Cambridge Bay Airport
Cambridge Bay Airport is located 1.6 nautical miles southwest of Cambridge Bay, Canada, is operated by the government of Nunavut. In December 2005 the Government of Nunavut announced that they would spend $18 million to pave the runway. On 14 May 2008 a press release from the Premier of Nunavut, Paul Okalik, Member of the Legislative Assembly, Keith Peterson, indicated that over the next three years the runway would be widened and lengthened. On 13 December 2008, a Dornier 228 C-FYEV with 14 people on board operated by Summit Air Charters, was on approach at Cambridge Bay after a flight from Resolute Bay Airport when the aircraft collided with terrain about 1.5 nautical miles short of runway 31. One flight crew member and one passenger received minor injuries. Cambridge Bay Water Aerodrome Page about this airport on COPA's Places to Fly airport directory Past three hours METARs, SPECI and current TAFs for Cambridge Bay Airport from Nav Canada as available
Canadian airspace is the region of airspace above the surface of the Earth that falls within a region defined as either Canadian land mass, the Canadian Arctic or the Canadian archipelago, as well as areas of the high seas. Airspace is managed by Transport Canada and detailed information regarding exact dimensions and classification is available in the Designated Airspace Handbook, published every fifty-six days by NAV CANADA; the "Canadian Domestic Airspace" includes all of Canada and extends out over the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. It is broadly divided into the "Northern Domestic Airspace" and the "Southern Domestic Airspace". There are three main differences between the two areas, the most important of them being that the NDA is designated as a "standard pressure" region while the SDA is an "altimeter setting" region; this means that pilots operating in the SDA will calibrate their altimeters to atmospheric pressure according to information available at airports and through weather services.
Conversely, in the NDA, pilots calibrate their altimeters to 29.92 inches of mercury regardless of the actual atmospheric pressure. This is done because weather information is not available for all areas of the far north, so it is better that all pilots use a standard setting in order to avoid collisions. Another major difference between the NDA and SDA is that magnetic declination is not used in the NDA; because the magnetic north pole is in the NDA, magnetic declinations are large. This is further complicated by the fact that magnetic north moves 200 miles in an elliptical path every day. For these reasons, "true" tracks are always used in the NDA while magnetic tracks are used in the SDA for convenience; the final difference between the NDA and the SDA has to do with the location of Class A airspace in each region. This is explained in more detail below. There are seven classes of airspace in Canada, each designated by a letter. Class A airspace exists between FL180 and FL600. Only aircraft flying in terms with Instrument Flight Rules may fly in Class A airspace.
It includes, the Southern Control Area, the Northern Control Area FL 230 and above and the Arctic Control Area FL270 and above. It may include any other airspace so designated by the Minister on either a permanent or temporary basis. For entry into Class A airspace, an aircraft needs a functional Mode C transponder and an IFR clearance. Class B airspace is any controlled airspace between 12,500 ft and 18,000 ft Occasionally, Class B airspace exists in other locations, though this is unusual. For entry into Class B airspace, an aircraft needs a functional Mode C transponder and either an IFR or a CVFR clearance. Class C airspace is a control zone for a large airport; these areas have a 10 nautical mile radius and a height of up to 12,500 above aerodrome elevation. For entry into a Class C control zone, an aircraft needs a functional Mode C transponder and an ATC clearance. Class D airspace is a control zone for smaller airports or aerodromes that has a 5-nautical-mile radius and a height of 3,000 ft AAE.
Airports in busy airspace may have only a 3-nautical-mile radius control zone. For entry into a Class D control zone, an aircraft needs to contact ATC; some Class D control zones require transponders, NORDO flight is not permitted at night in a Class D zone. Class E airspace is used for low-level flight routes and for aerodromes with little traffic. ATC is not required; some Class D control zones change to Class E at night. It is high level controlled airspace above FL600. Any aircraft may fly in Class E airspace. Class F airspace is special use airspace. Any Class F zone will be designated either CYR, CYD, or CYA. CYR stands for restricted, CYD means danger, CYA stands for advisory. CYA zones will have a letter identifying the type of activity in the zone: A – aerobatics, F – aircraft testing, H – hang gliding, M – military, P – parachuting, S – soaring, T – training. For entry into a CYR or CYD zone, an aircraft needs the permission of the operating authority. Pilots may enter CYA zones at their discretion, but are encouraged to avoid them unless taking part in the activity.
