The Koori People are Indigenous Australians of New South Wales and Victoria. This is their preferred term, expressing pride in their heritage, the word Koori is from Awabakal language gurri, It is an Indigenous Australian language that was spoken in the area of what is today Newcastle. A Koori Court is a division of the Magistrates court in Victoria, Koori Radio is a community radio station based in Redfern broadcasting to Sydney on a city-wide licence. It is part of the Gadigal Information Service and is the radio station in Sydney providing full-time broadcasting to the Aboriginal. Koori Mail is a national Indigenous newspaper based in Lismore, New South Wales, the NSW Koori Rugby League Knockout is one of the largest gatherings of Indigenous people in Australia. A modern-day corroboree for the Koori people of NSW, it has been held annually over the October long weekend since 1971
Macmillan Publishers Ltd is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. It has offices in 41 countries worldwide and operates in more than thirty others, Macmillan was founded in 1843 by Daniel and Alexander Macmillan, two brothers from the Isle of Arran, Scotland. Alfred Tennyson joined the list in 1884, Thomas Hardy in 1886, other major writers published by Macmillan included W. B. Chaudhuri, Seán OCasey, John Maynard Keynes, Charles Morgan, Hugh Walpole, Margaret Mitchell, C. P. Snow, Rumer Godden and Ram Sharan Sharma. Beyond literature, the company created such enduring titles as Nature, Macmillan established an office in New York City. It sold its American division in 1896, which published as the Macmillan Company, Macmillan Publishers re-entered the American market in 1954 under the name St. Martins Press. After retiring from politics in 1964, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Harold Macmillan became chairman of the company and he had been with the family firm as a junior partner from 1920 to 1940, and from 1945 to 1951 while he was in the opposition in Parliament.
The company was one of the oldest independent publishing houses until 1995, Holtzbrinck purchased the remaining shares in 1999, ending the Macmillan familys ownership of the company. Even with the split of the American company from its parent company in England, George Brett, Jr. and he came to the United States with his family in the service of Macmillans of England and built up a business of approximately $50,000 before he died. By my father, who eventually incorporated The Macmillan Company of New York, I succeeded my father, and we currently doing a business of approximately $12,000,000. So then, the name of Brett and the name of Macmillan have been and are synonymous in the United States, pearson acquired the Macmillan name in America in 1998, following its purchase of the Simon & Schuster educational and professional group. Holtzbrinck purchased it from them in 2001, mcGraw-Hill continues to market its pre-kindergarten through elementary school titles under its Macmillan/McGraw-Hill brand.
The US operations of Georg von Holtzbrinck are now known as Macmillan, one of the leading companies is Macmillan, that started by selling British English dictionaries and textbooks that were adapted for Russian readers. Their site website provides Russian teachers and students with an access for tests, competitions and information on scheduled online seminars. By some estimates, as of 2009 e-books account for three to five per cent of total sales, and are the fastest growing segment of the market. Following the announcement of the Apple iPad on 27 January 2010—a product that comes with access to the iBookstore—Macmillan gave Amazon, in the latter case, Amazon. com would receive a 30 per cent commission. Amazon responded by pulling all Macmillan books, both electronic and physical, from their website, on 31 January 2010, Amazon chose the agency model preferred by Macmillan. In April 2012, the United States Department of Justice filed United States v. Apple Inc. naming Apple, the suit alleged that they conspired to fix prices for e-books, and weaken Amazon. coms position in the market, in violation of antitrust law
Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members of the Aboriginal race of Australia. Until the 1980s, the legal and administrative criterion for inclusion in this category was race. In the era of colonial and post-colonial government, access to human rights depended upon your race. If you were a full blooded Aboriginal native, the Constitution of Australia, in its original form as of 1901, referred to Aboriginals twice, but without definition. Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament power to legislate with respect to the people of any throughout the Commonwealth. The purpose of this provision was to give the Commonwealth power to regulate non-white immigrant workers, the only other reference, Section 127, provided simply that aboriginal natives shall not be counted in reckoning the size of the population of the Commonwealth or any part of it. The purpose of section 127 was to prevent the inclusion of Aboriginal people in section 24 determinations of the distribution of House of Representatives seats amongst the states and territories, after both of these references were removed by the 1967 referendum, the Australian Constitution had no references to Aboriginals.
