Ralph Lauren Corporation
Ralph Lauren Corporation is an American corporation producing mid-range to luxury fashion products. They are known for the clothing and distribution of products in four categories: apparel, home and fragrances; the Company's brands include Polo Ralph Lauren, Ralph Lauren Collection, Lauren Ralph Lauren, Double RL, Ralph Lauren Childrenswear, Denim & Supply Ralph Lauren and Club Monaco. Ralph Lauren Corporation is an American, publicly traded holding company headquartered in New York City, founded in 1967 by American fashion designer Ralph Lauren; the Ralph Lauren Corporation started in 1967 with men's ties. At 28 years-old, Lauren worked for Beau Brummell, he persuaded the company's president to let him start his own line. Drawing on his interests in sports, Lauren named his first full line of menswear ‘Polo’ in 1968, he worked out of a single "drawer" from a showroom in the Empire State Building and made deliveries to stores himself. By 1969, the Manhattan department store, it was the first time.
In 1971, Ralph Lauren Corporation launched a line of tailored shirts for women, which introduced the Polo player emblem, appearing on the shirt cuff. The first full women's collection was launched the following year.1972 marked the opening of Ralph Lauren's store on Rodeo Drive in Beverly Hills, his first freestanding store.. In 1972, Lauren released a short-sleeve cotton shirt in 24 colors; this design, emblazoned with the company's famed logo—that of a polo player, created by tennis pro René Lacoste—became the brand’s signature look.” In 1977 Ralph Lauren Corporation introduced a signature cotton mesh Polo shirt in various colours. Featuring the polo player logo on the chest, the shirt became emblematic of the preppy look—one of Lauren's signature style. In 1974, Ralph Lauren outfitted the male cast of The Great Gatsby in costumes chosen from his Polo line - a 1920s-style series of men's suits and sweaters, except for the pink suit which Lauren designed for Robert Redford’s Jay Gatsby. In 1977, Diane Keaton and Woody Allen wore Lauren's clothes in Annie Hall.
In 1978, the first Ralph Lauren fragrances, produced by Warner-Lauren, Ltd were launched at Bloomingdale's. Lauren for women, Polo the men's cologne; this was the first time that a designer introduced two fragrances – one for men and one for women – simultaneously. The company entered the European market, went international, in 1981 with the opening of the first freestanding store in New Bond Street in the West End of London, England. Lauren opened his first flagship in the Rhinelander mansion, on Madison Avenue and 72nd Street in New York City in 1986. On June 12, 1997, the company becomes a publicly traded company on the New York Stock Exchange; the 98-seat restaurant, RL, opened in March 1999 in a newly constructed building adjacent to the largest Ralph Lauren store at the corner of Chicago and Michigan Avenues. It was followed by the opening of two additional restaurants – Ralph's at 173 Boulevard Saint Germain Paris store in 2010 and The Polo Bar at Polo's store in New York in 2015; the company launched its website and online shop in 2000 as polo.com by RL Media.
In 2007, Ralph Lauren Corporation acquired the NBC share of RL Media and the website was relaunched as ralphlauren.com. In September 2015, it was announced that Stefan Larsson would replace the company's founder, Ralph Lauren, as CEO in November. Lauren will stay on as executive chief creative officer. In February 2017 it was announced that Larsson had agreed to leave his position as CEO effective May 1, 2017 due to differences with Lauren. On May 17, 2017, Ralph Lauren named Chief Executive Officer. Louvet most served as Group President, Global Beauty at Procter & Gamble, he took over on July 17, 2017. Ralph Lauren Women's Collection and Ralph Lauren Purple Label: Ralph Lauren Collection for women, launched in 1971, ranges from handmade evening gowns to sportswear. Launched in 1994, Ralph Lauren Purple Label for men offers suiting, custom tailored made-to-measure suits and sportswear, as well as benchmade footwear and made-to-order dress furnishings and luggage. Ralph Lauren Watches and Fine Jewelry: In 2009 Ralph Lauren, together with luxury group Compagnie Financière Richemont SA, launched a collection of timepieces through the Ralph Lauren Watch & Jewelry Co.