Any airspace, not designated is Class G airspace. This airspace is uncontrolled, ATC is not available. Any aircraft may fly in Class G airspace. Airspace classes A through E are controlled. Class F can be uncontrolled. Class G is always uncontrolled. Airspace is managed by Transport Canada and detailed information regarding exact dimensions and classification is available in the Designated Airspace Handbook, published every fifty-six days by NAV CANADA; some control zones have unique procedures because of air traffic demands. These procedures are published in the Canada Flight Supplement. Another important feature of Canadian airspace is the Air Defense Identification Zone that surrounds North America; the Terminal Control Areas of the French islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon are located within Canadian airspace. They are as follows: The class E airspace ranges from 6000 feet AGL to 12,500 feet within the area demarcated by a line beginning at 47°19′57″N 55°57′16″W and ending at 46°55′53″N 56°07′13″W running clockwise along a circle with a radius of 10 miles centred on 46°45′47″N 56°10′27″W.
The Control Area for St-Pierre is the airspace to 2000 feet within a circle with a radius of 6 miles centred on 46°45′47″N 56°10′27″W. The area above 12,000 feet is controlled by NAV CANADA
Buttonville Municipal Airport
Buttonville Municipal Airport or Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport is a medium-sized airport in Buttonville, Canada, within Markham, bordering Richmond Hill and 29 km north of downtown Toronto. It is operated by Torontair. Due to its proximity to Toronto's suburbs, there are several strict noise-reduction procedures for aircraft using the airport, open and staffed 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. In 2014, Buttonville was Canada's 20th busiest airport by aircraft movements. There is a weather station located at the airport; the airport is classified as an airport of entry by Nav Canada and is serviced by the Canada Border Services Agency on a call-out basis from the Oshawa Airport during weekdays and the Toronto Island Airport during weekends. CBSA officers at this airport handle general aviation aircraft only, with no more than 15 passengers. Fred F. Gillies was the operator of Buttonville Airport and Gillies Flying Service starting in 1953 until he retired in 1958. Buttonville Airport began to grow as a grass airstrip in 1953 when Leggat Aviation moved its operations from Barker Field in Toronto.
The airstrip became an official airport in 1962. In September 2009, the Sifton family, owners of the airport, announced plans to re-develop the airport from 2009 to 2016 into a mixed use of commercial and residential development. In the meantime the airport will continue to operate and unknown plans for the airport operations to re-locate to another GTA airport or cease operations altogether. On 28 October 2010, a press release announced that a joint real estate venture had purchased the 170-acre property on 7 October, which will be re-developed by Cadillac Fairview. Plans include condominiums, retail shops, office space. Due to planning delays, in 2018 Cadillac Fairview announced the site will continue to operate as an airport until at least 2023. Buttonville Airport is owned, although profitable for the last 25 years is threatened with closure due to Urban encroachment and soaring land values. GTAA provided a monetary incentive to keep the airport open, but this was stopped in 2009. At the time the GTAA blamed a financial crunch cause by a momentary decrease in traffic at Pearson Airport for eliminating the subsidies.
Traffic at Pearson has since increased from 30 million passengers a year in 2009 to 47 million passengers a year in 2017. Transport Canada has not yet made a decision on the Pickering Airport project. There are three non-precision instrument approaches available: a Global Positioning System approach to runway 33, a non-directional beacon approach to runway 21, a localizer approach to runway 15. Buttonville Airport is in a Class D control zone. Two way communication must be established prior to aircraft entering the zone; the airport has a control tower using the frequencies 127.10 MHz for Automatic Terminal Information Service, 121.80 MHz for ground control, 124.80 MHz for tower. When the tower is open between 0700 and 2300 local; when the tower is closed Buttonville reverts to a Class E control zone, 124.80 MHz therefore becomes a mandatory frequency. The London Flight Information Centre has a Remote Communications Outlet at the airport operating on the frequency 123.15 MHz. Toronto Terminal handles instrument flight rules arrivals and departures and Visual Flight Rules flight following on 133.40 MHz.
