Jim Bradley (politician)
James J. Bradley is a politician in Ontario, Canada, he was a long-serving Liberal member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, sitting as an MPP from 1977 until 2018. He represented the riding of St. Catharines and served in the provincial cabinets of David Peterson, Dalton McGuinty and Kathleen Wynne, he was elected as a regional councillor in the St. Catharines municipal election of 2018, he is the Chair of the Regional Municipality of Niagara. His 41 year term as an MPP is the second longest tenure behind only Harry Nixon. Before entering politics, Bradley was a teacher with the Lincoln County Board of Education, he was elected as a city councillor to the St. Catharines city council in 1970, but remained in the classroom until 1977. After failed bids in the elections of 1967 and 1971, Bradley was elected to the Ontario legislature in the 1977 election in the riding of St. Catharines, served as MPP for that riding until the 2018 election, he fended off strong challenges from the New Democratic Party in the 1990 election and the Progressive Conservative Party in 1995 election.
On all other occasions until 2018, he was re-elected. When the Liberals came to power under David Peterson following the 1985 election, Bradley became Minister of the Environment and held that position until the Liberals were defeated in the 1990 election, he is regarded as Ontario's most effective Environment Minister, although some believe that his ambitions for the portfolio were undermined by Peterson and Finance Minister Robert Nixon. As Environment Minister, Bradley expanded Blue Box Recycling, making it a province-wide initiative, as well as instituting tough new penalties for polluters, enforced by a strengthened investigation and enforcement branch. Bradley was a vocal opponent of Peterson's plans to call an election in 1990, preferring that the party wait until 1992 before going to the polls. While the Liberals were defeated, Bradley was re-elected and had a prominent position in the Opposition benches; when Nixon, the interim leader of the Liberals, left Queen's Park to accept an appointment, he was replaced by Murray Elston.
Elston resigned as interim leader to run in the 1992 leadership convention, Bradley became interim leader of the party and interim Leader of the Opposition from November 1991 until the election of Lyn McLeod in February 1992. He remained an opposition stalwart. There was some speculation that Bradley would be re-appointed Minister of the Environment in McGuinty's government, but this did not occur. Instead, he was named Minister of Tourism and Recreation on October 23, 2003, he was given ministerial responsibility for Seniors on June 29, 2005. On October 11, 2005, Bradley was appointed to replace Dwight Duncan as Government House Leader, following Duncan's appointment as Minister of Finance. Bradley is the province's wine secretary, as well as the minister responsible for the Greenbelt. On October 30, 2007, Bradley was sworn in as Minister of Transportation in McGuinty's new cabinet; as Transportation Minister, Bradley supervised the introduction of an Ontario Enhanced driver's licenses to be used at Canada/US border crossings.
He introduced legislation to merge GO Metrolinx. Enacted tougher penalties for drivers who have a BAC of.05 or higher. Mandated that all commercial trucks that operate in Ontario be equipped with speed limiters to ensure heavy trucks don't exceed 105 km/h, and in April 2009, it was announced that GO Transit would be expanded to the Niagara region, with bus service to Burlington in September and with weekend rail service to Toronto starting at the end of June. On January 18, 2010, Bradley moved to the position of Minister of Municipal Affairs and Housing. In August he was moved to the Ministry of Community Correctional Services. On October 20, 2011, Bradley moved to become Minister of Environment once again in the wake of the 2011 election that saw the previous Minister of Environment, John Wilkinson, defeated. Bradley continued as Environment Minister in Kathleen Wynne's first cabinet after she won the leadership of the Liberal Party. Following the 2014 provincial election, the 69-year-old Bradley became a minister without portfolio with the title of Chair of Cabinet and was appointed Deputy Government House Leader.
He left cabinet in June 2016 as part of a cabinet shuffle, served as Chief Government Whip and Deputy Government House Leader. In the 2018 election, Bradley lost his seat as the Liberal Party was defeated, losing official party status and suffering the greatest loss for any governing party in provincial history, he had served as St. Catharines MPP for 41 years. On July 27 2018, the last day registration was open, Bradley registered to run for Niagara Regional Council.. Bradley was elected on October 2018, finishing first out of 23 candidates with 18,954 votes. On December 6, 2018, Bradley was selected as the Niagara Regional Chair, being elected on the first ballot receiving 19 out of 31 votes against two other candidates. Source: The 1999, 2003 and 2007 expenditure entries are taken from official candidate reports as listed by Elections Ontario; the figures cited are the Total Candidate's Campaign Expenses Subject to Limitation, include transfers from constituency associations. The 1995 expenditures are taken from an official listing of election expenses published by Elections Ontario.