Since that time, there have been a number of proposals to amend the constitution to specifically mention Indigenous Australians, the change to Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament the power to make laws specifically with respect to Aboriginal peoples as a race. The case concerned an application of legislation that would preserve cultural heritage of Aboriginal Tasmanians and it was held that Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, together or separately, and any part of either, could be regarded as a race for this purpose. As to the criteria for identifying a person as a member of such a race, Deane said, It is unnecessary, for the purposes of the present case, to consider the meaning to be given to the phrase people of any race in s.51. Plainly, the words have a wide and non-technical meaning, the phrase is, in my view, apposite to refer to all Australian Aboriginals collectively. Any doubt, which might otherwise exist in regard, is removed by reference to the wording of par.
The phrase is apposite to refer to any identifiable racial sub-group among Australian Aboriginals, while Deanes three-part definition reaches beyond the biological criterion to individuals self-identification, it has been criticised as continuing to accept the biological criterion as primary. It has been difficult to apply, both in each of its parts and as to the relations among the parts, biological descent has been a fall-back criterion. If it is to be used to refer to us as a group of people. This has just really crept up on us and we are very happy with our involvement with indigenous people around the world, on the international forum because theyre our brothers and sisters. But we do object to it being used here in Australia and her lecture offered a new perspective on the terms urban, traditional and of Indigenous descent as used to define and categorise Aboriginal Australians. She said, Not only are these categories inappropriate, they serve to divide us, governments insistence on categorising us with modern words like urban, traditional and of Aboriginal descent are really only replacing old terms half-caste and full-blood – based on our colouring
University of Sydney
The University of Sydney is an Australian public research university in Sydney, Australia. Founded in 1850, it is Australias first university and is regarded as one of the leading universities. The university comprises 16 faculties and schools, through which it offers bachelor, master, in 2011 it had 32,393 undergraduate and 16,627 graduate students. The university is known as one of Australias sandstone universities. Five Nobel and two Crafoord laureates have been affiliated with the university as graduates and faculty, the university has educated six prime ministers and 24 justices of the High Court of Australia, including four chief justices. Sydney has produced 24 Rhodes Scholars and several Gates Scholars and it would take two attempts on Wentworths behalf, before the plan was finally adopted. The university was established via the passage of the University of Sydney Act, two years later, the university was inaugurated on 11 October 1852 in the Big Schoolroom of what is now Sydney Grammar School.
The first principal was John Woolley, the first professor of chemistry, by 1859, the university had moved to its current site in the Sydney suburb of Camperdown. Most of the estate of John Henry Challis was bequeathed to the university and this was thanks in part due to William Montagu Manning who argued against the claims by British Tax Commissioners. The following year seven professorships were created, zoology, history, law and mental philosophy, the New England University College was founded as part of the University of Sydney in 1938 and separated in 1954 to become the University of New England. During the late 1960s, the University of Sydney was at the centre of rows to introduce courses on Marxism and feminism at the major Australian universities, prior to 1981, the Sydney Institute of Education was the Sydney Teachers College. In January 2005, the University of Sydney transferred the OAC to Charles Sturt University, in February 2007, the university agreed to acquire a portion of the land granted to St Johns College to develop the Sydney Institute of Health and Medical Research.
This caused concern among some groups, who argued that it would interfere with scientific medical research, at the start of 2010, the university controversially adopted a new logo. It retains the same university arms, however it takes on a modern look. The original Coat of Arms from 1857 continues to be used for ceremonial and other formal purposes, concerns about public funding for higher education were reflected again in 2014 following the federal governments proposal to deregulate student fees. In order to enhance its competitiveness locally and internationally, the university has introduced plans to consolidate existing degrees to reduce the overall number of programs. In 2001, the University of Sydney chancellor, Dame Leonie Kramer, was forced to resign by the governing body. In 2005, the Public Service Association of New South Wales, action initiated by Spence to improve the financial sustainability of the university has alienated some students and staff
The Darling River is the third longest river in Australia, measuring 1,472 kilometres from its source in northern New South Wales to its confluence with the Murray River at Wentworth, New South Wales. Including its longest contiguous tributaries it is 2,844 km long, making it the longest river system in Australia, the Darling River is the outbacks most famous waterway. The Darling has been in health, suffering from overuse of its waters, pollution from pesticide runoff. In some years it has barely flowed at all, the river has a high salt content and declining water quality. Increased rainfall in its catchment in 2010 has improved flow, the Division of Darling, Division of Riverina-Darling, Electoral district of Darling and Electoral district of Lachlan and Lower Darling were named after the river. The Queensland headwaters of the Darling were gradually colonised from 1815 onward, in 1828 the explorer Charles Sturt and Hamilton Hume were sent by the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Ralph Darling, to investigate the course of the Macquarie River.
