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Natural language processing

Natural language processing is a subfield of linguistics, computer science, information engineering, artificial intelligence concerned with the interactions between computers and human languages, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of natural language data. Challenges in natural language processing involve speech recognition, natural language understanding, natural language generation; the history of natural language processing started in the 1950s, although work can be found from earlier periods. In 1950, Alan Turing published an article titled "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" which proposed what is now called the Turing test as a criterion of intelligence; the Georgetown experiment in 1954 involved automatic translation of more than sixty Russian sentences into English. The authors claimed that within five years, machine translation would be a solved problem. However, real progress was much slower, after the ALPAC report in 1966, which found that ten-year-long research had failed to fulfill the expectations, funding for machine translation was reduced.

Little further research in machine translation was conducted until the late 1980s when the first statistical machine translation systems were developed. Some notably successful natural language processing systems developed in the 1960s were SHRDLU, a natural language system working in restricted "blocks worlds" with restricted vocabularies, ELIZA, a simulation of a Rogerian psychotherapist, written by Joseph Weizenbaum between 1964 and 1966. Using no information about human thought or emotion, ELIZA sometimes provided a startlingly human-like interaction; when the "patient" exceeded the small knowledge base, ELIZA might provide a generic response, for example, responding to "My head hurts" with "Why do you say your head hurts?". During the 1970s, many programmers began to write "conceptual ontologies", which structured real-world information into computer-understandable data. Examples are MARGIE, SAM, PAM, TaleSpin, QUALM, Plot Units. During this time, many chatterbots were written including PARRY, Jabberwacky.

Up to the 1980s, most natural language processing systems were based on complex sets of hand-written rules. Starting in the late 1980s, there was a revolution in natural language processing with the introduction of machine learning algorithms for language processing; this was due to both the steady increase in computational power and the gradual lessening of the dominance of Chomskyan theories of linguistics, whose theoretical underpinnings discouraged the sort of corpus linguistics that underlies the machine-learning approach to language processing. Some of the earliest-used machine learning algorithms, such as decision trees, produced systems of hard if-then rules similar to existing hand-written rules. However, part-of-speech tagging introduced the use of hidden Markov models to natural language processing, research has focused on statistical models, which make soft, probabilistic decisions based on attaching real-valued weights to the features making up the input data; the cache language models upon which many speech recognition systems now rely are examples of such statistical models.

Such models are more robust when given unfamiliar input input that contains errors, produce more reliable results when integrated into a larger system comprising multiple subtasks. Many of the notable early successes occurred in the field of machine translation, due to work at IBM Research, where successively more complicated statistical models were developed; these systems were able to take advantage of existing multilingual textual corpora, produced by the Parliament of Canada and the European Union as a result of laws calling for the translation of all governmental proceedings into all official languages of the corresponding systems of government. However, most other systems depended on corpora developed for the tasks implemented by these systems, a major limitation in the success of these systems; as a result, a great deal of research has gone into methods of more learning from limited amounts of data. Recent research has focused on unsupervised and semi-supervised learning algorithms; such algorithms can learn from data that has not been hand-annotated with the desired answers or using a combination of annotated and non-annotated data.

This task is much more difficult than supervised learning, produces less accurate results for a given amount of input data. However, there is an enormous amount of non-annotated data available, which can make up for the inferior results if the algorithm used has a low enough time complexity to be practical. In the 2010s, representation learning and deep neural network-style machine learning methods became widespread in natural language processing, due in part to a flurry of results showing that such techniques can achieve state-of-the-art results in many natural language tasks, for example in language modeling and many others. Popular techniques include the use of word embeddings to capture semantic properties of words, an increase in end-to-end learning of a higher-level task instead of relying on a pipeline of separate intermediate tasks. In some areas, this shift has entailed

Brasofensine

Brasofensine is a phenyltropane, under development for the treatment of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Phase II trials were conducted in 1996 and brasofensine was shown to be both effective and well tolerated at a dose of 4 mg, however development was stopped after in vivo cis-anti isomerization of the 2α-methyloxime group was reported. In animal models of Parkinson's disease, brasofensine was effective in stimulating LMA and reversing akinesia; the isomerization of brasofensine is not between the alpha and beta positions on the 2 position of the tropane ring but rather the E/Z isomerization of the imine. It was believed that this process occurs in vivo although it cannot be ruled out as a possibility that some isomerization occurs prior to ingestion; the -isomer has been consigned the name BMS-205912. In PD, symptoms do not begin to manifest until there has been an 80% reduction in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra brain region. NS-2214 is not stable and is metabolized. 50 mg was the dosage, tried on humans, although the starting dose was 2 mg.