Ontario Legislative Assembly parliamentary history
Fairfield is a city in, the county seat of, Jefferson County, United States. It has a population totaling 9,464 people according to the 2010 census, it is a Midwestern city surrounded by rolling farmlands filled with corn, soybean and hogs with a median family income of $46,138. The city became the county seat in 1839 with 110 residents and grew to 650 by 1847, its library was established in 1853, it held its first fair in 1854. Early architecture includes work by George Franklin Barber and Barry Byrne, who trained under Frank Lloyd Wright; the city has an “abundance of start-up companies” and has been called "one of the state's economic superstars." It has received The Grassroots Rural Entrepreneurship Award, has been nicknamed “silicorn valley,” and was featured in a 2012 episode of the TV show, Oprah's Next Chapter. It has been the home of Maharishi University of Management since 1974 and has been referred to as "the world's largest training center" for practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation technique.
The city includes the $6 million Fairfield Arts & Convention Center, built in 2007. In 2010, it was named one of six Iowa Great Places, it was named by Smithsonian magazine as one of "The 20 Best Small Towns to Visit in 2013."The city has 12 public parks and recreation areas consisting of more than 1,300 acres and is governed by a seven-member city council. The Fairfield Community School District is home to nearly 2,500 students, teachers and staff, with three elementary schools, a middle school, a high school; the city has Maharishi School and Cornerstone Primary School. Fairfield has its own municipal airport, several radio stations, a local public-access television station, a daily newspaper; the area now known as Jefferson County was first settled in 1836, became Jefferson County in 1839, with the new community of Fairfield as the county seat. The name was suggested by Nancy Bonnifield, one of the settlers, because it aptly described the fair fields of the area, but author Susan Welty suggests it was a play of words on her own name.
By 1840, Fairfield had a population of 110 and grew to 650 in 1847. The city was the site of the second Iowa State Fairs. Fairfield's library was established in 1853, was the first library in the state of Iowa, it was first housed in a rented room off the city square. Fairfield's library became the first Carnegie Library outside of Pennsylvania or Scotland funded by Andrew Carnegie, who donated $40,000 to build the library; the Carnegie building on the corner of Washington and Court streets became the library's home on November 28, 1893. In May 1996, the library moved to its present location on West Adams Street; the library has over 220,000 items and received accreditation from the State Library of Iowa in 2009. The first fair was held October 25 -- 1854 on 6 acres of land surrounded by a 10-foot-high fence; the total cost to hold the fair was around $320, public admission was 25 cents per person. It is estimated that between 10,000 fair goers attended this historical event. Parsons College was founded in 1875.
In 1893 the Carnegie Library was completed, the first west of the Mississippi. During the time leading up to the American Civil War, Fairfield was a stopping point for the Underground Railroad. Over 1,600 residents of Jefferson County served in the Union Army. Early architecture in Fairfield includes Victorian houses designed by George Franklin Barber as well a 1915 house designed by Barry Byrne, who trained under Frank Lloyd Wright. A 1930s bank building was designed in the Streamline Moderne style. Commercial and institutional architecture were influenced by the Louden Industries, including the Louden Foundry. Fairfield is the site of the prototype Carnegie library. In 1892 Senator, James F. Wilson met with Andrew Carnegie and secured a grant to build the first community-based library in the U. S; this served as the model for 2,700 libraries worldwide. Parsons College received a grant to build a Carnegie Library. Fairfield became one of the few cities; the Richardsonian Romanesque work is now operated by Indian Hills Community College as a satellite campus building, as a new library was built in 1996.
Fairfield's geography is typical of the American Midwest: around the city is rolling farmland specializing in corn, soybeans and hogs. Running west–east through the city is U. S. Route 34. North-South is Iowa Highway 1, leading north to Iowa City and south to the Missouri state border. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.42 square miles, of which, 6.26 square miles is land and 0.16 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 9,464 people, 4,201 households, 2,218 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,511.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,650 housing units at an average density of 742.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.3% White, 2.0% African American, 0.2% Native American, 3.9% Asian, 1.4% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.6% of the population. There were 4,201 households of which 23.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.2% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 47.2% were non-families.
