click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Nature versus nurture

The nature versus nurture debate involves whether human behavior is determined by the environment, either prenatal or during a person's life, or by a person's genes. The alliterative expression "nature and nurture" in English has been in use since at least the Elizabethan period and goes back to medieval French; the combination of the two concepts as complementary is ancient. Nature is what we think of as pre-wiring and is influenced by genetic inheritance and other biological factors. Nurture is taken as the influence of external factors after conception e.g. the product of exposure and learning on an individual. The phrase in its modern sense was popularized by the English Victorian polymath Francis Galton, the modern founder of eugenics and behavioral genetics, discussing the influence of heredity and environment on social advancement. Galton was influenced by the book On the Origin of Species written by his half-cousin, Charles Darwin; the view that humans acquire all or all their behavioral traits from "nurture" was termed tabula rasa by John Locke in 1690.

A "blank slate view" in human developmental psychology, one that assumes that human behavioral traits develop exclusively from environmental influences, was held during much of the 20th century. The debate between "blank-slate" denial of the influence of heritability, the view admitting both environmental and heritable traits, has been cast in terms of nature versus nurture; these two conflicting approaches to human development were at the core of an ideological dispute over research agendas throughout the second half of the 20th century. As both "nature" and "nurture" factors were found to contribute often in an inextricable manner, such views were seen as naive or outdated by most scholars of human development by the 2000s; the strong dichotomy of nature versus nurture has thus been claimed to have limited relevance in some fields of research. Close feedback loops have been found in which "nature" and "nurture" influence one another as seen in self-domestication. In ecology and behavioral genetics, researchers think.

In other fields, the dividing line between an inherited and an acquired trait becomes unclear, as in epigenetics or fetal development. John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding is cited as the foundational document of the "blank slate" view. Locke was criticizing René Descartes's claim of an innate idea of God universal to humanity. Locke's view was harshly criticized in his own time. Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury, complained that by denying the possibility of any innate ideas, Locke "threw all order and virtue out of the world", leading to total moral relativism. Locke's was not the predominant view in the 19th century, which on the contrary tended to focus on "instinct". Leda Cosmides and John Tooby noted that William James argued that humans have more instincts than animals, that greater freedom of action is the result of having more psychological instincts, not fewer; the question of "innate ideas" or "instincts" were of some importance in the discussion of free will in moral philosophy.

In 18th-century philosophy, this was cast in terms of "innate ideas" establishing the presence of a universal virtue, prerequisite for objective morals. In the 20th century, this argument was in a way inverted, as some philosophers now argued that the evolutionary origins of human behavioral traits forces us to concede that there is no foundation for ethics, while others treat ethics as a field in complete isolation from evolutionary considerations. In the early 20th century, there was an increased interest in the role of the environment, as a reaction to the strong focus on pure heredity in the wake of the triumphal success of Darwin's theory of evolution. During this time, the social sciences developed as the project of studying the influence of culture in clean isolation from questions related to "biology". Franz Boas's The Mind of Primitive Man established a program that would dominate American anthropology for the next fifteen years. In this study he established that in any given population, language and symbolic culture, are autonomous.

The tool of twin studies was developed as a research design intended to exclude all confounders based on inherited behavioral traits. Such studies are designed to decompose the variability of a given trait in a given population into a genetic and an environmental component. John B. Watson in the 1920s and 1930s established the school of purist behaviorism that would become dominant over the following decades. Watson is said to have been convinced of the complete dominance of cultural influence over anything that heredity might contribute, based on the following quote, repeated without context: "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, artist, merchant-chief and, yes beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, tendencies, abilities and race of his ancestors. I am going beyond my facts and I admit it, but so have the advocates of the contrary and they have been doing it for many thousands of years".

