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Natural abundance

In physics, natural abundance refers to the abundance of isotopes of a chemical element as found on a planet. The relative atomic mass of these isotopes is the atomic weight listed for the element in the periodic table; the abundance of an isotope varies from planet to planet, from place to place on the Earth, but remains constant in time. As an example, uranium has three occurring isotopes: 238U, 235U and 234U, their respective natural mole-fraction abundances are 99.2739–99.2752%, 0.7198–0.7202%, 0.0050–0.0059%. For example, if 100,000 uranium atoms were analyzed, one would expect to find 99,274 238U atoms 720 235U atoms, few 234U atoms; this is because 238U is much more stable than 235U or 234U, as the half-life of each isotope reveals: 4.468 × 109 years for 238U compared with 7.038 × 108 years for 235U and 245,500 years for 234U. Because the different uranium isotopes have different half-lives, when the Earth was younger, the isotopic composition of uranium was different; as an example, 1.7×109 years ago the NA of 235U was 3.1% compared with today's 0.7%, for that reason a natural nuclear fission reactor was able to form, something that cannot happen today.

However, the natural abundance of a given isotope is affected by the probability of its creation in nucleosynthesis and by production of a given isotope as a daughter of natural radioactive isotopes. It is now known from study of the sun and primitive meteorites that the solar system was almost homogeneous in isotopic composition. Deviations from the galactic average, locally sampled around the time that the sun's nuclear burning began, can be accounted for by mass fractionation plus a limited number of nuclear decay and transmutation processes. There is evidence for injection of short-lived isotopes from a nearby supernova explosion that may have triggered solar nebula collapse. Hence deviations from natural abundance on earth are measured in parts per thousand because they are less than one percent; the single exception to this lies with the presolar grains found in primitive meteorites. These bypassed the homogenization, carry the nuclear signature of specific nucleosynthesis processes in which their elements were made.

In these materials, deviations from "natural abundance" are sometimes measured in factors of 100. The next table gives the terrestrial isotope distributions for some elements; some elements like phosphorus and fluorine only exist as a single isotope, with a natural abundance of 100%. Abundance of the chemical elements Decay product Isotope Presolar grains Radionuclide Berkeley Isotopes Project Interactive Table Scientific Instrument Services List Tools to compute low and high precision isotopic distribution

2009–10 Wellington Phoenix FC season

The 2009–10 season is the Wellington Phoenix's third season of football in the Hyundai A-League, making it the longest running New Zealand team in the competition, surpassing the defunct New Zealand Knights. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Player Started Player Subbed In Player Suspended Player Injured/sick Player on International Duty Player Left Club/Not Signed/Loan Expired Goal scored from penalty kick First team Coach: Ricki Herbert Goalkeeping Coach: Jonathan Gould Technical Analyst: Luciano Trani First team Physiotherapist: Adam Crump Masseur: Dene Carroll Strength & Conditioning Coach: Ed Baranowski The team kit for the 2009–10 season was produced by Reebok; the home kit was changed to a yellow vertically striped shirt with black shorts and socks. The away kit features black sleeves with yellow trim on a white background, while the shorts are white with a yellow and black side trim, with white socks.

Sony remained the club's major sponsor. Supplier: ReebokSponsor: Sony See List of Wellington Phoenix FC End of Season AwardsSony Player of the Year: Andrew Durante Members' Player of the Year: Paul Ifill Players' Player of the Year: Paul Ifill Media Player of the Year: Paul Ifill Golden Boot: Paul Ifill – 12 goals Under-23 Player of the Year: Troy Hearfield

SES-2 Enclosure Management

The introduction of Serial Attached SCSI as the most recent evolution of SCSI required redefining the related standard for enclosure management, called SCSI Enclosure Services. SES-2, or SCSI Enclosure Management 2 first revision, was introduced in 2002 and is now at revision 20. SES-2 SCSI Enclosure Services permit the management and sense the state of power supplies, cooling devices, LED displays, individual drives, other non-SCSI elements installed in an enclosure. SES2 alerts users about drive and fan failures with an audible alarm and a fan failure LED; the SES-2 command set uses the SCSI SEND DIAGNOSTIC and RECEIVE DIAGNOSTIC RESULTS commands to obtain configuration information for the enclosure and to set and sense standard bits for each element installed in the enclosure. The SEND DIAGNOSTIC command is used to send control information to internal or external LED indicators or to instruct one enclosure element to change its state or perform an operation; the application client has two mechanisms for accessing the enclosure service process: a) Directly to a standalone enclosure services process, for example an enclosure controller chip.