39.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was
1995 Ontario general election
The Ontario general election of 1995 was held on June 8, 1995, to elect members of the 36th Legislative Assembly of the province of Ontario, Canada. The writs for the election were dropped on April 28, 1995; the governing New Democratic Party, led by Premier Bob Rae, was defeated by voters, who were angry with the actions of the Rae government such as the Social Contract legislation in 1993. The Social Contract caused the NDP to lose much of their base in organized labour, further reducing support for the party. At the 1993 federal election, the NDP tumbled to just six percent support, lost all 11 of its federal seats in Ontario. By the time the writs were dropped for the 1995 provincial election, it was obvious that the NDP would not be reelected; the Liberal Party under Lyn McLeod had been leading in the polls for most of the period from 1992 to 1995, were favoured to benefit from the swing in support away from the NDP. However, the party hurt its credibility through a series of high-profile policy reversals in the period leading up to the election.
The most notable of these occurred when McLeod withdrew Liberal support from the Equality Rights Statute Amendment Act introduced by the NDP government in 1994, which would have provided same-sex couples with rights and obligations equal to those of opposite-sex common law couples and introduced a form of civil unions. Her decision was seen as cynical and opportunistic in light of the Liberals' earlier rural by-election loss in the conservative riding of Victoria—Haliburton; this gave the McLeod Liberals a reputation for "flip-flopping" and inconsistency while offending its progressive supporters. The Progressive Conservative Party, led by Mike Harris, found success with its Common Sense Revolution campaign to cut personal income taxes, social assistance rates, government spending dramatically. Half of his party's seats came from the more affluent regions of the Greater Toronto Area the suburban belt surrounding Metro Toronto called the'905' for its telephone area code. In addition, by presenting himself as a populist, representing "ordinary Ontarians" over "special interests", Harris was able to build Tory support among working-class voters.
Although there were regional variations, many working-class voters shifted directly from the NDP to the Tories during the election, enabling the latter to win NDP ridings such as Cambridge and Oshawa. The televised party leaders' debate is regarded as the turning point of the campaign. During the event, McLeod further alienated many voters with an overly aggressive performance. Harris used his time to speak directly to the camera to convey his party's Common Sense Revolution platform ignoring all questions asked of him by Rae and McLeod and avoiding getting caught up in their debate. Since Liberal support was regarded by many political insiders as soft and unsteady, many voters who were leaning to the Liberals shifted to the Progressive Conservatives after the debate. Due to the above factors, voters gave the Tories a majority while the Liberals finished with less support than they had in the 1990 election; the NDP, despite improving their standing in some Northern Ontario ridings, were defeated, falling to 17 seats and third party status.
The New Democrats would remain the third party until 2018 when they returned to Official Opposition status. McLeod and Rae resigned their party leadership posts not long after the campaign, it was the worst result for an incumbent Ontario governing party up to that time and would remain so until 2018 when the NDP surpassed the then-governing Liberals. One independent candidate was elected: Peter North in the riding of Elgin. North had been elected in 1990 as a New Democrat, but left the NDP and declared his intention to run as a Progressive Conservative; the PC Party did not accept him as a candidate, however. Notes: At least five unregistered parties fielded candidates in this election; the Reform Association of Ontario ran fifteen candidates. Their leader was Kimble Ainslie. An article of The Globe and Mail for August 19, 1995 indicates. John Steele campaigned as a candidate of the Communist League; the Ontario Renewal Party ran a number of candidates under the leadership of Diane Johnston. This was the Marxist-Leninist party under a different name.