The last sentence of the above quote is omitted, leading to confusion about Watson's position. During the 1940s to 1960s, Ashley Montagu was a notable proponent of this purist form o

Kattalai Amman Temple

Kattalai Amman Temple is a Hindu Temple situated in Kanyakumari District at the southern part of Tamil Nadu, India. The temple is located in the village, surrounded by canals; the temple was known as Irumpudayaan Kandan Sasthan kovil. The current temple complex was built in 1981 and the first Amman Kudai Vizha was conducted on 9 November 1981; the Nakshatra on this day was Revatī. Thereafter, every year, celebrations are conducted on the month of Aippasi on the day of Revatī nakshatra. There are three main buildings in the temple: the renovated Nagaramman temple, the Amman Temple, Shiva Maadan Temple, which houses the deity Boothathan; the Temple complex consists of the main campus, which houses the main deities, the surrounding area. These areas hold bases for some deities, a spring where fresh water flows year round, the temple pond and trees; the pond is known as irumpudayaan kulam. Legend tells that iron was poured into this pond; the temple is maintained by the Elur Chetty community. Although the exact origins of the temple are not known, it is believed the temple was worshipped for more than 8000 years.

The Nagaramman temple and the centre lamp post are the only structures remaining from the original temple. There are broken remains of baked mud statues around the temple; these remains tell us. During the early days of the complex, the entire area was covered with wild trees. Devotees had to make way through the bushes to reach the temple; the Nagaramman temple itself was covered with bushes. The complex was cleared of these bushes; the Temple is situated in the area of Perumchilampu, in Velimalai village, Kalkulam taluka in Kanyakumari district of South Tamil Nadu. It is situated near Padmanabhapuram town and Nagercoil city, the administrative headquarters of the area. Official web site: https://web.archive.org/web/20070929082446/http://www.kattalai.org/ Vedic Links: http://www.vediclinks.net/Kattalai_Amman_Temple.asp

Harry Walsh

Harry Walsh was a Canadian lawyer who practiced criminal law for over 70 years. Walsh was a leading proponent in the abolition of capital punishment in Canada. In recognition of that role, as well as his advocacy of access to legal representation and work in the Manitoba Jewish community, Walsh was named an Officer of the Order of Canada on December 31, 2010. However, Walsh died before the investiture ceremony that occurred on May 27, 2011. Walsh was still practicing law at the time of his death and he called himself "the oldest working lawyer in Canada". Walsh was called to the bar of Manitoba in 1937, he took time from his practice to serve in World War II as a lance-bombardier in the Royal Canadian Artillery. During his legal career, Walsh was one of those responsible for establishing Legal Aid Manitoba in the 1970s. Walsh was a leading opponent of capital punishment in Canada, serving as the co-chair of a committee advocating for its abolition. During the annual plenary session of the Canadian Bar Association held in Quebec City in August 1975, Walsh succeeded in the passage of a resolution by the CBA supporting the abolition of capital punishment.

The following year, the Canadian Parliament voted to abolish capital punishment. Outside of his legal practice, Walsh was a founder of the Jewish Foundation of Manitoba, he died in 2011 at Winnipeg, Manitoba

Hybrid-Airplane Technology H-Aero

The Hybrid-Airplane Technology H-Aero is a small German hybrid electric unmanned aerial vehicle by a Baden-Baden based start-up Hybrid-Airplane Technology GmbH. Compared to some other UAVs it extended flight endurance; the prototype H-Aero One, which can source its energy from renewable sources via solar cells, was first presented to the public at ILA Berlin Air Show from 1–4 June 2016. The aerial vehicle was developed by Csaba Singer in co-operation with the University of Stuttgart; the prototype and pre start-up phase was sponsored with public funds from "EXIST", an initiative for science transfer administered by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy. In June 2012 the jury of the NASA-Congress "Concepts and Approaches for Mars Exploration" praised the concept, among others, as an alternative way of exploring Mars from a bird’s eye perspective and invited Singer to present his concept in Houston; the aerial vehicle combines static and dynamic lift, mirror or symmetric rotation flight modes and flies like a balloon and helicopter.

It has a gas cell and two wings with a symmetric profile which can be rotated by 180° and one Electric motor at the end of each wing. As usual with balloons, the static lift vector and the vector of payload with batteries are positioned opposed to each other; the cell does not resemble a cigar form but a rotation-symmetric Frisbee disc. The vectors of the carried components - unlike with airships - are not distributed over the total length of the body between prow and stern. Opposed to this hybrid universal aircraft shows high potentials to more efficient sustainable flight missions and therefore applications with longer abidance in the air; the aircraft has a cell of a diameter of three metres, can take off and land vertically, like a helicopter and fly like an airplane. Cruise speed is about 20 maximum altitude up to 4000 metres. With an empty weight of 4.4 kg, the H-Aero One can lift payloads of up to three kilograms. Helium provides H-Aero with its static lift. H-Aero can be steered via radio modem, cellular network or within a closed room by Wireless LAN.