Because rats metabolism is much greater than humans, the amount of metabolites detected in their urine was much greater than for humans, who excrete more of the product intact. For humans, most of the 14C was detected in the urine, whereas for rats as much as 80% of the 14C was in their feces, it is well known. Imine formation is a reversible process, in the study by Zhu et al. none of the aldehyde was recovered/detected by GC-MS. Instead, the breakdown products were N-demethyl metabolites; the ester was first reduced to the alcohol oxidized to the aldehyde, followed by condensation with methoxyamine. Methods have been reported for the direct reduction of esters to aldehydes, however in practice there has been some difficulty in effecting this transformation. In particular, the fragility of the aldehyde meant that it collapsed to the alcohol and was not isolable though a wide assortment of reducing agents and reactions conditions were attempted. Following this, Swern oxidation was employed to obtain the corresponding aldehyde.

BF is a TRI. The following rating scale is used for the high intensity stereotypy on the condition that the behavioural syndromes are as described above: +=only stereotyped sniffing ++=stereotyped sniffing and episodic licking +++=continuous licking and/or biting gnawing Compound -3-tropane-O-methyl-aldoxime Dose Activity 15 mg/kg +++ is the lowest dosis giving the activity indicated

French Baroque architecture

French Baroque architecture, sometimes called French classicism, was a style of architecture during the reigns of Louis XIII, Louis XIV and Louis XV. It was preceded by French Renaissance architecture and Mannerism and was followed in the second half of the 18th century by French Neoclassical architecture; the style was inspired by the Italian Baroque architecture style, but under Louis XIV, it gave greater emphasis to regularity, the colossal order of facades, the use of colonnades and cupolas, to symbolize the power and grandeur of the King. Notable examples of the style include the Grand Trianon of the Palace of Versailles, the dome of Les Invalides in Paris. In the final years of Louis XIV and the reign of Louis XV, the colossal orders disappeared, the style became lighter and saw the introduction of wrought iron decoration in rocaille designs; the period saw the introduction of monumental urban squares in Paris and other cities, notably Place Vendôme and the Place de la Concorde. The style profoundly influenced 18th-century secular architecture throughout Europe.

The French Baroque, from the beginning, was an expression of the power and majesty of the Kings of France. It proceeded deliberately in a different direction from Italy and the rest of Europe, combining classical elements colossal orders of columns, avoiding the exuberant decoration that appeared on facades and interiors in Spain and Central Europe, it was used less on churches and more in the design of royal palaces and country residences. Another distinctive element of the French Baroque style was the integration of the architecture of the house with the formal gardens around it, in what became known as the French formal garden. Salomon de Brosse was one of the first French architects to adopt the style, in the construction of the Palais du Luxembourg he built for the mother of Louis XIII, Marie de Medici between 1615 and 1624; the Luxembourg Palace established a new pattern for royal residences, with pavilions on the corners, lateral wings, a grand central entrance surmounted by a cupola.

The walls feature colossal orders of columns with triangular pediments, indicating the classical inspiration behind the French movement. A traditional French feature was the complex roofline. Like the palaces of the Medicis in Rome, the palace was surrounded by fountains; the interior design was innovative. One of the most accomplished formulators of the new style was François Mansart, a tireless perfectionist credited with introducing the full Baroque to France, he was not the first to use the sloping mansard roof, but he used it so that it took his name. In his design for the Château de Maisons in Maisons-Laffitte, Mansart showed the continuity between the French Renaissance style and the new style; the structure is symmetrical, with an order applied to each story in pilaster form. The frontispiece, crowned with a separate aggrandized roof, is infused with remarkable plasticity and the whole ensemble reads like a three-dimensional whole. Mansart's structures are stripped of overblown decorative effects, so typical of contemporary Rome.

Italian Baroque influence is relegated to the field of decorative ornamentation. Louis Le Vau was another central figure in the early French Baroque style, he designed the Château of Vaux-le-Vicomte for Nicolas Fouquet, the Superintendent of Finances of the young Louis XIV, The design of the chateau itself was similar to that of the Luxembourg Palace and the Palazzo Barberini in Rome. What made it distinctive from earlier styles was the unity of its architecture and landscape around it, its facade featured stylized monumental columns, wings combined with mansard roofs and a prominent dome, in the Baroque style. The interior was lavishly decorated with murals by Charles Le Brun and it was placed in the center of enormous formal gardens designed by André Le Notre, laid out in geometric patterns paths, flower beds and reflecting pools, which seemed to extend the architecture of the house in every direction; the grand salon of the building opened out onto the garden, a feature which thereafter became a regular feature of Baroque palaces.

After seeing the lavishness of the building, the King dismissed and imprisoned Fouquet, took possession of the house for the crown, soon put Le Vau to work to create his own palace in Versailles. The same three artists scaled this concept to monumental proportions in the royal hunting lodge and main Palace of Versailles. On a far grander scale, the palace is a hypertrophied and somewhat repetitive version of Vaux-le-Vicomte, it was both the most imitated residential building of the 17th century. Mannheim and Drottningholm were among many foreign residences for which Versailles provided a model. In 1665, the chief minister of Louis XIV, Jean Colbert, invited the most famous architect and sculptor of the Italian Baroque, Gian Lorenzo Bernini to Paris, to propose a design for the new east wing of the Louvre, located on the eastern side of the Cour Carrée; this design would have aligned the architecture of Paris to the Italian Baroque style. However, in the end Louis turned instead to French designers.