In 2010, the Ralph Lauren Watch & Jewelry Co. introduced collections of jewelry. Polo Ralph Lauren: Men’s Polo, Ralph Lauren’s first complete line of sportswear and tailored clothing launched in 1967. In 2014, Women’s Polo was launched. Polo Sport: Polo Sport launched in 1992, a line of activewear for sports and fitness. In 2014, Ralph Lauren debuted the PoloTech Shirt, which featured smart fabric technology that "captures robust biometrics from the wearer". Double RL: Founded in 1993 and named after Ralph Lauren and his wife Ricky's “RRL” ranch in Colorado, RRL offers men a mix of selvage denim, vintage apparel and accessories, with roots in workwear and military gear. Lauren Ralph Lauren: Lauren for Women launched in 1996, offering sportswear, dresses and accessories and footwear at a cheaper price point. Lauren for Men offers men's tailored clothing, including suits, sport coats, dress shirts, dress pants, tuxedos and ties at a cheaper price point; this brand slots above Chaps in price, but below Polo Ralph Lauren.
Ralph by Ralph Lauren: Launched in 1994, Ralph by Ralph Lauren offers suit separates, sport coats and topcoats. Polo Golf and RLX Golf: Polo Golf launched in 1990 and RLX Golf lau
Tommy Hilfiger (company)
Tommy Hilfiger known as Tommy Hilfiger Corporation and Tommy Hilfiger Inc. is an American premium clothing company, manufacturing apparel, accessories and home furnishings. The company was founded in 1985, today is sold in department stores and over 1400 free-standing retail stores in 90 countries. In 2006, private equity firm Apax Partners acquired Tommy Hilfiger for $1.6 billion, in May 2010, PVH Corp. bought the company. Daniel Grieder was appointed CEO in July 2014, while founder Tommy Hilfiger remains the company’s principal designer, leading the design teams and overseeing the entire creative process. Global sales in retail through the brand in 2013 were US $6.4 billion, $6.7 billion in 2014. Tommy Hilfiger’s career in fashion began in 1968, when he co-founded a clothing and record store named People’s Place in upstate New York. Using $150 he'd saved from working at a petrol station as startup money, he oversaw the expansion of the company into a chain of ten stores. Despite meeting with initial success, People's Place filed for bankruptcy in 1977.
In 1979 Hilfiger moved to New York City to pursue a career as a fashion designer, working on several different labels including Jordache Jeans. In the early 1980s he met Mohan Murjani, an Indian textile magnate hoping to launch a line of men’s clothing. With Murjani’s backing in 1985 Hilfiger debuted his first signature collection, which featured modernized versions of button-down shirts and other classic preppy styles; the casual youthful attitude of these first designs would remain a trait of the Tommy Hilfiger Corporation's collections. The new clothing line made its debut with a high-profile marketing campaign, which included a large billboard in Times Square by advertiser George Lois; the Tommy Hilfiger brand left Murjani International in 1989, with Silas Chou instead providing financial backing. That year Lawrence Stroll and Joel Horowitz, both former executives of Ralph Lauren, were hired as executives of the newly formed company Tommy Hilfiger, Inc. which had an initial focus on casual male sportswear.
The Tommy Hilfiger Corporation went public in 1992. After licensing Pepe Jeans USA in 1995, in 1996 Tommy Hilfiger Inc. began distributing women's clothing. By the end of the next year Hilfiger had opened his first store in Beverly Hills, followed by a store in London in 1998; the company launched its bed and bath line in 1998. Throughout the 1990s the company's marketing division worked in tandem with the popular music industry, as early as 1993 Hilfiger was an official sponsor for Pete Townshend's Psychoderelict tour. In the early 1990s a baggier, less tailored menswear look came into fashion, Hilfiger gave his clothes a more relaxed fit; as roomier styles with oversized logos became popular with hip-hop artists in the mid-to-late ’90s, Hilfiger's style of clothing became both popular with the American "preppy" scene and as hip hop fashion, when Snoop Dogg wore a Hilfiger sweatshirt during an appearance on Saturday Night Live in the 1990s, it sold out of New York City stores the next day. Moreover, Hilfiger courted the new hip hop market, rappers like Puffy and Coolio walked during his runways shows.