H-Aero is intended as an observation platform, for filming or as a reusable Weather balloon. Larger versions under development, will enable the quick establishment of mobile communication networks; the H-Aero Zero is the smallest model with a wingspan of 3 meters, 2qm Volume at sealevel and is suitable for indoor and outdoor applications at wind speeds of up to 10 km/h including gusts. With a payload of up to 550 grams and a top speed of 10 km/h, the Zero can stay in the air for up to 160 minutes; the H-Aero One has a diameter of 5 meters and can carry up to 3 kilograms at sealevel for up to 400 minutes. With a top speed of 15 km/h, it is suitable for indoor and outdoor applications with a headwind of up to 10 km/h including gusts of wind. Innovation award, Deutsche Luft- und Raumfahrt 2017, Finalist in the category emissions reduction European Satellite Navigation Competition, Baden-Württemberg Challenge, LiveEO – Integration of autonomous UAV "h-aero"“ constellations into satellite services for real-time Earth Observation 2017, Platz 2 Copernicus Masters, LiveEO – UAV Integration into Satellite-EO 2017, Platz 1 Award of the label “Member of Solar Impulse Efficient Solution” of the Solar Impulse Foundation, June 2018 "Welt der Wunder: Innovationspreis für Hybrid Flugzeugkonzept", Universität Stuttgart windenergie.de/NewsLetterSS2008.pdf Universität Stuttgart – Fakultät Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik und Geodäsie "Fliegen mit Solar-Luftschiffen", Solarenergie-Förderverein Deutschland e.

V. Solarenergie-Förderverein Deutschland e. V. Concepts and Approaches for Mars Exploration: Ultralight Solar Powered Hybrid Research Drone and Planetary Institute Lunar and Planetary Institute A Novel Non-Polluting VTOL Hybrid Airplane, German Aerospace Center DLR Website Hybrid-Airplane Vision-Website Hybrid-Airplane

Damian Hartard von der Leyen-Hohengeroldseck

Damian Hartard Reichsfreiherr von der Leyen-Hohengeroldseck was the Archbishop-Elector of Mainz and the Bishop of Worms from 1675 to 1678. Damian Hartard von der Leyen-Hohengeroldseck was the younger brother of Karl Kaspar von der Leyen-Hohengeroldseck, Archbishop of Trier from 1652 to 1676. In 1654, Karl Kaspar arranged for Damian Hartard to be made Archdeacon of Karden and provost of the Stift St. Kastor in Karden, he was ordained as a priest at this time. On July 3, 1675, the cathedral chapter of Mainz Cathedral elected Damian Hartard as the new Archbishop of Mainz; the cathedral chapter of Worms Cathedral selected him as the new Bishop of Worms on July 12, 1675, thus continuing the personal union between the Archbishopric of Mainz and the Bishopric of Worms that had existed since 1663. Pope Clement X confirmed both appointments on February 24, 1676, he was consecrated as a bishop on September 8, 1676 and installed as Bishop of Worms on October 31, 1676. He purchased Neuerburg for his family in 1678.

During his reign, the eastern block of the Electoral Palace Mainz was completed. He is buried in Mainz Cathedral

Fox Creek, Alberta

Fox Creek is a town in northwest Alberta, Canada. It is located on Highway 43 259 km northwest of Edmonton and 199 km southeast of Grande Prairie, has an elevation of 808 m. Fox Creek is within the Upper Peace planning region, is surrounded by the Municipal District of Greenview No. 16. On June 6, 1952, the townsite for a future community was selected by Victor Heath, it was named Fox Creek after the watercourse adjacent to the western edge of the townsite, which drains towards Iosegun Lake to the north. The original survey of the townsite occurred over three days in late October, 1955. At the same time, a townsite for another future community was surveyed to the north of Fox Creek on Iosegun Lake's eastern shore; this townsite turned out resulting in no development interest. The provincial government subsequently abandoned plans to develop a community at this location. Residents began settling in Fox Creek shortly after Highway 43 opened in the fall of 1955, attracted by opportunities in the forestry and oil and gas exploration industries.

