Zoloty Potik castle
Zoloty Potik castle is an architectural landmark of Polish and Ukrainian national significance in Ternopil Oblast, Western Ukraine built under the Polish rule between the 16th and 17th centuries nearby the urban-type settlement of Złoty Potok. The Voivode of Bracław and a wealthy Polish nobleman Stefan Potocki and his spouse, Maria Amalia Mohylanka, funded the castle construction on the turn of 16th to 17th centuries to the order of the Polish King Sigismund III Vasa. At the end of 18th century it was a residence of Jan Potocki’s family, the founders' son and its owner; the castle had been serving as his headquarter on the verge of Turk-Tatar inroad and following its destruction on September 1676. In 1672 Turkish-Tatar armed forces under command of sultan Mohamed IV captured the castle in the course of two days combat. Embattled troops gave up their positions. On September 4 or 5th of 1676 Turkish-Tatar army commanded by Ibrahim Pasha ceased the castle exploding main bearing wall. Stronghold defenders all together with people sheltered inside fiercely resisted the assault and having been defeated in the aftermath were executed had their throats slashed.
Castled was burnt and entrance towers sustained most of the damage. Guardians of under aged Stefan Aleksander Potocki, castle’s owner restored the enceinte on having Turks retreated. Rebuilding completed on the brink of the 18th century; when the first subdivision of Poland occurs in 1772, Złoty Potok governing transitioned to Habsburg Austria. Around the year of 1840 therein castle owner, reconstructed the castle into the palace by design of Italian architect in the course of which part of the bulwark been destroyed and all the fine architectural details of masonry as baluster, baroque windows and doors trimming unscrupulously eradicated. On work having been completed, stone building appeared to be one story containing gin shop, Classic principal facade, Victorian Gothic back yard and flank facades. Lime-trees were planted in some sculpture work installed. Walking into the enceinte one could find under the feet a bas-relief portrait of Polish poet and writer Adam Mickiewicz. There is a long row of people.
Złoty Potok Castle preserved well though remained in desolation and partial ruination. This historic landmark positioned at the city's central headquarters nearby a rivulet falling into Złoty Potok pond; the villagers' residences located next to the stronghold bulwark. The castle shaped in the form of rectangular, it was built out of local field stone of auburn color. Bulwark thickness varied around 2 m, the corners of each wall has a tower with three levels of embrasures; the midsection of south north curtain wall contains a gate house being the style of Late Renaissance. Castle was of one story tall; the second story was added later. On the inside the gate ornamented with hereditary insignia of Piława; some sources inform. The western part of the castle yard housed a water well eliminated in 19th century. Castle views Створено графічну реконструкцію зовнішнього вигляду зруйнованих замків Західної України
Medieval reenactment is a form of historical reenactment that focuses on re-enacting European history in the period from the fall of Rome to about the end of the 15th century. The second half of this period is called the Middle Ages; this multiplicity of terms is compounded by the variety of other terms used for the period. The first period is sometimes called the Migration Period or Dark Ages by Western European historians, as Völkerwanderung by German historians; this term is reserved for the 5th and 6th centuries. Re-enactors who re-create the next period of history - 7th to 11th centuries - refer to this as Early medieval; the 12th to 14th centuries fall under the term High medieval, while the 15th century is termed Late medieval. With such a wide range of eras most medieval reenactment groups focus on a smaller time period, sometimes restricting their interest to a particular century, or a specific decade, series of battles, or monarch, depending on how authentic the reenactment and encampment is intended to be.
Medieval period oriented living history groups and reenactors focus on recreating civilian or military life in period of the Middle Ages. It is popular in Eastern Europe; the goal of the reenactor and their group is to portray an accurate interpretation of a person who credibly could exist at a specific place at a specific point in time while at the same time remaining approachable to the public. Examples of living history activities include authentic camping, practicing historical skills and trades, playing historical musical instruments or board games. Renaissance Fair participants borrow from a range of history and incorporate fantasy or Hollywood-inspired elements into a presentation for public entertainment. In contrast, activities of the Society for Creative Anachronism include everything from artistic disguises for modern items such as ice chests, to exhaustive research and authentic living history events; the principal aim of this sort of reenactment is to re-create historical battles or methods of combat.
The variations range from training of historical dueling practices, to reenactment of historical or legendary battles of the medieval period. Some groups treating historical combat as a martial art do not fit the traditional definition of a reenactment group and are more similar to fencing clubs. An example is the SCA. Others combine the sport with more traditional forms such as living history, it is usual to fight using more restricted target areas than in a real fight and with less speed and force, although some systems try to get as close to real combat as possible. Many societies try to reenact actual battles near the battle site; these events are open to the public to watch. Other societies such as the SCA hire venues for private events, including combat, without any public present; the Federation of the Wars of the Roses is a British–based society which specialises in reenactments of the 15th Century. It stages events at historical sites all over Britain, including those on or near actual battle sites.