Flightline is available on 123.50 MHz. There are three ground-based navigation aids attached to the Buttonville airport: a low-power NDB on the frequency 248 kHz with the identifier "KZ", located 4.4 nautical miles northeast of the airport a distance measuring equipment on channel 48 with the identifier "IKZ", located on the airfield a localizer for runway 15 on the frequency 111.1 MHz No practice circuits outside of YKZ Control Tower hours of operation. No practice IFR approaches outside YKZ Control Tower hours of operation. No practice Engine Failure on Take Off procedure in the YKZ Positive Control Zone. No touch and go circuits by excessively noisy aircraft, it has been agreed with the airport and the City of Markham that no circuit practice will occur between the hours of 1600h and 2000h during all long weekend holidays. On January 17, 2006, Nav Canada announced plans for the construction of a new air traffic control tower at Buttonville Airport, it is located at the south end of airport next to FlightExec offices on Allstate Parkway.
The new tower, representing an investment of over $2 million, replaced the existing facility, built in 1967 and had reached the end of its useful life. Construction began in Fall 2006 and became operational on June 26, 2007; the new tower provided expanded operational space, optimal visibility and the latest in air navigation equipment and technology for 10 air traffic controllers and one support staff who provided service to 84,000 aircraft movements per year at Buttonville Airport. It is located on the south side of the airport – the opposite side of the old tower; the new tower was designed and built using a modular design enabling the facility to be relocated in the future. New equipment and technology include the Nav Canada Auxiliary Radar Display System and the company's state-of-the-art voice communications switch. NAV Canada shut down operations of the air traffic control tower on January 3, 2019. Air BP – aviation fuel supplier Air Partners Incorporated – maintenance Aviation Unlimited – parts and aircraft sales distributor for Piper, Diamond and Columbia Buttonville Flying Club CFMJ-AM, 640 AM Richmond Hill CFTO-CTV News/Traffic Air Unit 680 News Traffic Unit Canadian Flyers flight traini
Whitehorse is the capital and only city of Yukon, the largest city in northern Canada. It was incorporated in 1950 and is located at kilometre 1426 on the Alaska Highway in southern Yukon. Whitehorse's downtown and Riverdale areas occupy both shores of the Yukon River, which originates in British Columbia and meets the Bering Sea in Alaska; the city was named after the White Horse Rapids for their resemblance to the mane of a white horse, near Miles Canyon, before the river was dammed. Because of the city's location in the Whitehorse valley, the climate is milder than comparable northern communities such as Yellowknife. At this latitude winter days are short and summer days have up to about 19 hours of daylight. Whitehorse, as reported by Guinness World Records, is the city with the least air pollution in the world; as of the 2016 census, the population was 25,085. Archeological research south of the downtown area, at a location known as Canyon City, has revealed evidence of use by First Nations for several thousand years.
The surrounding area had seasonal fish camps and Frederick Schwatka, in 1883, observed the presence of a portage trail used to bypass Miles Canyon. Before the Gold Rush, several different tribes passed through the area seasonally and their territories overlapped; the discovery of gold in the Klondike in August, 1896, by Skookum Jim, Tagish Charlie and George Washington Carmack set off a major change in the historical patterns of the region. Early prospectors used the Chilkoot Pass, but by July 1897, crowds of neophyte stampeders had arrived via steamship and were camping at "White Horse". By June 1898, there was a bottleneck of stampeders at Canyon City, many boats had been lost to the rapids as well as five people. Samuel Steele of the North-West Mounted Police said: "why more casualties have not occurred is a mystery to me." On their way to find gold, stampeders found copper in the "copper belt" in the hills west of Whitehorse. The first copper claims were staked by Jack McIntyre on July 6, 1898, Sam McGee on July 16, 1899.