He discovered the Bogan River and then, early in 1829, the upper Darling, in 1835, Major Thomas Mitchell travelled a 483-kilometre portion of the Darling River. Although his party never reached the junction with the Murray River he correctly assumed the rivers joined, in 1856, the Blandowski Expedition set off for the junction of the Darling and Murray Rivers to discover and collect fish species for the National Museum. The expedition was a success with 17,400 specimens arriving in Adelaide the next year, but over the past century the rivers importance as a transportation route has declined. In 1992, the Darling River suffered from severe cyanobacterial bloom that stretched the length of the river, the presence of phosphorus was essential for the toxic algae to flourish. Flow rates, turbulence and temperature were other contributing factors, in 2008, the Federal government purchased Toorale Station in northern New South Wales for A$23 million. The purchase allowed the government to return 11 gigalitres of environmental flows back into the Darling and its meandering course is three times longer than the direct distance it traverses.
Much of the land that the Darling flows through are plains and is relatively flat. Other rivers join the Darling near Bourke or below - the Bogan River, South east of Broken Hill, the Menindee Lakes are a series of lakes that were once connected to the Darling River by short creeks. The Menindee Lake Scheme has reduced the frequency of flooding in the Menindee Lakes, as a result, about 13,800 hectares of lignum and 8,700 hectares of Black box have been destroyed. Weirs and constant low flows have fragmented the river system and blocked fish passage, the Darling River runs south-south-west, leaving the Far West region of New South Wales, to join the Murray River on the New South Wales - Victoria border at Wentworth, New South Wales. The Barrier Highway at Wilcania, the Silver City Highway at Wentworth, part of the river north of Menindee marks the border of Kinchega National Park. In response to the 1956 Murray River flood a weir was constructed at Menindee to mitigate flows from the Darling River, the north of the Darling River is in the Southeast Australia temperate savanna ecoregion and the south west of the Darling is part of the Murray Darling Depression ecoregion
Wilcannia is a small town located within the Central Darling Shire in north western New South Wales, Australia. This was the third largest inland port in the country during the river boat era of the mid-19th century. At the 2011 census, Wilcannia had a population of 604, the name Wilcannia is said to be derived from an Aboriginal term for either gap in the bank where floodwaters escape or wild dog. Neither meaning has been linguistically verified, in 1835, explorer Major Thomas Mitchell was the first European to the region, in which he traced the Darling River to what is now Menindee. In June 1866, the township of Wilcannia was proclaimed, in 1871, the population was 264, and grew to 1,424 by 1881. During the 1880s, Wilcannia reached its peak, and had a population of 3000 and 13 hotels and its own newspaper, Wilcannia is located where the Barrier Highway crosses the Darling River,965 kilometres from Sydney. The environment is borderline semi-arid to desert with a rainfall of 255 millimetres.
Wilcannia is located within the Darling Riverine Plains Bioregion, consisting of landscapes adapted to flooding, common species include River Red Gum, Yellow Box, Oldman Saltbush and Lignum. The surrounding area is sparsely settled by pastoralists who have large land holdings. These holdings fall in the Western Division and the majority are held as 99-year leases, Wilcannia has a semi-arid climate with hot summers and mild to cool winters. Mean maximum daily temperature in summer is 34 °C and in winter is 19 °C, the highest temperature recorded in Wilcannia was 50.0 °C on 11 January 1939. This was during the heatwave of January 1939. On 9 November 1950, a thunderstorm with damaging winds. Two people were injured, dozens of homes lost their roofs, from the 2011 Census, Wilcannia had a population of 604 with 466 people being of Aboriginal descent. The suburb was listed as one of the most socially disadvantaged areas in the State according to the 2015 Dropping Off The Edge report. The towns demographic issues were highlighted in the BBC3 documentary Reggie Yates, Hidden Australia Episode 1, Black in the Outback, media related to Wilcannia, New South Wales at Wikimedia Commons Central Darling Shire Visit NSW Wilcannia Darling Riverine Plains Bioregion
Alfred William Howitt
Alfred William Howitt was an Australian anthropologist and naturalist. Mount Howitt in Victoria, and Howitt Hall, one of Monash Universitys Halls of Residence are named after him, Howitt was born in Nottingham, the son of authors William Howitt and Mary Botham. He came to the Victorian gold fields in 1852 with his father and brother to visit his uncle, Howitt was a geologist in Victoria, later, he worked as a gold warden in North Gippsland. Howitt went on to be appointed Police magistrate & Warden Crown Lands Commissioner, still, in 1861, the Royal Society of Victoria appointed Howitt leader of the Victorian Relief Expedition, with the task of establishing the fate of the Burke and Wills expedition. Howitt was a bushman, he took only the necessary equipment. There, on 16 September he found sole survivor John King, Howitt buried Burke, on a follow-up expedition to Cooper Creek in 1862, Howitt recovered the bodies of Burke and Wills for burial at the Melbourne General Cemetery. Howitt researched the culture and society of Indigenous Australians, in particular kinship and marriage, he was influenced by the theories of evolution, in 1863 he married Maria Boothby, they had five children.