Amani Oakley and Joe Flexer ran as "Independent Labour" candidates in Toronto with the support of dissident or former members of the Ontario New Democratic Party and with the support of OPSEU in the case of Oakley and the Canadian Auto Workers in the case of Flexer. John Turmel's Abolitionist Party ran at least two candidates. Candidates from the aforementioned parties appeared on the ballot as independents, it is possible that some candidates listed below as independents belonged to these or other parties. Due to resignations, five by-elections were held between the 1995 and 1999 elections. Politics of Ontario List of Ontario political parties Premier of Ontario Leader of the Opposition
Iowa is a state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri River and Big Sioux River to the west. It is bordered by six states. In colonial times, Iowa was a part of Spanish Louisiana. After the Louisiana Purchase, people laid the foundation for an agriculture-based economy in the heart of the Corn Belt. In the latter half of the 20th century, Iowa's agricultural economy made the transition to a diversified economy of advanced manufacturing, financial services, information technology and green energy production. Iowa is the 26th most extensive in land area and the 30th most populous of the 50 U. S states, its capital and largest city by population is Des Moines. Iowa has been listed as one of the safest states in, its nickname is the Hawkeye State. Iowa derives its name from the Ioway people, one of the many Native American tribes that occupied the state at the time of European exploration. Iowa is bordered by the Mississippi River on the east.
The southern border is the Des Moines River and a not-quite-straight line along 40 degrees 35 minutes north, as decided by the U. S. Supreme Court in Missouri v. Iowa after a standoff between Missouri and Iowa known as the Honey War. Iowa is the only state whose east and west borders are formed by rivers. Iowa has 99 counties; the state capital, Des Moines, is in Polk County. Iowa's bedrock geology increases in age from west to east. In northwest Iowa, Cretaceous bedrock can be 74 million years old. Iowa is not flat. Iowa can be divided into eight landforms based on glaciation, soils and river drainage. Loess hills lie along the western border of the state. Northeast Iowa along the Upper Mississippi River is part of the Driftless Area, consisting of steep hills and valleys which appear mountainous. Several natural lakes exist, most notably Spirit Lake, West Okoboji Lake, East Okoboji Lake in northwest Iowa. To the east lies Clear Lake. Man-made lakes include Lake Odessa, Saylorville Lake, Lake Red Rock, Coralville Lake, Lake MacBride, Rathbun Lake.
The state's northwest area has many remnants such as Barringer Slough. Iowa's natural vegetation is tallgrass prairie and savanna in upland areas, with dense forest and wetlands in flood plains and protected river valleys, pothole wetlands in northern prairie areas. Most of Iowa is used for agriculture; the Southern part of Iowa is categorised as the Central forest-grasslands transition ecoregion. The Northern, drier part of Iowa is categorised as the Central tall grasslands and is thus considered to be part of the Great Plains. There is a dearth of natural areas in Iowa; as of 2005 Iowa ranked 49th of U. S. states in public land holdings. Threatened or endangered animals in Iowa include the interior least tern, piping plover, Indiana bat, pallid sturgeon, the Iowa Pleistocene land snail, Higgins' eye pearly mussel, the Topeka shiner. Endangered or threatened plants include western prairie fringed orchid, eastern prairie fringed orchid, Mead's milkweed, prairie bush clover, northern wild monkshood.
There is little proof to suggest that the explosion in the number of high-density livestock facilities in Iowa has led to increased rural water contamination and a decline in air quality. In fact, covered manure storage in modern barns prevent that manure from washing away into surface water, as it does in open lots as snow melts and thunderstorms occur. Other factors negatively affecting Iowa's environment include the extensive use of older coal-fired power plants and pesticide runoff from crop production, diminishment of the Jordan Aquifer. Iowa has a humid continental climate throughout the state with extremes of both cold; the average annual temperature at Des Moines is 50 °F. Winters are harsh and snowfall is common. Spring ushers in the beginning of the severe weather season. Iowa averages about 50 days of thunderstorm activity per year; the 30 year annual average Tornadoes in Iowa is 47. In 2008, twelve people were killed by tornadoes in Iowa, making it the deadliest year since 1968 and the second most tornadoes in a year with 105, matching the total from 2001.