SCSI conditions communicated directly include logical unit Reset and I _ T nexus loss. B) Indirectly through a LUN of another peripheral device – for example a drive within the enclosure; the drive will communicate with the Enclosure through the Enclosure Services Interface. In this case the only SCSI device condition communicated through the LUN is hard reset; the SES-2 process handles multiple subenclosures. In the second case, one primary subenclosure will manage all the other secondary subenclosures. Like SES, SES-2 establishes two types of thresholds for elements with limited sensing capability, like voltage, current etcetera: critical and warning. So for example in the case of temperature we may have: High critical threshold: 57c High warning threshold: 50c Low warning threshold: 7c Low critical threshold: 0cWhen managed values fall within the warning range, the SES-2 processor will communicate a warning signal to the application client a Host Bus Adapter; when values fall outside acceptable ranges, depending from the commands supported by the device server, the sense code shall be HARDWARE FAILURE or ENCLOSURE FAILURE.

SES-2 lists four types of reporting methods: Polling Polling based on the limited completion function CHECK CONDITION status Asynchronous event notification If you are a member of the T10 working group, the Standard, controlled by the T10 technical committee, can be found at: http://www.t10.org/cgi-bin/ac.pl?t=f&f=ses2r19a.pdf Due to INCITS policy changes the SCSI T10 drafts for released standards are no longer available online for non-T10 members and must be purchased from INCITS at http://www.incits.org. See the official INCITS policy at http://www.incits.org/rd1/INCITS_RD1.pdf. SES-2 over I²C is still used for storage backplanes enclosure management, although a competing method for enclosure management communication is now becoming prominent. Serial GPIO, provides a simpler, less expensive solution and is now more widespread than SES-2. American Megatrends’ Backplane controllers, the MG9071 and MG9072 can used either SES-2 or SGPIO for enclosure management with a simple configuration selection.

Old link: http://www.t10.org/ftp/t10/drafts/ses2/ses2r19a.pdf New link: http://www.t10.org/cgi-bin/ac.pl?t=f&f=ses2r19a.pdf American Megatrends, Inc. Company Website AMI Backplane Controllers from AMI

Linda Brookover

Linda Brookover is a US screenwriter, film producer, essayist on film topics the horror genre and film noir. Brookover graduated from the University of Texas at Austin with a B. A. in Spanish. She has master's degrees in Education from both East Texas State University and the University of California, Los Angeles. In 1997 Brookover optioned the movie rights to the book Time at the Top by Edward Ormondroyd and wrote a screenplay, produced the following year by Showtime Networks. In 1998, Brookover was the production executive on the independent feature film Beat, for which she co-wrote the ayahuasca scenes between the characters William S. Burroughs and his paid consort Lee. In 2001, she co-wrote and produced with Christopher Coppola the short horror spoof Texas Vampire Massacre, which provided "delightful'excerpts' from a supposed B&W regional horror" as the fictional drive-in movie in Coppola's Bloodhead aka The Creature of the Sunny Side Up Trailer Park. In 2002, she again co-produced with Coppola, the short Alzheimer's drama A Fish in the Desert, based on her short story.

Beginning in 1996 Brookover wrote a series of articles—listed in the Bibliography—about film noir and the “politics” of the horror genre. During the same period she was an editor and essayist for the online Magazine OneWorld, to which she contributed pieces on such varied subject as the Pueblo Revolts, American Indian activist Russell Means and the “Crocodile Files” that featured one of the earliest interviews with the late “crocodile hunter Steve Irwin. In addition to Beat and the two short films, Brookover was executive producer on the independent features White Nights and Nightcomer, she has worked as a performer, assisted in pre-production or in various production capacities on various film and television projects from Men Seeking Women and Time at the Top to I Survived! and Ghost Phone. “What is this Thing Called Noir” Essay in Film Noir Reader, New York: Limelight, 1996, pages 260-273. “Naked Noir: Weegee and Film Noir,” Featured article in The Noir Style, New York: Overlook, pages 44–49.