Two tram lines were built, one 8 km stretch on the east bank of the Yukon River from Canyon City to the rapids, just across from the present day downtown, the other was built on the west bank of the river. A small settlement was developing at Canyon City but the completion of the White Pass railway to Whitehorse in 1900 put a halt to it; the White Pass and Yukon Route narrow-gauge railway linking Skagway to Whitehorse had begun construction in May 1898, by May 1899 construction had arrived at the south end of Bennett lake. Construction began again at the north end of Bennett lake to Whitehorse, it was only in June–July 1900 that construction finished the difficult Bennett lake section itself, completing the entire route. By 1901, the Whitehorse Star was reporting on daily freight volumes; that summer there were four trains per day. Though traders and prospectors were all calling the city Whitehorse, there was an attempt by the railway people to change the name to Closeleigh, this was refused by William Ogilvie, the territory's Commissioner.
Whitehorse was booming. On May 23, 1905, a small fire in the barber shop of the Windsor Hotel got out of control when the fire engine ran out of water, spreading throughout the city and causing $300,000 in damage, though no lives were lost. Robert Service participated in suppressing the flame; the White Horse Restaurant and Inn was among the buildings destroyed, after its co-founder Frederick Trump, the grandfather of Donald Trump, had sold his shares and left the city. In 1920 the first planes landed in Whitehorse and the first air mail was sent in November 1927; until 1942, rail and air were the only way to get to Whitehorse, but in 1942 the US military decided an interior road would be safer to transfer troops and provisions between Alaska and the US mainland and began construction of the Alaska Highway. The entire 2,500 km project was accomplished between March and November 1942; the Canadian portion of the highway was only returned to Canadian sovereignty after the war. The Canol pipeline was constructed to supply oil to the north with a refinery in Whitehorse.
In 1950 the city was incorporated and by 1951, the population had doubled from its 1941 numbers. On April 1, 1953, the city was designated the capital of the Yukon Territory when the seat was moved from Dawson City after the construction of the Klondike Highway. On March 21, 1957, the name was changed from White Horse to Whitehorse. Whitehorse is located at kilometre 1,425 of the Alaska Highway and is framed by three nearby mountains: Grey Mountain to the east, Haeckel Hill to the northwest and Golden Horn Mountain to the south; the rapids which were the namesake of the city have disappeared under Miles Canyon and Schwatka Lake, formed by the construction of a hydroelectricity dam in 1958. Whitehorse is the 64th largest city in Canada by area; the city limits present a near rectangular shape orientated in a NW-SE direction. Like most of Yukon, Whitehorse has a dry subarctic climate. However, because of the city's location in the Whitehorse valley, the climate is milder than other comparable northern communities such as Yellowknife.
With an average annual temperature of −0.1 °C Whitehorse is the warmest place in the Yukon. The temperature measurements for the city are taken at the airport; the Whitehorse Riverdale weather station situated at a lower elevation than the airport is warmer at 0.2 °C. At this latitude winter days are short and summer days have just over 19 hours of daylight. Whitehorse has an average daily high of 20.6 °C in
Instrument landing system
An Instrument Landing System enables pilots to conduct an instrument approach to landing if they are unable to establish visual contact with the runway. It is defined by the International Telecommunication Union as a service provided by a station as follows: A radionavigation system which provides aircraft with horizontal and vertical guidance just before and during landing and, at certain fixed points, indicates the distance to the reference point of landing. An instrument landing system operates as a ground-based instrument approach system that provides precision lateral and vertical guidance to an aircraft approaching and landing on a runway, using a combination of radio signals and, in many cases, high-intensity lighting arrays to enable a safe landing during instrument meteorological conditions, such as low ceilings or reduced visibility due to fog, rain, or blowing snow. An instrument approach procedure chart is published for each ILS approach to provide the information needed to fly an ILS approach during instrument flight rules operations.
