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Naturalistic fallacy

In philosophical ethics, the term naturalistic fallacy was introduced by British philosopher G. E. Moore in his 1903 book Principia Ethica. Moore argues it would be fallacious to explain that, good reductively, in terms of natural properties such as pleasant or desirable. Moore's naturalistic fallacy is related to the is–ought problem, which comes from David Hume's A Treatise of Human Nature. However, unlike Hume's view of the is–ought problem, Moore did not consider the naturalistic fallacy to be at odds with moral realism; the naturalistic fallacy should not be confused with the appeal to nature fallacy, exemplified by forms of reasoning such as "Something is natural. Such inferences are common in discussions of medicine, environmentalism, gender roles and carnism; the term naturalistic fallacy is sometimes used to describe the deduction of an ought from an is. In using his categorical imperative, Kant deduced that experience was necessary for their application, but experience on its own or the imperative on its own could not identify an act as being moral or immoral.

We can have no certain knowledge of morality from them, being incapable of deducing how things ought to be from the fact that they happen to be arranged in a particular manner in experience. Bentham, in discussing the relations of law and morality, found that when people discuss problems and issues they talk about how they wish it would be as opposed to how it is; this can be seen in discussions of positive law. Bentham criticized natural law theory because in his view it was a naturalistic fallacy, claiming that it described how things ought to be instead of how things are. According to G. E. Moore's Principia Ethica, when philosophers try to define good reductively, in terms of natural properties like pleasant or desirable, they are committing the naturalistic fallacy....the assumption that because some quality or combination of qualities invariably and accompanies the quality of goodness, or is invariably and accompanied by it, or both, this quality or combination of qualities is identical with goodness.

If, for example, it is believed that whatever is pleasant is and must be good, or that whatever is good is and must be pleasant, or both, it is committing the naturalistic fallacy to infer from this that goodness and pleasantness are one and the same quality. The naturalistic fallacy is the assumption that because the words'good' and, say,'pleasant' describe the same objects, they must attribute the same quality to them. In defense of ethical non-naturalism, Moore's argument is concerned with the semantic and metaphysical underpinnings of ethics. In general, opponents of ethical naturalism reject ethical conclusions drawn from natural facts. Moore argues that good, in the sense of intrinsic value, is ineffable: it cannot be defined because it is not a natural property, being "one of those innumerable objects of thought which are themselves incapable of definition, because they are the ultimate terms by reference to which whatever'is' capable of definition must be defined". On the other hand, ethical naturalists eschew such principles in favor of a more empirically accessible analysis of what it means to be good: for example, in terms of pleasure in the context of hedonism.

That "pleased" does not mean "having the sensation of red", or anything else whatever, does not prevent us from understanding what it does mean. It is enough for us to know that "pleased" does mean "having the sensation of pleasure", though pleasure is indefinable, though pleasure is pleasure and nothing else whatever, yet we feel no difficulty in saying that we are pleased; the reason is, of course, that when I say "I am pleased", I do not mean that "I" am the same thing as "having pleasure". And no difficulty need be found in my saying that "pleasure is good" and yet not meaning that "pleasure" is the same thing as "good", that pleasure means good, that good means pleasure. If I were to imagine that when I said "I am pleased", I meant that I was the same thing as "pleased", I should not indeed call that a naturalistic fallacy, although it would be the same fallacy as I have called naturalistic with reference to Ethics. In §7, Moore argues that a property is either a complex of simple properties, or else it is irreducibly simple.

Complex properties can be defined in terms of their constituent parts but a simple property has no parts. In addition to good and pleasure, Moore suggests that colour qualia are undefined: if one wants to understand yellow, one must see examples of it, it will do no good to read the dictionary and learn that yellow names the colour of egg yolks and ripe lemons, or that yellow names the primary colour between green and orange on the spectrum, or that the perception of yellow is stimulated by electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength of between 570 and 590 nanometers, because yellow is all that and more, by the open question argument. Bernard Williams called Moore's use of the term naturalistic fallacy, a "spectacular misnomer", the question being metaphysical, as opposed to rational; some people use the phrase, naturalistic fallacy or appeal to nature, in a different sense, to characterize inferences of the form "Something is natural. Such inferences are common in discussions of medicine, homosexuality and veganism.