“Mad Love is Strange: More Neo-noir Fugitives,” Essay in Film Noir Reader 2, New York, Limelight, 1999, pages 188-195. “Blanc et Noir: Crime as Art,” Essay on The Public Eye in Film Noir Reader 2, New York, Limelight, 1999, pages 216-221. “What Rough Beast? Insect Politics and The Fly” Essay in Horror Film Reader, New York: Limelight, 2002, pages 236-245 “Vampire Politics and True Blood,” Featured article in The Vampire Film, Limelight, 2010, pages 314-319. “The Top Ten Reasons Why I Hate Zombies,” Featured article in The Zombie Film, Milwaukee: Applause, 2012, pages 204-209. Linda Brookover on IMDb

Telus World of Science

Telus World of Science is a brand for a number of science centre and space centre facilities in Canada sponsored by Telus, a Canadian telecommunications company. Each of the science centres operate independently and other than having sold their naming rights to Telus, there is no formal relationship between the different centres; the name changes followed major donations from Telus to each of the applicable science centres, located in Calgary, Edmonton, Alberta. Telus has pursued similar donations, corresponding name changes, for similar facilities elsewhere in Canada, including Toronto and Montreal. Presently both the Ontario Science Centre and the Montreal Science Centre count Telus among their lead sponsors, but have not seen fit to sell their naming rights. List of Telus-sponsored centres: Telus Spark — the Telus World of Science before that the Calgary Science Centre and before that Calgary Centennial Planetarium Telus World of Science — the Odyssium, before that the Edmonton Space and Science Centre, before that the Edmonton Space Sciences Centre.

Science World at Telus World of Science, Vancouver — Science World General website Telus Spark, Calgary Telus World of Science, Edmonton Science World at Telus World of Science, Vancouver

Terry Starr

Terry Starr is a Tsimshian Nation artist from the Gispaxlo'ots tribe of British Columbia, Canada. Starr's mother was from Kitsumkalum of the Eagle Clan, his father was from Lax Kw'alaams, or the town of Port Simpson of the Killerwhale clan, his predominant family crest is the Eagle on his mother’s side, while his sub crest is the Killerwhale on his father’s. Alu'-Alums or'Crying for or longing after something or someone' Starr was given this childhood name when he was six years old by the Chief of the Tribe when his grandfather died. Thla-enak or'It's been a long time' - his adult name was given to him by the acting Chief when Starr returned to the village after a long absence. Subsequent to completing a college business course in 1982, Starr purchased two adzes and three knives, his first carving tools. Tim Paul of the Nuu-chah-nulth Nation and Richard Hunt of the Kwakwaka’wakw people were among the first to influence Starr on the basic techniques of carving wood, their ancestral styles influence the artwork that he creates today.

In 1984, he sat and learned carving techniques from Richard Hunt, master Kwagiulth artist at Thunderbird Park and the Royal British Columbia Museum in Victoria, British Columbia. Starr is best known for his masks reflecting the traditional pigments and form lines of his ancestry, he paints only a portion of his masks to deliberately reveal the fluid grain of the wood. His pieces can be found in many international collections. For example, the Paul and Joan Gluck Collection of Native Arts contains more than 200 art pieces collected for more than 20 years and is considered one of the largest in the world. Starr was featured in an exhibit at one of the largest historical museums in the United States, the Historical Museum of Southern Florida. On two separate occasions Starr has been contracted to construct a full-scale replicas of a traditional Tsimshian bighouse. For both of these projects, he was responsible for training a crew of carvers. One was for the Canadian Museum of Civilization in Gatineau and the other was onsite at the Port Simpson village where he grew up.

1987 Hands of Creation, Inuit Gallery, Vancouver, BC 1989 Masks: An Exhibition of Northwest Coast Masks, Inuit Gallery, Vancouver, BC 1990 Painted Drums of the Northwest Coast, Inuit Gallery, Vancouver, BC 1993 Changing Faces, Stonington Gallery, Seattle, WA 1994 Life of the Copper: A Commonwealth of Tribal Nations, Alcheringa Gallery, Victoria, BC