A chart includes the radio frequencies used by the ILS components or navaids and the prescribed minimum visibility requirements. Radio-navigation aids must provide a certain accuracy. An aircraft approaching a runway is guided by the ILS receivers in the aircraft by performing modulation depth comparisons. Many aircraft can route signals into the autopilot to fly the approach automatically. An ILS consists of two independent sub-systems; the localizer provides lateral guidance. A localizer is an antenna array located beyond the departure end of the runway and consists of several pairs of directional antennas; the localizer will allow the aircraft to match the aircraft with the runway. After that, the pilots will activate approach phrase; the pilot controls the aircraft so that the glide slope indicator remains centered on the display to ensure the aircraft is following the glide path of 3° above horizontal to remain above obstructions and reach the runway at the proper touchdown point. Due to the complexity of ILS localizer and glide slope systems, there are some limitations.
Localizer systems are sensitive to obstructions in the signal broadcast area, such as large buildings or hangars. Glide slope systems are limited by the terrain in front of the glide slope antennas. If terrain is sloping or uneven, reflections can create an uneven glidepath, causing unwanted needle deflections. Additionally, since the ILS signals are pointed in one direction by the positioning of the arrays, glide slope supports only straight-line approaches with a constant angle of descent. Installation of an ILS can be costly because of siting criteria and the complexity of the antenna system. ILS critical areas and ILS sensitive areas are established to avoid hazardous reflections that would affect the radiated signal; the location of these critical areas can prevent aircraft from using certain taxiways leading to delays in takeoffs, increased hold times, increased separation between aircraft. Instrument guidance system – a modified ILS to accommodate a non-straight approach. In addition to the mentioned navigational signals, the localizer provides for ILS facility identification by periodically transmitting a 1,020 Hz Morse code identification signal.
For example, the ILS for runway 4R at John F. Kennedy International Airport transmits IJFK to identify itself, while runway 4L is known as IHIQ; this lets users know the facility is operating and that they are tuned to the correct ILS. The glide slope station transmits no identification signal, so ILS equipment relies on the localizer for identification, it is essential that any failure of the ILS to provide safe guidance be detected by the pilot. To achieve this, monitors continually assess the vital characteristics of the transmissions. If any significant deviation beyond strict limits is detected, either the ILS is automatically switched off or the navigation and identification components are removed from the carrier. Either of these actions will activate an indication on the instruments of an aircraft using the ILS. Modern localizer antennas are directional. However, usage of older, less directional antennas allows a runway to have a non-precision approach called a localizer back course; this lets aircraft land using the signal transmitted from the back of the localizer array.
Directional antennas do not provide a sufficient signal to support a back course. In the United States, back course approaches are associated with Category I systems at smaller airports that do not have an ILS on both ends of the primary runway. Pilots flying a back course should disregard any glide slope indication. On some installations, marker beacons operating at a carrier frequency of 75 MHz are provided; when the transmission from a marker beacon is received it activates an indicator on the pilot's instrument panel and the tone of the beacon is audible to the pilot. The distance from the runway at which this indication should be received is published in the documentation for that approach, together with the height at which the aircraft should be if established on the ILS; this provides a check on the correct function of the glide slope. In modern ILS installat
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec; as of 2016, Ottawa had a city population of 964,743 and a metropolitan population of 1,323,783 making it the fourth-largest city and the fifth-largest CMA in Canada. Founded in 1826 as Bytown, incorporated as Ottawa in 1855, the city has evolved into the political centre of Canada, its original boundaries were expanded through numerous annexations and were replaced by a new city incorporation and amalgamation in 2001 which increased its land area. The city name "Ottawa" was chosen in reference to the Ottawa River, the name of, derived from the Algonquin Odawa, meaning "to trade". Ottawa has the most educated population among Canadian cities and is home to a number of post-secondary and cultural institutions, including the National Arts Centre, the National Gallery, numerous national museums. Ottawa has the highest standard of living in low unemployment.
