglas Campbell has run as a fringe candidate for the House of Commons in the 1960s, the leadership of both the Ontario and federal New Democratic Party in the 1970s and 1980s, Mayor of North York, Ontario, he ran for Mayor of Toronto in 2000, 2003 and 2006. Ross Dowson, leader of the Canadian Trotskyist group the Revolutionary Workers Party ran for Mayor of Toronto nine times in the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, his best result wa
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec; as of 2016, Ottawa had a city population of 964,743 and a metropolitan population of 1,323,783 making it the fourth-largest city and the fifth-largest CMA in Canada. Founded in 1826 as Bytown, incorporated as Ottawa in 1855, the city has evolved into the political centre of Canada, its original boundaries were expanded through numerous annexations and were replaced by a new city incorporation and amalgamation in 2001 which increased its land area. The city name "Ottawa" was chosen in reference to the Ottawa River, the name of, derived from the Algonquin Odawa, meaning "to trade". Ottawa has the most educated population among Canadian cities and is home to a number of post-secondary and cultural institutions, including the National Arts Centre, the National Gallery, numerous national museums. Ottawa has the highest standard of living in low unemployment.
With the draining of the Champlain Sea around ten thousand years ago, the Ottawa Valley became habitable. Local populations used the area for wild edible harvesting, fishing, trade and camps for over 6500 years; the Ottawa river valley has archaeological sites with arrow heads and stone tools. Three major rivers meet within Ottawa, making it an important trade and travel area for thousands of years; the Algonquins called the Ottawa River Kichi Sibi or Kichissippi meaning "Great River" or "Grand River". Étienne Brûlé regarded as the first European to travel up the Ottawa River, passed by Ottawa in 1610 on his way to the Great Lakes. Three years Samuel de Champlain wrote about the waterfalls in the area and about his encounters with the Algonquins, using the Ottawa River for centuries. Many missionaries would follow the early traders; the first maps of the area used the word Ottawa, derived from the Algonquin word adawe, to name the river. Philemon Wright, a New Englander, created the first settlement in the area on 7 March 1800 on the north side of the river, across from the present day city of Ottawa in Hull.
He, with five other families and twenty-five labourers, set about to create an agricultural community called Wrightsville. Wright pioneered the Ottawa Valley timber trade by transporting timber by river from the Ottawa Valley to Quebec City. Bytown, Ottawa's original name, was founded as a community in 1826 when hundreds of land speculators were attracted to the south side of the river when news spread that British authorities were constructing the northerly end of the Rideau Canal military project at that location; the following year, the town was named after British military engineer Colonel John By, responsible for the entire Rideau Waterway construction project. The canal's military purpose was to provide a secure route between Montreal and Kingston on Lake Ontario, bypassing a vulnerable stretch of the St. Lawrence River bordering the state of New York that had left re-supply ships bound for southwestern Ontario exposed to enemy fire during the War of 1812. Colonel By set up military barracks on the site of today's Parliament Hill.
He laid out the streets of the town and created two distinct neighbourhoods named "Upper Town" west of the canal and "Lower Town" east of the canal. Similar to its Upper Canada and Lower Canada namesakes "Upper Town" was predominantly English speaking and Protestant whereas "Lower Town" was predominantly French and Catholic. Bytown's population grew to 1,000 as the Rideau Canal was being completed in 1832. Bytown encountered some impassioned and violent times in her early pioneer period that included Irish labour unrest that attributed to the Shiners' War from 1835 to 1845 and political dissension evident from the 1849 Stony Monday Riot. In 1855 Bytown was incorporated as a city. William Pittman Lett was installed as the first city clerk guiding it through 36 years of development. On New Year's Eve 1857, Queen Victoria, as a symbolic and political gesture, was presented with the responsibility of selecting a location for the permanent capital of the Province of Canada. In reality, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald had assigned this selection process to the Executive Branch of the Government, as previous attempts to arrive at a consensus had ended in deadlock.