Maria was the daughter of Judge Benjamin Boothby, Chief Justice of the Colony of South Australia, Howitt was Secretary for Mines in Victoria. In 1903 Howitt was awarded the Clarke Medal by the Royal Society of New South Wales, Howitt died in 1908 in Bairnsdale, Victoria. The recreational park named in his honour is located adjacent to the Mitchell River Bridge on the side of Bairnsdale. Howitts scientific life shared a special irony with that of his longtime friend Lorimer Fison and they were both set in motion by Lewis Henry Morgan, Morgan pinned more hope on Fison than on Howitt. However, Fison gave up his scientific pursuit shortly after Morgans death, howitts magnum opus, The Native Tribes of South East Australia, remains one of the only contemporaneous scientific studies of the native institutions of Central Australian Aborigines. Come wind, come weather, a biography of Alfred Howitt, Alfred William,1870,15 March 1870. Notes on the Aborigines of Coopers Creek, note as to descent in the Dieri tribe.
The Dieri and other kindred tribes of Central Australia, transactions of the Royal Society of Victoria. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009, Alfred William, The native tribes of south-east Australia, Macmillan, OL 24190592M Howitt, Alfred William,1907. Personal reminiscences of Central Australia and the Burke and Wills Expedition, journal of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science. Howitt, Alfred William, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, legends of the Dieri and kindred tribes of Central Australia
Frederic Bonney was a British land owner and photographer. He took photographs at Momba Station in New South Wales in the 1870s and he was known for these and he was born and died in Rugeley, Staffordshire. Bonney was the son of the Reverend Thomas Bonney, headmaster of Rugeley Grammar School and his brothers included Edward Smith Bonney and Thomas George Bonney, who was an academic geologist. He went to school at Marlborough College and his uncle, Charles Bonney, visited England from Australia in 1858 to 1862. Encouraged by his uncle, he and his brother, Edward went to Australia first and Frederic joined him in 1865 at Momba Station in New South Wales, near Wilcannia. In the late 1860s Momba had an area of 6,000 square kilometres, Charles Dickens son, was sent by his father to Momba Station and he arrived a few days before his sixteenth birthday in 1868. He worked as a stockman at Momba until 1872, Bonneys occupation was as a grazier but his hobby was photography and anthropology. He took many pictures of the Paakantyi people who had lived along the Paroo River.
These people had been devastated by disease and the invasion by foreign immigrants, Bonneys attitude to these people was not as judgmental as many and he took natural pictures which recorded their lives. He was shocked by the racist views of others and he recorded his respect for the loyalty and integity of the native Australians, Bonneys pictures have been published recently and in his time they were exhibited at the Melbourne Exhibition in 1880. Bonneys pictures of Wonko Mary record a mourning tradition—Wonko Mary is shown with a cap which she has made from gypsum and water. Edward became ill with syphilis and he returned home in 1879. Frederic had to tidy up their affairs but he took the opportunity to complete his anthropological. Frederic sold Momba station and he returned to Staffordshire in 1881 and he travelled back the long way and he visited Hawaii where he again took photographs during a month there. Once he was back in his county he bought Colton House in Rugeley. He established gardens and an arboretum at his house and he continued to record local events using photography.
He became chair of the council and bred show pigeons. Bonney volunteered to manage his local hospital and the reading room