The naturalistic fallacy is the idea. It was the basis for social Darwinism, the belief that helpi

Lucia Piussi

Lucia Piussi is a Slovak actress and rock singer. She has played Bratislava's Stoka Theatre and is the frontwoman of rock band Živé kvety. Piussi studied at the Academy of Performing Arts in Bratislava. 12 + 1, Slnko records 2008 Bez konca, Živé kvety, Slnko records 2007 Sloboda, Živé kvety, Slnko records 2005 Na mojej ulici, Živé kvety, Slnko records 2004 V dobrom aj v zlom, Živé kvety, Pavian records 2003 Živé kvety, Živé kvety, Mediálny inštitút 2000 Strata, premiere 21. 12. 2004 Gala, premiere 9. 6. 2003 Bol-a som nevinn -ý -á, I Was Innocent, premiere 1. 9. 2002 Komisia, premiere 12. 4. 2002 Z diaľky, premiere 17. 12. 1999 Hetstato, premiere 17. 9. 1999 Prepad, premiere 31. 12. 1998 Dno, premiere 19. 12. 1998 Tváre, premiere 19. 12. 1997 Monodrámy, premiere 29. 11. 1997 Nox, premiere 10. 2. 1995 Eo ipso, premiere 4. 3. 1994 Nikto, len čajka si omočí nohy v mojich slzách, premiere 29. 5. 1993 Donárium, premiere 19. 12. 1992 Vres, premiere 10. 10. 1992 Slepá baba, premiéra 3. 4. 1992 Dyp inaf, premiéra 6. 12. 1991 Impasse, premiéra 22.

6. 1991 rozhovor v časopise.týžděň 49/2007 rozhovor v MF Plus, 14/2007 stránky skupiny Živé kvety stránky Divadla Stoka rozhovor z deníku SME, 17. 8. 2004 rozhovor z týdeníku Slovo, č.38, 2004 recenze alba Sloboda z Lidových novin, 27. 4. 2006 recenze alba Sloboda na freemusic.cz

Girlie (song)

Girlie was a hit for jazz/pop trio, The Peddlers in 1970. It was a major hit for them in New Zealand; the song, composed by Roy Phillips was released on CBS 4720 in January, 1970. It was backed with "P. S. I Love You Girlie"; as a follow up to their Top 10 hit "Birth", it was a minor success. New Zealand was. Along with "Birth", "Girlie" is from their Birthday album, it was covered by Patty Pravo and released as "Il Mio Fiore Nero". Lucio Dalla did a version of the song. Spending a total of four weeks in the UK charts, it peaked at #34 on January 31, 1970; however in New Zealand it had had a large impression and was hugely popular, giving them their highest charting single. It hit the no. 1 spot there in May 1970. IT Wikipedia: Per te/Il mio fiore nero

The Illest

"The Illest" is a song by American hip hop group Far East Movement. The song was co-written and produced by Norwegian music producer and songwriter Axident and Wallpaper. Frontman Ricky Reed, features a guest appearance from American rapper Riff Raff, it was released digitally as a single on July 2, 2013 and has since peaked at number 18 on the US Billboard Hot Rap Songs. "The Illest" was featured as a bonus track and a single from the 2013 Special Edition release of their fourth studio album Dirty Bass. "The Illest" was featured on Far East Movement released a mixtape titled GRZZLY, released on May 29, 2013. A few days the group released a new version of the song, now featuring rapper Riff Raff. On July 2, 2013, the new version was released for digital download as a single by Cherrytree Records and Interscope Records. Far East Movement created a Tumblr titled FuckYeahIllest to help promote the song; the song was featured on their EP Murder Was the Bass, released on December 9, 2013. They have said the song would be featured on their upcoming fifth studio album.