The "Queen's choice" turned out to be the small frontier town of Ottawa for two main reasons: Firstly, Ottawa's isolated location in a back country surrounded by dense forest far from the Canada–US border and situated on a cliff face would make it more defensible from attack. Secondly, Ottawa was midway between Toronto and Kingston and Montreal and Quebec City. Additionally, despite Ottawa's regional isolation it had seasonal water transportation access to Montreal over the Ottawa River and to Kingston via the Rideau Waterway. By 1854 it had a modern all season Bytown and Prescott Railway that carried passengers and supplies the 82-kilometres to Prescott on the Saint Lawrence River and beyond. Ottawa's small size, it was thought, would make it less prone to rampaging politically motivated mobs, as had happened in the previous Canadian capitals; the government owned the land that would become Parliament Hill which they thought would be an ideal location for the Parliament Buildings. Ottawa was th
Giuseppe Joseph "Joe" Volpe, is a Canadian politician. He is a former Liberal member of the House of Commons of Canada from 1988 until 2011, holding two senior positions in Prime Minister Paul Martin's Cabinet from 2003 to 2006, serving as transportation critic when his party became the Official Opposition. In 2006, he was an unsuccessful candidate for the leadership of the Liberal Party. In the 2011 federal election, Volpe lost his seat to Joe Oliver. Volpe was born in Monteleone, Apulia, in southern Italy, migrated to Canada with his family in 1955, he was raised in a working-class household and earned Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Education and Master of Education degrees from the University of Toronto. As a teacher, he taught in Stoney Creek from 1971 to 1974, headed the history department of a secondary school in Etobicoke from 1974 to 1979, was head of multicultural studies in a college in Weston, Ontario between 1979 and 1982, he worked as a mortgage development officer in 1982–83, was vice-principal of the James Cardinal McGuigan Secondary School between 1983 and 1988.
He is married to Mirella and they have four children. Volpe first became involved with the Liberal Party in the 1968 federal election, when he worked on Charles Caccia's campaign in Davenport, he ran for the North York Board of Education in the 1974 municipal election as a separate school representative, but was defeated. He ran for the Ontario legislature in the 1981 provincial election and narrowly lost to New Democratic Party incumbent Odoardo Di Santo in Downsview; the following year, he supported David Peterson for the Ontario Liberal Party leadership. Volpe subsequently chaired the sponsoring group of an immigrant counseling agency called Alliance Community Services, which received a controversial $500,000 grant from the federal government in January 1984. Local municipal politicians Howard Moscoe and Maria Rizzo charged that the ACS was a partisan organization and that the grant was political patronage. Maria Minna, the president of COSTI-IIAS Immigrant Services, opposed the grant on the grounds that the new organization would duplicate the work of her organization.
Employment and Immigration Minister John Roberts retracted the grant following criticism, but reversed himself and allowed it to proceed. The ACS dissolved in early 1985. Volpe increased his profile in the mid-1980s by recruiting many new Liberal Party members from Toronto's Italian community, he helped influence several party nomination contests, including John Nunziata's 1984 victory over Paul Hellyer in York South—Weston. Some questioned Volpe's methods and suggested that he was manipulating the system by signing up "instant party members", a charge that he denied, he endorsed John Roberts in the 1984 federal Liberal leadership convention, threw his support to Jean Chrétien on the second ballot after Roberts withdrew from the contest. The winning candidate was John Turner, who led the Liberal Party to defeat in the 1984 federal election. Volpe unsuccessfully campaigned for the presidency of the Ontario Liberal Party in 1985 and 1986, against media speculation that leading figures in the party opposed his candidacy.
Despite Volpe's earlier support for Chrétien, he organized a pro-Turner slate for the Liberal Party's 1986 leadership review. Turner, faced with public and backroom challenges since 1984, received the necessary support to consolidate his leadership. Volpe spoke out against the Meech Lake Accord the following year, while most of the Liberal leadership supported it. Volpe challenged sitting Liberal Member of Parliament Rev. Roland de Corneille to win the party's nomination for Eglinton—Lawrence in the 1988 election; the contest was divisive, with de Corneille alleging that Volpe was "trying to organize a group for his personal advantage" in recruiting new members from the riding's Italian community. After losing the nomination, de Corneille endorsed Progressive Conservative candidate Tony Abbott, himself a former Liberal cabinet minister. Volpe defended his right to seek the nomination, arguing that Toronto's Italian residents were seeking to play a more active role in government, he sought a reconciliation with de Corneille's supporters, many of whom were from the riding's Jewish community.