He wanted a design, rather than a copy of the Italian style. In April 1667, he gave the commission to a committee, the Petit Conseil, consisting of Louis

Climate of Mecca

Makkah features a hot desert climate. Makkah retains its hot temperature in winter, which can range from 18 °C at night to 30 °C in the day. Summer temperatures are hot being over 40 °C during the day, dropping to 30 °C at night. Rain falls in Mecca in small amounts between November and January; the rainfall, as scant as it is presents the threat of flooding and has been a danger since the earliest times. According to Al-Kurdī, there had been 89 historic floods including several in the period. In the last century the most severe one occurred in 1942. Since dams have been constructed to ameliorate the problem. Mecca is at an elevation of 277 m above sea level, 80 km inland from the Red Sea. Flash floods are common during winter season though the amount of precipitation is low. Since Mecca is located in a desert, dust storms are common in the city. Shamal winds occur in Mecca during summer months, these Shamal winds are dusty and remain at peak in the morning but decreases at night; these winds occur in winter but not often.

Sandstorms and Dust storms both affect Mecca every month but during summer months. Westerly winds bring thunderstorms to Mecca during winter and hailstorms sometimes occur. Since Mecca is located in a low-lying region, it is threatened by seasonal flash floods despite the low amount of annual precipitation. There are less than 110 millimetres of rainfall during the year falling in the winter months. Temperatures are high throughout the year and in summer it may reach 45 °C; the following are extreme weather events in the surrounding area. In November 2009, Makkah Province was badly affected when record-breaking rainfall of 90 millimetres hit the province causing flash floods all over the province, it was the worst flood in 27 years. In November 2010, a thunderstorm killed 3 people in Makkah city following heavy rainfall. Most of the city remained under flood warning the entire night. In December 2010, once again the city was flooded when light to moderate intensity rainfall battered the holy city, claiming the lives of 4 people.

While condition in Makkah Province was comparable to the provincial capital. In January 2011, heavy rainfall created flood like situation in the provinces Jeddah where 111 millimetres occurred in just 3 hours killing four people. On may 8,2014 rainfall of more than 50mm created flood like situation with extreme lightning

CD Covadonga

Club Deportivo Covadonga is a Spanish football team based in Oviedo, in the autonomous community of Asturias. Founded in 1979 it plays in Tercera División – Group 2, holding home games at Estadio Juan Antonio Álvarez Rabanal, with a 2,000-seat capacity. CD Covadonga was founded in 1979 by José Antonio Álvarez Rabanal, priest of the parish of Our Lady of Covadonga, with the aim to give a way to development as people to the local youth, it started to play its games in the Asturian Regional divisions in the field of the Fundación Masaveu while the club was negotiating with the Oviedo City Hall for the transfer of a piece of ground in Los Castañales, neighbourhood of Teatinos, for building a new football field. In 1998 the team promoted for the first time to Tercera División. Fifteen years in 2013, the club finished the league in third position and qualifies for the 2013 Tercera División play-offs, but it was eliminated in the first round by Don Benito. Covadonga repeated participation in the playoffs in 2019, but was defeated again in the first round, this time by Bergantiños.

12 seasons in Tercera División Iván Ania Santi Cazorla On 26 November 2017, CD Covadonga announced the creation of a new women's team that would start competing in the 2018–19 season. It existed until it was disbanded in 1997. Official website Futbolme team profile

Edward Evershed

Edward Evershed was an English cricketer who played for Derbyshire between 1888 and 1898. Evershed was born in Stapenhill, now part of Burton-upon-Trent, the son of Sydney Evershed the brewer and MP for Burton. In 1888, Evershed played non first-class matches for an Oxford University team and for Marylebone Cricket Club and regularly for Derbyshire while they were without first-class status until 1893. Evershed made one first-class appearance for Derbyshire in 1898, as wicketkeeper against Warwickshire. During the season a number of players kept wicket instead of the regular William Storer who still took part in the matches. Evershed batted during the first innings, but did not make a contribution during the second, as the match petered out to a draw. Evershed was a right-handed batsman and a wicket-keeper, made one run in the first-class game. Evershed was the co-founder, with Francis Martin Tomkinson, of Evershed and Tomkinson, the Birmingham firm of solicitors, in 1914, his name has been retained during the course of numerous mergers which have led to the firm of Evershed Sutherland, one of the largest law firms in the world.

The extraordinary story of the development of the firm is described in A Global Journey, published by the firm in 2017. Evershed died in Handsworth Wood, his brothers, Sydney and Frank, cousin Geoffrey Bell, all played first-class cricket, while William Evershed played first-class cricket in first half of the 19th century