The music video was filmed at Los Angeles Center Studios. It was released on July 2013, with an cameo appearance by Hugh Jackman, it features a blindingly dull office getting raided and destroyed by Far East Movement and Riff Raff, in a manner that nods to Office Space and Workaholics. Additionally the music video features cameo appearances from Lil Debbie, Jeffree Star, Nice Peter, Watsky among other popular YouTube personalities. A second music video was released on April 15, 2014 in support of their Ktown Riot EP; the video was inspired by the Koreatown riots of 1992. Snoop Dogg makes a cameo appearance, as well as Los Angeles / Koreatown residents Tokimonsta. Riff Raff is seen performing his verse. A video was made using a mash-up of the Deorro and Victor Niglio remixes, it was published to YouTube through the group's Vevo channel on December 10, 2013, features scenes from The Illest Tour. On March 4, 2014, the official remix, mixed by DJ Eman, was released; the remix features guest appearances by Schoolboy Q and B.o.

B, as well as Riff Raff's verse from the original. On April 16, 2014, an alternate version of the song, featuring a altered arrangement and vocals from Schoolboy Q, was released as a digital download; this version was included as the lead track on their late-2014 EP Ktown Riot. Lead vocals – Far East Movement Producers – Axident, Wallpaper. Writers – A. Schuller, R. Reed, K. Nishimura, J. Roh, J. Choung, V. Coquia, J. Christian Label: Cherrytree Records / Interscope Records Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

The Brotherhood (2001 film)

The Brotherhood is a 2001 horror film directed by David DeCoteau and starring Samuel Page, Josh Hammond and Bradley Stryker. It is the first in the Brotherhood series of homoerotic horror films; the series goes by the title. Young Chris Chandler, a student at Drake University, gets a new roommate and becomes friends with him. Meanwhile, the fraternities are pledging and a student said to have been interested in Doma Tau Omega is found dead on the campus. Chris, who has no high opinion of fraternities, gets to know a student of psychology, who invites him and Dan to a party of Doma Tau Omega, saying that she does not want to go there alone. However, when they arrive at the party, Chris seems to be interested only in the leader of DTO, Devon Eisley, approaches him. After waiting for Chris a long time and Dan leave the party. Chris, meanwhile, is made drunk by Devon, who makes him a member of DTO by drinking a bit of his blood while, in turn, Chris has to drink a bit of Devon's. Shortly after that, Chris is introduced to parties in the DTO house, where he and Devon drink blood from a girl called Sandy in a way reminiscent of sexual intercourse.

Dan is unsettled by the change in Chris since joining the fraternity, breaks into the DTO house. Investigating the book of DTO, Dan is shocked to find photos of Devon throughout the decades of the fraternity's history unchanged, he persuades Megan to go with him to Chris' room, which they find ravaged. They decide to look for Chris at the fraternity house. At the DTO house, Devon tells Chris that he lives eternally as long as he transforms his soul into a new body every century, that this time, Chris would be the one whose body is used; the student found dead on campus was made to commit suicide, as he was afraid to participate in the ceremony and threatened to go public. Chris tries to flee but is knocked out by the other DTO members and Jordan. Dan and Megan try to enter the fraternity house, but their way is blocked by DTO member Mikhail who threatens them with an axe. Dan grabs the needle used by the fraternity members to get blood from their victims and thrusts in into Mikhail's neck, killing him.

In the house and Megan meet Berry, Jordan and Chris, who are beginning the ceremony. Megan reveals herself as a decoy who has worked for Devon over the last 70 years and was tasked with luring Chris, she threatens Dan with the axe. Chris kneels down in front of Devon. While everyone is concentrating on Chris, Dan breaks free of Megan, he takes the axe, attacks Devon with it. Devon, the other fraternity members and Megan all die, leaving Chris and Dan standing amongst the carnage. Dan asks why Chris did not die, Chris answers, "I told you I would never join a fraternity." The two leave the house. Samuel Page as Chris Chandler Josh Hammond as Dan Bradley Stryker as Devon Eisley Elizabeth Bruderman as Megan Forrest Cochran as Barry Michael Lutz as Jordan Donnie Eichar as Mikhail Christopher Cullen as Frat Slob #1 Brandon Beemer as Frat Slob #2 Brian Bianchini as Frat Slob #3 Chloe Cross as Sandy Rebekah Ryan as Female Partygoer The Brotherhood II: Young Warlocks The Brotherhood III: Young Demons The Brotherhood IV: The Complex The Brotherhood V: Alumni The Brotherhood VI: Initiation Pep Squad or I've Been Watching You 2: Prom Night The Brotherhood on IMDb The Brotherhood at AllMovie