Iowa summers are known for heat and humidity, with daytime temperatures sometimes near 90 °F and exceeding 100 °F. Average winters in the state have been known to drop well below freezing dropping below −18 °F. Iowa's all-time hottest temperature of 118 °F was recorded at Keokuk on July 20, 1934. Iowa has a smooth gradient of var
The Niagara Peninsula is the portion of Golden Horseshoe, Southern Ontario, lying between the southwestern shore of Lake Ontario and the northeastern shore of Lake Erie. Technically an isthmus rather than a peninsula, it stretches from the Niagara River in the east to Hamilton, Ontario, in the west; the population of the peninsula is 1,000,000 people. The region directly across the Niagara River and Lake Erie in New York State is known as the Niagara Frontier; the broader Buffalo Niagara Region includes the Niagara Peninsula, the Niagara Frontier, the city of Buffalo, New York. The greater part of the peninsula is incorporated as the Regional Municipality of Niagara. Cities in the region include St. Catharines, Niagara Falls, Port Colborne and Welland. Towns include Niagara-on-the-Lake, Pelham and Fort Erie, as well as the townships Wainfleet and West Lincoln; the remainder of the peninsula encompasses parts of the City of Haldimand County. The area was inhabited by a First Nations people called the "Neutrals", so named for their practice of trading goods such as flint arrowhead blanks with both of the feuding regional powers, the Wyandot and Iroquois.
The Neutrals were wiped out by the Iroquois c. 1650 as the latter sought to expand their fur-trapping territory as part of the Beaver Wars. From this point until the arrival of United Empire Loyalists following the American War of Independence, the region was only sporadically inhabited, as the Iroquois did not establish permanent settlements in the area; the Niagara Peninsula became one of the first areas settled in Upper Canada by British Loyalists in the late 18th century. The capital of the new colony was established with the founding of Niagara-on-the-Lake called Newark. Many English and Irish immigrants settled in the peninsula, but by the 1800s, Italian and German immigrants populated the peninsula and were the chief sources of immigrants followed by French and other Central Europeans. Following the agricultural period of European settlement, the Niagara area became an important industrial centre, with water-powered mills joined by hydro-electric power generation in Niagara Falls and electricity-intensive industry in both Niagara Falls and St. Catharines.
While agriculture – fruit farming along the shore of Lake Ontario – remains important to this day, it was joined in the 19th century by industrial developments. A succession of canals were built to connect the markets and mineral resources of the upper Great Lakes with the St. Lawrence Seaway. General Motors built a considerable presence in St. Catharines with auto plants and a foundry, a number of auto-parts manufacturers followed. Dry docks were built at Port Weller on Lake Ontario. Heavy industry has been diminishing for the past decade or more due to the slow-down of the North American automotive manufacturers. Thousands of jobs have been lost at long-time area employers such as General Motors, Thompson Products, Deere & Company, Dana Canada Corp, Port Weller Drydocks, Domtar Papers and Gallagher Thorold Paper; because of this, local municipalities have been forced to look at new and diversified opportunities to prevent an exodus of well trained staff. Hospitality and tourism has attracted numerous visitors to the area for more than 150 years thanks to Niagara Falls.
New development beginning during the mid-1990s has spun off an upscale hospitality boom throughout the whole Niagara Peninsula. Today, more than 10 million guests visit the peninsula annually to see the beauty of the Falls and the Niagara Parks. Ecotourism has become more popular with more people finding and exploring out of the way places such as the Niagara Escarpment, named a world Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1990. Another area of major tourism growth in the past thirty years has been the expansion of the grape and wine industry; the Niagara Peninsula is one of four recognized viticultural areas by the VQA in the Ontario wine industry. The many European-style wineries and vineyards have played a major role in attracting visitors seeking a unique cultural experience. Most of the local wineries offer full tours of their facilities with a few offering onsite dining featuring unique Canadian cuisine paired with their own VQA vintages, it is common for many of these wineries' world-class chefs to use fresh ingredients that are grown or acquired from local farms in season.
Some wineries feature live music and theatrical performances in the vineyard during the summer months. Visitors come during the coldest months of the year to watch some varieties of grapes being harvested and pressed outdoors in the vineyard as part of the process of creating the sweetest, among the most expensive, wine on earth – ice wine. A few Niagara Peninsula wineries have won the most prestigious international awards for their ice wine products, many of which are only available from the vintner. There is an official Wine Routes Guide for those that wish to self-drive while transportation companies offering wine tours operate out of major hotel and bed and breakfast establishments in Niagara Falls, Niagara-on-the-Lake and Toronto. Another major attraction for the well travelled looking for cultural activities is the famous Shaw Festival Theater located in the town of Niagara-on-the-Lake. A resident repertory company of actors uses three theatres during a six-month season. Niagara-on-the-Lake is the location of Fort George, a British-built and -occupied fort during the War of 1812.
