Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
International Olympic Committee
The International Olympic Committee is a non-governmental sports organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland. Created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas in 1894, it is the authority responsible for organising the modern Summer and Winter Olympic Games; the IOC is the governing body of the National Olympic Committees, which are the national constituents of the worldwide Olympic Movement. As of 2016, there are 206 NOCs recognised by the IOC; the current president of the IOC is Thomas Bach of Germany, who succeeded Jacques Rogge of Belgium in September 2013. The IOC was created by Pierre de Coubertin, on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president; as of January 2019, its membership consists of 96 active members, 45 honorary members, an honorary president and two honour members. The IOC is the supreme authority of the worldwide modern Olympic movement; the IOC organises the modern Olympic Games and Youth Olympic Games, held in summer and winter, every four years. The first Summer Olympics was held in Athens, Greece, in 1896.
The first Summer YOG were in Singapore in 2010 and the first Winter YOG in Innsbruck were in 2012. Until 1992, both Summer and Winter Olympics were held in the same year. After that year, the IOC shifted the Winter Olympics to the years between Summer Games, to help space the planning of the two events from one another, improve the financial balance of the IOC, which receives a proportionally greater income in Olympic years. In 2009, the UN General Assembly granted the IOC Permanent Observer status; the decision enables the IOC to be directly involved in the UN Agenda and to attend UN General Assembly meetings where it can take the floor. In 1993, the General Assembly approved a Resolution to further solidify IOC–UN cooperation by reviving the Olympic Truce. During each proclamation at the Olympics, announcers speak in different languages: French is always spoken first, followed by an English translation, the dominant language of the host nation; the IOC received approval in November 2015 to construct a new headquarters in Lausanne.
The cost of the project was estimated to stand at $156m. The IOC announced on 11 February 2019 that "Olympic House" would be inaugurated on 23 June 2019 to coincide with its 125th anniversary; the Olympic Museum remains in Lausanne. The stated mission of the IOC is to promote the Olympics throughout the world and to lead the Olympic Movement: To encourage and support the organisation and coordination of sport and sports competitions, it is the IOC's supreme organ and its decisions are final. Extraordinary Sessions may be convened by the President or upon the written request of at least one third of the members. Among others, the powers of the Session are: To amend the Olympic Charter. To elect the members of the IOC, the Honorary President and the honorary members. To elect the President, the Vice-Presidents and all other members of the IOC Executive Board. To elect the host city of the Olympic Games. In addition to the Olympic medals for competitors, the IOC awards a number of other honours; the IOC President's Trophy is the highest sports award given to athletes who have excelled in their sport and had an extraordinary career and created a lasting impact on their sport The Pierre de Coubertin medal is awarded to athletes who demonstrate a special spirit of sportsmanship in Olympic events The Olympic Cup is awarded to institutions or associations with a record of merit and integrity in developing the Olympic Movement The Olympic Order is awarded to individuals for distinguished contributions to the Olympic Movement, superseded the Olympic Certificate The Olympic Laurel is awarded to individuals for promoting education, culture and peace through sport The Olympic town status has been given to some towns which have been important for the Olympic movement For most of its existence, the IOC was controlled by members who were selected by other members.
Countries that had hosted. When named, they did not become the representatives of their respective countries to the IOC, but rather the opposite, IOC members in their respective countries. "Granted the honour of becoming a member of the International Olympic Committee and declaring myself aware of my responsibilities in such a capacity, I undertake to serve the Olympic Movement to the best of my ability. The membership of IOC members ceases in the following circumstances: Resignation: any IOC member may cease their membership at any tim
Nauru the Republic of Nauru and known as Pleasant Island, is an island country in Micronesia, a subregion of Oceania, in the Central Pacific. Its nearest neighbour is Banaba Island in 300 kilometres to the east, it further lies northwest of Tuvalu, north of the Solomon Islands, east-northeast of Papua New Guinea, southeast of the Federated States of Micronesia and south of the Marshall Islands. With only a 21-square-kilometre area, Nauru is the third-smallest state on the list of countries and dependencies by area behind Vatican City and Monaco, making it the smallest state in the South Pacific Ocean, the smallest island state, the smallest republic, its population is 11,347, making it the third smallest on the list of countries and dependencies by population, after the Vatican and Tuvalu. Settled by people from Micronesia and Polynesia c. 1000 BC, Nauru was annexed and claimed as a colony by the German Empire in the late 19th century. After World War I, Nauru became a League of Nations mandate administered by Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom.