With collections influenced by the fashion of music subcultures, The clothes are marketed in connection with the music industry, American R&B icon Aaliyah became the much-publicized spokesperson for Tommy Hilfiger Corporation in 1997. The company would sponsor Sheryl Crow’s “If It Makes You Happy” tour in 1997, Britney Spears 1999... Baby One More Time Tour, Lenny Kravitz's 1999 Freedom tour. Women's intimate apparel was introduced in 2001. After sales and net income faltered in 2001, the company's sales in 2002 totaled $1.87 billion. Overall between 2000 and 2009, sales slipped from around $1.9 billion to $700 million. During the same time period, Hilfiger’s European sales rose to $1.13 billion. In 2003, Hilfiger executive Fred Gehring and Hilfiger decided to further invest in the brand's growing overseas audience by re-focusing on the brand’s original style, “classic American cool,” and designing the clothes out of New York City. Gehring adapted the business model to suit European retail culture, pursuing partnerships with European department stores and with smaller boutiques, signing 4,500 of them in 15 countries.
Hilfiger strove to retain the designer brand exclusivity of the Hilfiger label by signing a deal to distribute the best-selling Hilfiger lines at Macy's only. Hilfiger has endorsed products such as True Star is a fragrance, released in 2004 with Beyoncé Knowles as poster girl. True Star would go on to win a FiFi Award for Best New Commercial Fragrance. By 2004, the Tommy Hilfiger Corporation company had revenues of $1.8 billion and 5,400 employees. In 2006, Tommy Hilfiger sold Tommy Hilfiger Inc. for $1.6 billion, or $16.80 a share, to Apax Partners, a private investment company. After the acquisition Gehring assumed control of the American headquarters of Tommy Hilfiger as well as Europe. Gehring and Hilfiger narrowed their focus in the United States to the profitable core sportswear line, U. S. sales began to rise in 2010. In March 2010, Phillips-Van Heusen bought the Tommy Hilfiger Corporation for $3 billion, in a deal, nearly seven times what PVH had paid for Calvin Klein in 2003. Fred Gehring, who launched Hilfiger’s European division in 1996, assumed the role of Hilfiger's CEO.
Global sales in retail for the brand in 2013 were US $6.4 billion, $6.7 billion in 2014. Daniel Grieder was appointed CEO of Tommy Hilfiger Group in July 2014. Former CEO Gehring was made executive chairman of Tommy Hilfiger Group and was appointed vice chairman of PVH. In Janua
Calvin Richard Klein is an American fashion designer who launched the company that would become Calvin Klein Inc. in 1968. In addition to clothing, he has given his name to a range of perfumes and jewelry. Klein was born to a Hungarian Jewish family in the son of Flore and Leo Klein. Leo had immigrated to New York from Hungary, while Flore was born in the United States to an immigrant from Austria and an American dentist. Klein went to Isobel Rooney Middle School 80 as a child, he attended the High School of Art and Design in Manhattan and matriculated at, but never graduated from, New York's Fashion Institute of Technology, receiving an honorary doctorate in 2003. He did his apprenticeship in 1962 at an oldline cloak-and-suit manufacturer, Dan Millstein, spent five years designing at other New York City shops. In 1968, he launched his first company with Barry K. Schwartz. Klein was one of several design leaders raised in the Jewish immigrant community in the Bronx, along with Robert Denning and Ralph Lauren.
He became a protégé of Baron de Gunzburg, through whose introductions he became the toast of the New York elite fashion scene before he had his first mainstream success with the launch of his first jeans line. He was recognized for his talent after his first major showing at New York Fashion Week, he was hailed as the new Yves Saint Laurent, was noted for his clean lines. Klein married Jayne Centre, a textile designer, in 1964, they have a daughter, who works as Talent Producer for NBC's Saturday Night Live. They divorced in 1974. In September 1986 Klein married his assistant, Kelly Rector, in Rome while they were on a buying trip in Italy, she became a well-known socialite photographer. After separating in 1996, they divorced in April 2006 after 20 years of marriage. In 2003, Klein bought an ocean-front estate in Southampton, New York on Long Island and demolished it to build a US$75 million glass-and-concrete mansion. Calvin Klein dated former pornography star Nicholas Gruber before the pair separated in 2012.