It is open during the summer months. Other key historical locations
Transcendental Meditation refers to a specific form of silent mantra meditation and less to the organizations that constitute the Transcendental Meditation movement. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi created and introduced the TM technique and TM movement in India in the mid-1950s; the Maharishi taught thousands of people during a series of world tours from 1958 to 1965, expressing his teachings in spiritual and religious terms. TM became more popular in the 1960s and 1970s, as the Maharishi shifted to a more technical presentation, his meditation technique was practiced by celebrities. At this time, he began training TM teachers and created specialized organizations to present TM to specific segments of the population such as business people and students. By the early 2000s, TM had been taught to millions of people; the TM technique involves the use of a sound called a mantra, is practiced for 15–20 minutes twice per day. It is taught by certified teachers through a standard course of instruction, which costs a fee that varies by country.
According to the Transcendental Meditation movement, it is a non-religious method for relaxation, stress reduction, self-development. The technique has been seen as both non-religious; the United States Court of Appeals upheld the federal ruling that TM was "religious in nature" and therefore could not be taught in public schools. TM is one of the most practiced and researched meditation techniques, it is not possible to say whether it has any effect on health as the research, as of 2007, is of poor quality. The Transcendental Meditation program and the Transcendental Meditation movement originated with Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, founder of the organization, continue beyond his death in 2008. In 1955, "the Maharishi began publicly teaching a traditional meditation technique" learned from his master Brahmananda Saraswati that he called Transcendental Deep Meditation and renamed Transcendental Meditation; the Maharishi initiated thousands of people developed a TM teacher training program as a way to accelerate the rate of bringing the technique to more people.
He inaugurated a series of world tours which promoted Transcendental Meditation. These factors, coupled with endorsements by celebrities who practiced TM and claims that scientific research had validated the technique, helped to popularize TM in the 1960s and 1970s. By the late 2000s, TM had been taught to millions of individuals and the Maharishi was overseeing a large multinational movement. Despite organizational changes and the addition of advanced meditative techniques in the 1970s, the Transcendental Meditation technique has remained unchanged. Among the first organizations to promote TM were the Spiritual Regeneration Movement and the International Meditation Society. In modern times, the movement has grown to encompass schools and universities that teach the practice, includes many associated programs based on the Maharishi's interpretation of the Vedic traditions. In the U. S. non-profit organizations included the Students International Meditation Society, AFSCI, World Plan Executive Council, Maharishi Vedic Education Development Corporation, Global Country of World Peace and Maharishi Foundation.
The successor to Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, leader of the Global Country of World Peace, is Tony Nader. The meditation practice involves the use of a mantra for 15–20 minutes twice per day while sitting with the eyes closed, it is reported to be one of the most practiced, among the most researched, meditation techniques, with hundreds of published research studies. The technique is made available worldwide by certified TM teachers in a seven-step course, fees vary from country to country. Beginning in 1965, the Transcendental Meditation technique has been incorporated into selected schools, universities and prison programs in the US, Latin America and India. In 1977 a US district court ruled that a curriculum in TM and the Science of Creative Intelligence being taught in some New Jersey schools was religious in nature and in violation of the First Amendment of the United States Constitution; the technique has since been included in a number of educational and social programs around the world. The Transcendental Meditation technique has been described as both religious and non-religious, as an aspect of a new religious movement, as rooted in Hinduism, as a non-religious practice for self-development.
The public presentation of the TM technique over its 50-year history has been praised for its high visibility in the mass media and effective global propagation, criticized for using celebrity and scientific endorsements as a marketing tool. Advanced courses supplement the TM technique and include an advanced meditation program called the TM-Sidhi program; the Transcendental Meditation movement refers to the programs and organizations connected with the Transcendental Meditation technique and founded by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. Transcendental Meditation was first taught in the 1950s in India and has continued since the Maharishi's death in 2008; the organization was estimated to have 900,000 participants worldwide in 1977, a million by the 1980s, 5 million in more recent years, including some notable practitioners. Programs include the Transcendental Meditation technique, an advanced meditation practice called the TM-Sidhi program, an alternative health care program called Maharishi Ayurveda, a system of building and architecture called Maharishi Sthapatya Ved.
The TM movement's past and present media endeavors include a publi