With the draining of the Champlain Sea around ten thousand years ago, the Ottawa Valley became habitable. Local populations used the area for wild edible harvesting, fishing, trade and camps for over 6500 years; the Ottawa river valley has archaeological sites with arrow heads and stone tools. Three major rivers meet within Ottawa, making it an important trade and travel area for thousands of years; the Algonquins called the Ottawa River Kichi Sibi or Kichissippi meaning "Great River" or "Grand River". Étienne Brûlé regarded as the first European to travel up the Ottawa River, passed by Ottawa in 1610 on his way to the Great Lakes. Three years Samuel de Champlain wrote about the waterfalls in the area and about his encounters with the Algonquins, using the Ottawa River for centuries. Many missionaries would follow the early traders; the first maps of the area used the word Ottawa, derived from the Algonquin word adawe, to name the river. Philemon Wright, a New Englander, created the first settlement in the area on 7 March 1800 on the north side of the river, across from the present day city of Ottawa in Hull.
He, with five other families and twenty-five labourers, set about to create an agricultural community called Wrightsville. Wright pioneered the Ottawa Valley timber trade by transporting timber by river from the Ottawa Valley to Quebec City. Bytown, Ottawa's original name, was founded as a community in 1826 when hundreds of land speculators were attracted to the south side of the river when news spread that British authorities were constructing the northerly end of the Rideau Canal military project at that location; the following year, the town was named after British military engineer Colonel John By, responsible for the entire Rideau Waterway construction project. The canal's military purpose was to provide a secure route between Montreal and Kingston on Lake Ontario, bypassing a vulnerable stretch of the St. Lawrence River bordering the state of New York that had left re-supply ships bound for southwestern Ontario exposed to enemy fire during the War of 1812. Colonel By set up military barracks on the site of today's Parliament Hill.
He laid out the streets of the town and created two distinct neighbourhoods named "Upper Town" west of the canal and "Lower Town" east of the canal. Similar to its Upper Canada and Lower Canada namesakes "Upper Town" was predominantly English speaking and Protestant whereas "Lower Town" was predominantly French and Catholic. Bytown's population grew to 1,000 as the Rideau Canal was being completed in 1832. Bytown encountered some impassioned and violent times in her early pioneer period that included Irish labour unrest that attributed to the Shiners' War from 1835 to 1845 and political dissension evident from the 1849 Stony Monday Riot. In 1855 Bytown was incorporated as a city. William Pittman Lett was installed as the first city clerk guiding it through 36 years of development. On New Year's Eve 1857, Queen Victoria, as a symbolic and political gesture, was presented with the responsibility of selecting a location for the permanent capital of the Province of Canada. In reality, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald had assigned this selection process to the Executive Branch of the Government, as previous attempts to arrive at a consensus had ended in deadlock.
The "Queen's choice" turned out to be the small frontier town of Ottawa for two main reasons: Firstly, Ottawa's isolated location in a back country surrounded by dense forest far from the Canada–US border and situated on a cliff face would make it more defensible from attack. Secondly, Ottawa was midway between Toronto and Kingston and Montreal and Quebec City. Additionally, despite Ottawa's regional isolation it had seasonal water transportation access to Montreal over the Ottawa River and to Kingston via the Rideau Waterway. By 1854 it had a modern all season Bytown and Prescott Railway that carried passengers and supplies the 82-kilometres to Prescott on the Saint Lawrence River and beyond. Ottawa's small size, it was thought, would make it less prone to rampaging politically motivated mobs, as had happened in the previous Canadian capitals; the government owned the land that would become Parliament Hill which they thought would be an ideal location for the Parliament Buildings. Ottawa was th
Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada. Centred on the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, it is near the longitudinal centre of North America 110 kilometres north of the Canada–United States border; the city is named after the nearby Lake Winnipeg. The region was a trading centre for aboriginal peoples long before the arrival of Europeans. French traders built the first fort on the site in 1738. A settlement was founded by the Selkirk settlers of the Red River Colony in 1812, the nucleus of, incorporated as the City of Winnipeg in 1873; as of 2011, Winnipeg is the seventh most populated municipality in Canada. Being far inland, the local climate is seasonal by Canadian standards with average January lows of around −21 °C and average July highs of 26 °C. Known as the "Gateway to the West", Winnipeg is a railway and transportation hub with a diversified economy; this multicultural city hosts numerous annual festivals, including the Festival du Voyageur, the Winnipeg Folk Festival, the Jazz Winnipeg Festival, the Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival, Folklorama.