During World War II, Nauru was occupied by Japanese troops, who were bypassed by the Allied advance across the Pacific. After the war ended, the country entered into United Nations trusteeship. Nauru gained its independence in 1968, became a member of the Pacific Community in 1969. Nauru is a phosphate-rock island with rich deposits near the surface, which allowed easy strip mining operations, it has some remaining phosphate resources which, as of 2011, are not economically viable for extraction. When the phosphate reserves were exhausted, the island's environment had been harmed by mining, the trust, established to manage the island's wealth diminished in value. To earn income, Nauru became a tax haven and illegal money laundering centre. From 2001 to 2008, again from 2012, it accepted aid from the Australian Government in exchange for hosting the Nauru Regional Processing Centre, an offshore Australian immigration detention facility; as a result of heavy dependence on Australia, many sources have identified Nauru as a client state of Australia.
Nauru was first inhabited by Polynesians at least 3,000 years ago. There were traditionally 12 clans or tribes on Nauru, which are represented in the twelve-pointed star on the country's flag. Traditionally, Nauruans traced their descent matrilineally. Inhabitants practised aquaculture: they caught juvenile ibija fish, acclimatised them to fresh water, raised them in the Buada Lagoon, providing a reliable source of food; the other locally grown components of their diet pandanus fruit. The name "Nauru" may derive from the Nauruan word Anáoero, which means'I go to the beach'; the British sea captain John Fearn, a whale hunter, became the first Westerner to visit Nauru, in 1798, calling it "Pleasant Island". From around 1830, Nauruans had contact with Europeans from whaling ships and traders who replenished their supplies fresh water, at Nauru. Around this time, deserters from European ships began to live on the island; the islanders firearms. The firearms were used during the 10-year Nauruan Tribal War that began in 1878.
After an agreement with Great Britain, Nauru was annexed by Germany in 1888 and incorporated into Germany's Marshall Islands Protectorate for administrative purposes. The arrival of the Germans ended the civil war, kings were established as rulers of the island; the most known of these was King Auweyida. Christian missionaries from the Gilbert Islands arrived in 1888; the German settlers called the island "Nawodo" or "Onawero". The Germans ruled Nauru for three decades. Robert Rasch, a German trader who married a Nauruan woman, was the first administrator, appointed in 1890. Phosphate was discovered on Nauru in 1900 by the prospector Albert Fuller Ellis; the Pacific Phosphate Company began to exploit the reserves in 1906 by agreement with Germany, exporting its first shipment in 1907. In 1914, following the outbreak of World War I, Nauru was captured by Australian troops. In 1919 it was agreed by the Allied and Associated Powers that His Britannic Majesty should be the administering authority under a League of Nations mandate.
The Nauru Island Agreement forged in 1919 between the governments of the United Kingdom and New Zealand provided for the administration of the island and for extraction of the phosphate deposits by an intergovernmental British Phosphate Commission. The terms of the League of Nations mandate were drawn up in 1920; the island experienced an influenza epidemic in 1920, with a mortality rate of 18 per cent among native Nauruans. In 1923, the League of Nations gave Australia a trustee mandate over Nauru, with the United Kingdom and New Zealand as co-trustees. On 6 and 7 December 1940, the German auxiliary cruisers Komet and Orion sank five supply ships in the vicinity of Nauru. Komet shelled Nauru's phosphate mining areas, oil storage depots, the shiploading cantilever. Japanese troops occupied Nauru on 25 August 1942; the Japanese built an airfield, bombed for the first time on 25 March 1943, preventing food supplies from being flown to Nauru. The Japanese deported 1,200 Nauruans to work as labourers in the Chuuk islands, occupied by Japan.
Nauru, bypassed and left to "wither on the vine" by US forces, was liberated on 13 September 1945, when commander Hisayaki Soeda surrendered the island to the Australian Army and the Royal Australian Navy. The surrender was accepted by Brigadier J. R. Stevenson, who represented Lieutenant General Vernon Sturdee, the commander of the First Australian Army, aboard the
President of Nauru
The President of Nauru is elected by Parliament from among its members, is both the head of state and the head of government of Nauru. Nauru's unicameral Parliament has 19 members, with an electoral term of 3 years. Political parties only play a minor role in Nauru politics, there have been periods of instability in the Presidential office. Shifting allegiances among a small number of individuals can lead to frequent changes in the makeup of the government of the day, including the presidential position itself. Http://www.radioaustralia.net.au/international/2013-06-11/baron-waqa-named-as-new-nauru-president/1144022 http://www.rnzi.com/pages/news.php?op=read&id=76686 http://www.naurugov.nr/government.aspx
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Nauru at the 2012 Summer Olympics
Nauru competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, held from 27 July to 12 August 2012. The country's participation at London marked its fifth appearance in the Summer Olympics since its debut at the 1996 Summer Olympics; the delegation consisted of two participants: Sled Dowabobo in the men's lightweight judo contest and Itte Detenamo in the men's super-heavyweight weightlifting competition. Dowabobo qualified as one of Oceania's highest ranked judo competitors while Detenamo made the Games based on his qualifying performance. Detenamo was the flag bearer for closing ceremonies. Dowabobo was eliminated by his opponent Navruz Jurakobilov in the round of 64 and Detemano finished 14th in his event. Nauru participated in five Summer Olympic Games between its debut in the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, United States and the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom; the country sent their largest delegation to a Summer Games with three athletes to the 1996 Olympics and the 2004 Summer Games.