Despite the divisions engendered by his nomination, Volpe won a convincing victory on election day. The Progressive Conservatives were re-elected with a majority government in the 1988 election and Volpe sat as a member of the official opposition for the next five years, serving as his party's revenue critic for part of this time. During the constitutional debates of the early 1990s, he suggested that the Parliament of Canada should assume responsibility for reformulating the terms of Canadian Confederation, he argued that parliament represented a strong cross-section of Canada's population, saying that parliamentary initiative on constitutional reform could save millions of dollars on "needless commissions". Volpe supported Paul Martin in the 1990 federal Liberal leadership convention, won by Jean Chrétien, he subsequently opposed some of Chrétien's reforms to the Liberal Party constitution, including a change that allowed the leader to appoint candidates in selected ridings. Several Chrétien supporters defended this as necessary to prevent "instant party members" from taking over the party nomination process.
Volpe remained one of Martin's most prominent Toronto-area supporters after 1990. Many political observers believe this association kept him out of cabinet during C
House of Commons of Canada
The House of Commons of Canada is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign and the Senate. The House of Commons meets in a temporary Commons chamber in the West Block of the parliament buildings on Parliament Hill in Ottawa, while the Centre Block, which houses the traditional Commons chamber, undergoes a ten-year renovation; the House of Commons is a democratically elected body whose members are known as Members of Parliament. There were 308 members in the last parliament, but that number has risen to 338 following the election on Monday October 19, 2015. Members are elected by simple plurality in each of the country's electoral districts, which are colloquially known as ridings. MPs may hold office until Parliament is dissolved and serve for constitutionally limited terms of up to five years after an election. However, terms have ended before their expiry and the sitting government has dissolved parliament within four years of an election according to a long-standing convention.
In any case, an Act of Parliament now limits each term to four years. Seats in the House of Commons are distributed in proportion to the population of each province and territory. However, some ridings are more populous than others, the Canadian constitution contains some special provisions regarding provincial representation; as a result, there is some regional malapportionment relative to population. The House of Commons was established in 1867, when the British North America Act—now called the Constitution Act, 1867—created the Dominion of Canada, was modelled on the British House of Commons; the lower of the two houses making up the parliament, the House of Commons in practice holds far more power than the upper house, the Senate. Although the approval of both Houses is necessary for legislation, the Senate rarely rejects bills passed by the commons. Moreover, the Cabinet is responsible to the House of Commons; the prime minister stays in office only as long as they retain the support, or "confidence", of the lower house.
The term derives from the Anglo-Norman word communes, referring to the geographic and collective "communities" of their parliamentary representatives and not the third estate, the commonality. This distinction is made clear in the official French name of the body, Chambre des communes. Canada and the United Kingdom remain the only countries to use the name "House of Commons" for a lower house of parliament; the House of Commons came into existence in 1867, when the British Parliament passed the British North America Act, uniting the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick into a single federation called the Dominion of Canada. The new Parliament of Canada consisted of the Senate and the House of Commons; the Parliament of Canada was based on the Westminster model. Unlike the UK Parliament, the powers of the Parliament of Canada were limited in that other powers were assigned to the provincial legislatures; the Parliament of Canada remained subordinate to the British Parliament, the supreme legislative authority for the entire British Empire.
Greater autonomy was granted by the Statute of Westminster 1931, after which new acts of the British Parliament did not apply to Canada, with some exceptions. These exceptions were removed by the Canada Act 1982. From 1867, the Commons met in the chamber used by the Legislative Assembly of Canada until the building was destroyed by fire in 1916, it relocated to the amphitheatre of the Victoria Memorial Museum—what is today the Canadian Museum of Nature, where it met until 1922. Until the end of 2018, the Commons sat in Centre Block chamber. Starting with the final sitting before the 2019 federal election, the Commons sits in a temporary chamber in the West Block until at least 2028, while renovations are undertaken in the Centre Block of Parliament; the House of Commons comprises 338 members. The constitution specifies a basic minimum of 295 electoral districts, but additional seats are allocated according to various clauses. Seats are distributed among the provinces in proportion to population, as determined by each decennial census, subject to the following exceptions made by the constitution.
Firstly, the "senatorial clause" guarantees that each province will have at least as many MPs as Senators. Secondly, the "grandfather clause" guarantees each province has at least as many Members of Parliament now as it had in 1985; as a result of these clauses, smaller provinces and provinces that have experienced a relative decline in population have become over-represented in the House. Ontario, British Columbia, Alberta are under-represented in proportion to their populations, while the other seven provinces are over-represented. Boundary commissions, appointed by the federal government for each province, have the task of drawing the boundaries of the electoral districts in each province. Territorial representation is independent of population; the calculation for the provinces is done with a base of 279 seats. The total population of the provinces is divided by 279 to equal the electoral quotient; the population of the province is divided by the electoral q