The first two houses were built by Alberta Forest Services in 1956 to support a new ranger station that opened in 1957. Fox Creek's first two roadways, 1 Street West and Highway Avenue, were constructed in 1956. In 1957, the first significant oil field was discovered north of Fox Creek, known as the Kaybob North Field, the community's first two businesses were established. Both businesses were services stations – under the British American and Imperial Oil banners – each with associated restaurants; the community's post office was founded on March 18, 1958. It was named the Iosegun Lake Post Office, not renamed to the Fox Creek Post Office until 10 years later; the late 1950s and early 1960s brought much activity to the Hamlet of Fox Creek as numerous sawmills, drilling rigs, camps supporting drilling and road construction activities had established in the area. A total of 12 oil and gas fields were discovered over a six-year span between 1957 and 1962, of which included the discovery of a significant gas field to the south of Fox Creek in 1961 known as the Kaybob South Field.

These discoveries triggered the construction of five gas plants in the Fox Creek area over the eleven years that followed the discovery of the Kaybob South Field. The 1961 Census of Canada was the first census to record Fox Creek's population, but under the name of Iosegun Lake after the post office in the community, its population in 1961 was 144. Over the following five years, Fox Creek grew to 187 residents according to the 1966 Census of Canada. Under the signature of Premier Ernest Manning on July 19, 1967, the Province of Alberta incorporated the community as the New Town of Fox Creek. A three-member Board of Administrators was appointed at the time of incorporation, which included resident and businessman Otto Ritter as chairman and two public administrators from Alberta Municipal Affairs, Earl Briscoe and Len Gurel; the town is within 12 km of three lakes – Smoke Lake to the southwest, Iosegun Lake to the north, Raspberry Lake to the northeast. The Fox Creek flows through the community.

The Fox Creek area was subject to three earthquakes in 2015. The first occurred on January 14, 2015 38 km west of Fox Creek, measuring 3.8 on the Richter scale, while the second, measuring 4.4, occurred on January 22, 2015 36 km west of the town. No damages were reported on the former, while the latter was "lightly felt" within Fox Creek and has been reported as being related to hydraulic fracturing within the Duvernay Formation. A third earthquake, measuring 4.4, occurred 36 km east of the community on June 13, 2015. The population of the Town of Fox Creek according to its 2019 municipal census is 2,189, a change of 3.6% from its 2013 municipal census population of 2,112. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Town of Fox Creek recorded a population of 1,971 living in 775 of its 1,054 total private dwellings, a 0.1% change from its 2011 population of 1,969. With a land area of 12.36 km2, it had a population density of 159.5/km2 in 2016. In the 2011 Census, the Town of Fox Creek had a population of 1,969 living in 773 of its 980 total dwellings, a −13.6% change from its 2006 population of 2,278.

With a land area of 11.54 km2, it had a population density of 170.6/km2 in 2011. Fox Creek Town Council consists of six councilors; the Mayor and Councillors were elected in the 2017 municipal election. The current members of town council are Mayor James Hailes and Councillors Brenda Burridge, Dian Ahn, Meesha Bainton, Wendy Rieger, Sheila Gilmour, Shawn Watson; the town's chief administrative officer is Roy Dell. Fox Creek is located within the Grande Prairie-Smoky provincial electoral district, represented by Progressive Conservative Todd Loewen. At the federal level, Fox Creek is located within the Yellowhead electoral district and is represented by Conservative Jim Eglinski. For the next federal election, Fox Creek will become part of the newly created riding of Peace River—Westlock. Fox Creek's economy is driven by the resource industry with gas playing the primary role; the major oil and gas employer in the area, since the first decade of the 21st century, is SemCAMS, which purchased various area facilities owned by a mix of Chevron, BP Amoco and Petro-Canada.

As of September 2010, the company owns and operates two sour gas processing plants, a sweet gas processing plant, numerous pipelines in the area. The oilfield