No Nauruan athlete has won a medal at the Olympic Games. Nauru participated in the London Summer Games from 27 July to 12 August 2012; the two athletes who were selected to represent Nauru at the London Summer Games were Sled Dowabobo in the men's lightweight judo competition and Itte Detenamo in the men's super-heavyweight weightlifting contest. Nauru, along with Barbados and Saint Kitts and Nevis, was one of three countries to send only male athletes to the 2012 Games. Along with the two athletes, the delegation consisted of their coaches Patrick Mahon. Dowabobo trained at the University of Bath. Detenamo was selected as the flag bearer for closing ceremonies. Sled Dowabobo represented Nauru in men's judo and was the oldest person to represent the country at the London Games at age 29, he had not taken part in any previous Olympic Games, but his participation at London marked the country's official Olympic debut in the sport at these Games. Dowabobo qualified for the Games after being chosen as one of the highest ranked Oceania athletes in any sporting discipline by the International Judo Federation, without having qualified.
Before the Games, he said: "It will be awesome to be the first Olympic judo player from Nauru. I'm excited about the Games." Dowabobo faced Navruz Jurakobilov of Uzbekistan in the round of 64 on 30 July. He was defeated by his opponent with a scoreline of 0001–0100 and the result meant he was eliminated from contention. After the Games the president of Nauru's National Olympic Committee Marcus Stephen noted that Dowabobo was competing against a strong opponent and revealed that he encouraged his fellow countryman not to be antipathetic over the result and progress farther. Itte Detenamo participated on Nauru's behalf in the men's super-heavyweight weightlifting contest, he was the youngest person to represent Nauru at the London Games at the age of 25 and had participated for his country in the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens and the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. Detenamo qualified for the Games based on his performance at the 2012 Oceania Weightlifting Championships in Apia, Samoa, his event took place on 7 August, included 19 athletes in total.
During the event's snatch phase, Detenamo was given three attempts. He attempted to lift over 90 kilograms of weight in all three of his attempts, he attempted 205 kilograms during the clean and jerk phase of the event lifting it on his first attempt. He did not succeed in lifting 215 kilograms on his second attempt, but was successful with 225 on his third. Overall the combination of Detenamo's highest scores in snatch and clean and jerk yielded a score of 390 points, he finished 14th in the event, ahead behind Japan's Kazuomi Ota. Detenamo was 65 points behind the gold medallist Behdad Salimi of Iran. After the Games his coach Paul Coffa revealed Detenamo was carrying a minor shoulder injury and had been keen to perform well because of the athlete being away from Nauru for a long period of time
Athletics at the 2000 Summer Olympics – Men's 100 metres
The men's 100 metres at the 2000 Summer Olympics as part of the athletics program were held at the Stadium Australia from September 22 to 23. In the first round, the first three runners from each of the ten heats, together with the eight next fastest runners from all heats, automatically qualified for the second round. In the second round, these forty-one runners competed in five heats, with the first three from each heat and the single next fastest runner qualifying for the semifinals. In the semifinals, only the first four runners from each of the two heats advanced to the final. Prior to the competition, the existing World and Olympic records were. No new records were set during the competition; the qualification period for athletics took place between 1 January 1999 to 11 September 2000. For the men's 100 metres, each National Olympic Committee was permitted to enter up to three athletes that had run the race in 10.27 seconds or faster during the qualification period. If an NOC had no athletes that qualified under that standard, one athlete that had run the race in 10.40 seconds or faster could be entered.
All times are Australian Eastern Daylight Time Qualification rule: The first three finishers in each heat plus the ten fastest times of those who finished fourth or lower in their heat qualified. Wind: −0.6 m/s Wind: −0.6 m/s Wind: +0.4 m/s Wind: –0.5 m/s Wind: –0.5 m/s Wind: +0.2 m/s Wind: +0.3 m/s Wind: +1.9 m/s Wind: +0.3 m/s Wind: –0.7 m/s Wind: –1.2 m/s Qualification rule: The first three finishers in each heat plus the next fastest overall sprinter qualified. Wind: −1.7 m/s Wind: +0.3 m/s Wind: +0.8 m/s Wind: +0.8 m/s Wind: +0.2 m/s Qualification rule: The first four runners in each semifinal heat moves on to the final. Wind: +0.4 m/s Wind: +0.2 m/s Wind: –0.3 m/s Official Report of the 2000 Sydney Summer Olympics