Klein is a supporter of the U. S. Democratic Party, having given over $250,000 to candidates and PACs since 1980. In 1974, Klein designed the tight-fitting signature jeans that would go on to gross $200,000 in their first week of sales. In that same year he became the first designer to receive outstanding design in men’s and women’s wear from the CFDA award show. In 1983, he was placed on the International Best Dressed List. In 1981, 1983 and 1993, he received an award from Councils of Fashion Designs of America. Klein made a cameo appearance in Episode 15, of the television series 30 Rock. A fictionalized version of him appears in Season 4, Episode 13, of the television series Seinfeld; the Emperor's New Clothes: An All-Star Illustrated Retelling of the Classic Fairy Tale 1998 LGBT culture in New York City Info and photos related to Calvin Klein at askmen.com Calvin Klein talks trends on VOGUE. COM Calvin Klein’s bio at informat.com The Biography Channel Some History and Background on Calvin Klein Calvin Klein — a modern fashion icon People magazine, January 18,1982.
Calvin Klein, King of clothes The Latest Calvin by Michael Gross, NY Magazine August 8, 1988
Seamanship is the art of operating a ship or boat. It involves topics and development of specialised skills including: navigation and international maritime law; the degree of knowledge needed within these areas is dependent upon the nature of the work and the type of vessel employed by a mariner. Navigation is the art and science of safely and efficiently directing the movements of a vessel from one point to another. Piloting uses water depth and visible references, while dead reckoning uses courses and distances from the last known position. More than just finding a vessel's present location, safe navigation includes predicting future location, route planning and collision avoidance. Nautical navigation in western nations, like air navigation, is based on the nautical mile. Navigation includes electronics such as GPS and Loran. Celestial navigation involves taking sights by sextant on the planets, stars and using the data with a nautical almanac and sight reduction tables to determine positions.
Accurate time information is needed. After nautical dusk, navigation at sea referencing the horizon is no longer possible, after nautical dawn such navigation again becomes possible. Ice navigation involves operating a ship within sea ice conditions. A fundamental skill of professional seamanship is being able to maneuver a vessel with accuracy and precision. Unlike vehicles on land, a ship afloat is subject to the movements of the air around it and the water in which it floats. Another complicating factor is the mass of a ship that has to be accounted for when stopping and starting. Ship-handling is about arriving and departing a berth or buoy, maneuvering in confined channels and harbours and in proximity to other ships, whilst at all times navigating safely. Two other types of operations, berthing alongside another ship and replenishment at sea, are included. A key ability for a ship-handler is a good understanding of how the wind and swell, the passage of other vessels, as well as the shape of the seabed, will affect a vessel's movement, together with an understanding of a specific vessel's performance, should allow that vessel a safe passage.
Fundamental to low-speed maneuvering is an understanding of the configuration and handedness of the propeller. An effect known as propeller walk will kick the stern of the vessel to port or starboard depending on the configuration and the type of propeller when large variations on propeller rotation speed or changes of propeller rotation direction take place. Other variations include what are known as bucket rudders such as the Kortz Nozzle where instead of a conventional rudder a pair of dish-shaped rudders, one either side of the propeller can be swivelled vertically to direct the propeller thrust through 360 degrees, thus to put the vessel into astern mode the rudder can be rotated through 180 degrees without altering the speed and direction of the engine. Since with the conventional propeller or rudder configuration the propeller is designed to operate at maximum efficiency when going ahead, it produces far less thrust when going astern, but with the Kortz Nozzle, the ahead and astern thrust is the same.
Other advantages of the nozzle are the ship can be steered astern which a conventional rudder cannot, the ship can be steered under control to a standstill switching between ahead and astern mode to give complete control over speed. In addition to being conversant with the principles of seamanship and ship-handling, a good pilot will have developed his or her sense of'situational awareness' to a point well beyond that of a member of a ship's crew. Most commercial vessels in excess of size limits determined by local authorities are handled in confined areas by a marine pilot. Marine pilots are seafarers with extensive seafaring experience and are qualified master mariners who have been trained as expert ship-handlers; these pilots are conversant with all types of vessel and propulsion systems, as well as handling ships of all sizes in all weather and tidal conditions. They are experts in the geographical areas they work. In most countries, the pilot takes over the'conduct' of the navigation from the ship master.