Wen Shu

Wen Shu or Wen Chu was a Chinese illustrator and painter who worked under the art name Hanshan and was known for her paintings of flora and small insects during the Ming dynasty. She is considered the finest flower painter of the period, her work was popular at the time, sells well at auction. Her painting Rising Early in the Spring to Lament Flowers was sold at Christie's New York on 16 September 2015 for US$413,000, four times its estimate. Wen Shu was the great-granddaughter of Wen Zhengming, a leading Ming dynasty painter of the Wu School whose family were highly respected in the movement, her father was Wen Conjian, a landscape painter, taught both his children to paint from a young age. Her brother, Wen Ran, was a landscape painter. Wen Shu married Zhao Yun, a student of her father and a member of the House of Zhao, they lived a reclusive life in a villa close to the Hanshan Temple outside Suzhou, in an area noted for its natural beauty. They had one child, a daughter called Zhou Zhou, adopted a male cousin of Zhao in order to continue the male line.

Most of Wen Shu's surviving art is dated 1626 or later. This is after Zhao Yun's father died and the family's fortunes declined, so it is that Wen Shu turned to commercial art production in order to maintain her family's lifestyle. One critical essay suggests this is because Zhao Yun was unwilling to work but this is not supported by other sources, she was sought out as a tutor by both married girls in the gentry. After Zhao Jun died in 1640, Wen Shu's daughter Zhao Zhao collected the biographical information on both her parents for the tomb inscription. Wen Shu worked under the pen-name Hanshan, among others, in a range of formats, she painted hanging fan paintings and illustration. Her primary subjects were flowers and wildlife as unwritten rules on suitable subjects for women painters meant women painted landscapes. Wen Shu may have chosen flora in particular for their commercial aspect as new paintings of flowers were in demand; this is supported by the fact her work carries poems or dedications: the absence of these is an indicator of work for commercial clients.

Wen Shu focused on a few essential elements in the composition presented against a plain background. This style means the eye is drawn to pale colours displayed, her approach is seen as intimate rather than showy, with a careful composition that frames glimpses of delicate flowers with rough rocks. This composition echoes the popular garden layouts of her time; this approach can be seen in her fan painting,'Carnations and Garden Rock' of 1627, which uses a limited palette and only two elements for the composition. She is noted for an attention to detail when she was using the mogu technique, her professional work was sufficiently popular that she trained female assistants to help with the workload. For the collection'Pattern of Plants and Insects by Hanshan' she produced one illustration a day for one thousand days. During her lifetime, other artists would produce forgeries of her work. One collector suggested her flower paintings were the equal of Qiu Zhu, an earlier female professional painter.

Wen Shu's style is reflected in work by artists, such as Yun Shouping.. She was cited in inscriptions and seals by female artists. Chinese art critic Wang Wenzhi, writing in the 1700s, asserted that Wen Shu's work was so special and sensitive that it could not be duplicated by a man and cited Luo Qilan and Wang Yuyan as her artistic descendants. Other artistic descendants include Guo Shu and Yuan Lan. In 1994, the International Astronomical Union's Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature approved naming a crater on Venus Wen Shu after her. Insects and Butterflies. Album of twelve leaves. Insects and Flowers. Album of twelve leaves. Carnations and Garden Rock. Fan painting. Lily and Garden Rock. Hanging scroll. Playing Butterflies. Hand scroll. Rising Early in the Spring to Lament Flowers. Hanging scroll. Flowers and Birds in the Style of the Song Court. Ink on silk. Flowers and Butterflies. Hanging scroll. Grasshopper and Flowers. Fan painting