Winnipeg was the first Canadian host of the Pan American Games. It is home to several professional sports franchises, including the Winnipeg Blue Bombers, the Winnipeg Jets, Manitoba Moose, Valour FC, the Winnipeg Goldeyes. Winnipeg lies at the confluence of the Assiniboine and the Red River of the North, a location now known as "The Forks"; this point was at the crossroads of canoe routes travelled by First Nations before European contact. Winnipeg is named after nearby Lake Winnipeg. Evidence provided by archaeology, rock art and oral history indicates that native peoples used the area in prehistoric times for camping, hunting, tool making, trading and, farther north, for agriculture. Estimates of the date of first settlement in this area range from 11,500 years ago for a site southwest of the present city to 6,000 years ago at The Forks. In 1805, Canadian colonists observed First Nations peoples engaged in farming activity along the Red River; the practice expanded, driven by the demand by traders for provisions.
The rivers provided an extensive transportation network linking northern First Peoples with those to the south along the Missouri and Mississippi rivers. The Ojibwe made some of the first maps on birch bark, which helped fur traders navigate the waterways of the area. Sieur de La Vérendrye built the first fur trading post on the site in 1738, called Fort Rouge. French trading continued at this site for several decades before the arrival of the British Hudson's Bay Company after France ceded the territory following its defeat in the Seven Years' War. Many French men who were trappers married First Nations women, they developed as an ethnicity known as the Métis because of sharing a traditional culture. Lord Selkirk was involved with the first permanent settlement, the purchase of land from the Hudson's Bay Company, a survey of river lots in the early 19th century; the North West Company built Fort Gibraltar in 1809, the Hudson's Bay Company built Fort Douglas in 1812, both in the area of present-day Winnipeg.
The two companies competed fiercely over trade. The Métis and Lord Selkirk's settlers fought at the Battle of Seven Oaks in 1816. In 1821, the Hudson's Bay and North West Companies merged. Fort Gibraltar was renamed Fort Garry in 1822 and became the leading post in the region for the Hudson's Bay Company. A flood destroyed the fort in 1826 and it was not rebuilt until 1835. A rebuilt section of the fort, consisting of the front gate and a section of the wall, is near the modern-day corner of Main Street and Broadway Avenue in downtown Winnipeg. In 1869–70, present-day Winnipeg was the site of the Red River Rebellion, a conflict between the local provisional government of Métis, led by Louis Riel, newcomers from eastern Canada. General Garnet Wolseley was sent to put down the uprising; the Manitoba Act of 1870 made Manitoba the fifth province of the three-year-old Canadian Confederation. Treaty 1, which encompassed the city and much of the surrounding area, was signed on 3 August 1871 by representatives of the Crown and local Indigenous groups, comprising the Brokenhead Ojibway, Long Plain, Roseau River Anishinabe, Sandy Bay and Swan Lake communities.
On 8 November 1873, Winnipeg was incorporated with the Selkirk settlement as its nucleus. Métis legislator and interpreter James McKay named the city. Winnipeg's mandate was to govern and provide municipal services to citizens attracted to trade expansion between Upper Fort Garry / Lower Fort Garry and Saint Paul, Minnesota. Winnipeg developed after the coming of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1881; the railway divided the North End, which housed Eastern Europeans, from the richer Anglo-Saxon southern part of the city. It contributed to a demographic shift beginning shortly after Confederation that saw the francophone population decrease from a majority to a small minority group; this shift resulted in Premier Thomas Greenway controversially ending legislative bilingualism and removing funding for French Catholic Schools in 1890. By 1911, Winnipeg was Canada's third-largest city. However, the city faced financial difficulty when the Panama Canal opened in 1914; the canal reduced reliance on Canada's rail system for international trade.