This means that the master and crew should adhere to the pilot's orders in respect of the safe navigation of the vessel when in a compulsory pilotage area. The master may with good cause resume'conduct' of the vessel's navigation; however this should never be done lightly. In situations where the pilot is an "advisor" though he has the con, the pilot or h
The Izod Corporation is a mid-range clothing company that produces dressy-casual clothing, sportswear for men, as well as footwear and accessories. It is part of PVH, forming part of its Heritage Brands division along with Van Heusen, Warner's, Speedo, it is best known for its short-sleeved piqué polo shirt produced by Lacoste and featuring the Lacoste crocodile on the left breast, now replaced with an embroidered crest. One variation is the "IZ" patch instead of crest. Other Izod classics include the Harrington jacket G-9 model v-neck and cardigan sweaters. Today, the Izod brand competes most directly with the similarly-priced Chaps brand owned by Ralph Lauren Corporation, while competing more indirectly on the lower end with U. S. Polo Assn. and on the higher end with Nautica. In the late 1930s, Vincent dePaul Draddy, an American businessman employed by David Crystal Co. needed a strong name to associate with his quality merchandise for menswear. While vacationing with his family in London, he encountered Jack Izod's tailoring boutique.
Izod produced bespoke shirts and created the Windsor tie-knot for King George V, but was ready to retire, accepted Draddy's offer to purchase the rights to his distinctive name. The A. J. Izod of London clothing company was introduced to the United States in 1938. Izod of London would become most notable for its pairing with the Lacoste shirt company from 1952 to 1993. Vincent Draddy began to license the Lacoste shirt to add prestige to the Izod line, but he could not find a market for the then-expensive $8.00 retail price. After Draddy began giving the shirts away to his famous friends, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Bing Crosby, Daniel Platt, John F. Kennedy, the shirts soon became popular with department stores. "Izod of London" became a brand known as "Izod Lacoste". While the shirts were Izod and Lacoste, they became abbreviated and popularized as "Izod" shirts. In 1964, Bernard Lacoste took over the management of the company. Significant company growth was seen under Bernard's management; when he became president, around 300,000 Izod Lacoste products were sold annually.
The Izod Lacoste brand reached its height of popularity in the US during the late 1970s and became the signature 1980s "preppy" wardrobe item, mentioned in The Official Preppy Handbook. The company began to introduce other products into their line including shorts, perfume and sunglasses, tennis shoes, deck shoes, walking shoes and various leather goods. In 1977, Le Tigre Clothing was founded in an attempt to directly compete with Izod Lacoste in the US market, selling a similar array of apparel, but featuring a tiger in place of the signature Lacoste crocodile. During this period Izod's parent, Crystal Brands, came under the management of General Mills, purchased the Gant U. S. A. brand. During the early 1990s, Izod Lacoste struggled to maintain the market dominance it had enjoyed in previous decades; the initial reaction from Crystal Brands was to separate the two names and target two groups of customers at once. This tactic did not provide the financial gain Crystal had hoped and the license partnering ended in 1993.
Sportloisirs S. A. purchased the Lacoste brand in 1993, while Izod was sold to Phillips-Van Heusen Corporation in 1995. PVH repositioned and restored some of Izod's previous relevance while introducing a number of products lines and brands. Complete with an Izod "crest" logo, or patch. In addition to its sportswear, Izod designs a full range of men's suits, neckties, shoes and fragrances, continues to produce its famous polo shirts. Within the PVH corp. the Izod branded shirt has become part of the biggest shirt company in the United States. From 2003 to 2007, PVH formed a licensing deal with Kellwood Company to produce Izod-branded women's clothing. Production of the women's line was brought in-house in 2007 until its discontinuation in 2015. On January 7, 2015 parent company Phillips-Van Heusen announced that it would be closing all 120 Izod retail outlets due to an increasing competitive environment driven by more premium brands in the outlet retail channel; this move will not affect Izod's growing wholesale business to department stores and other retailers.
Coinciding with the closure of the retail outlets, in 2015 the women's line was discontinued. In Spring 2016, Izod introduced the Advantage Polo, a new take on their traditional piqué polo featuring a cotton/polyester blend with natural stretch, moisture wicking fabric, UPF-15 sun protection; the Advantage Polo remains available today and now outsells Izod's original 100% cotton Heritage piqué polo. The Advantage brand was expanded to include other products with stretch and/or moisture-wicking fabric such as fleece sweatshirts and button-down shirts. On June 7, 2017, parent company PVH announced that it has reached a licensing agreement with Adjmi Apparel Group subsidiary Sports Products of America to manufacture women's sportswear and activewear under the Izod brand beginning February 2018, thus signifying Izod's return to the women's clothing market. On August 28, 2018, it was announced that PVH would expand the Izod brand to Europe starting with the Fall/Winter 2018 collection