There are rules on weapons and armour which are observed by the Households that are Federation members. New Households wishing to enter the Federation are sponsored by established ones, endure a probationary period to ensure standards are observed. There have been many isolated examples of medieval reenactment in Europe, notably the Eglinton Tournament of 1839. In modern times, medieval reenactment has been popular in the United Kingdom, starting in the late 1960s and growing every year since, with groups from all over England, Scotland and Wales participating in events. Many UK battles are reenacted at their original battle sites by enthusiasts with a high degree of authenticity, together with Medieval traders, caterers. UK reenactors can be seen throughout the country during the summer months at battles, carnivals, fetes and schools. Throughout the UK, reenactors use blunted steel weapons for reenactments and rubber tipped arrows for archers, or steel heads when target shooting; the largest early medieval event in the UK is the Battle of Hastings reenactment, which in 2006 had over 3600 registered participants and combined living history and combat reenactment.
Most UK battles have at some point been reenacted such as the Battle of Lewes and the Battle of Evesham, many historical battles are reenacted annually from periods such as the Wars of the Roses, including the Battle of Bosworth Field and the Battle of Tewkesbury. Others are carried out at irregular intervals depending on the site availability and funding for the event, such as the Battle of Bannockburn. Belgium has at least two dozen separate groups of medieval reenactors, including the Order of the Hagelanders, the Gentsche Ghesellen and the Gruuthuse Household serving Lewis de Bruges, lord of Gruuthuse; the open air museum Middelaldercentret uses living history and historical reenactment to portrait a part of a small Danish merchant town. Several reenactment groups exists in Denmark which are doing medieval reenactment at markets around the country. In France there is an annual reenactment of the Battle of Agincourt representing a battle of the Hundred Years War. In Germany medieval reenactment is associated with living history and renaissance faires and festivals as e.g. the Peter and Paul festival in Bretten. or the Schloss Kaltenberg knights tournament.
In the past few years combat reenactment has gained some ground as well. A few groups are training historical combat such as longsword dueling and dussack fighting at universities
Lida Castle was one of several citadels erected by Grand Duke Gediminas of Lithuania in the early 14th century to defend his lands against the expansion of the Teutonic Knights. Other links in this chain of defense included Hrodna, Kreva and Trakai; the modern town of Lida, Belarus grew up around this castle. Lida Castle is 141 metres above sea level; the site selected for the castle is defended by the Kamenka and Lida rivers to east and west. Construction of boulder walls was carried out in 1323, 1324, 1325, they were faced with red brick. The castle had two angle towers and a church, moved outside the walls in 1533; the upper storeys of both towers were lived in. Despite its strong fortifications, Lida was taken by the Teutonic Knights on several occasions. Lithuanian Grand Duke Vytautas gave it to his ally, Khan Tokhtamysh, who settled "in a yurt near the castle". In 1406, the family of Yury of Smolensk was locked up in Lida as hostages. In 1433, Lida was a point of contention between his cousin Sigismund Kęstutaitis.
The following decades were somewhat less stormy. Lida was ravaged by the Crimean Tatars in 1506 and it was stormed by the Russians during the Russo-Polish War in 1659; the Swedes, taking it twice during the Great Northern War, had both towers blown up. In 1794, the castle grounds were the site of a battle between Kościuszko's followers and the Russians. After the city fire of 1891, the south-western tower and parts of the western wall of the castle were torn down to provide stone for repairing fire-damaged houses. A team of archaeologists from St. Petersburg intervened to halt vandalism. There was only a slight restoration of the walls in the 1920s. During much of the 20th century, an itinerant zoo or circus occupied the castle compound; every December a Christmas tree was placed within the walls. It was not until 1982; the red brick was used to denote up to 12 metres high. Significant restoration occurred in 2010; each year, the Lida Castle hosts a medieval-style tournament. A museum is being created within its towers.
М. Шимелевич. Город Лида и Лидский замок Lida Castle on official website of the Republic of Belarus
Maciej Stryjkowski was a Polish and Lithuanian historian, writer and a poet, notable as the author of Chronicle of Poland, Lithuania and all of Ruthenia. The work is considered to be the first printed book on the history of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Maciej Stryjkowski was born around 1547 in Stryków, a town in the Rawa Voivodeship in the Kingdom of Poland, he graduated from a local school in the town of Brzeziny, after which he joined the army of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and served in the forces of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. He served in a garrison in Vitebsk under Alexander Guagnini, he was a Pole, but spent most of his life in the Grand Duchy as a soldier. Around 1573, at the age of 25, he retired from active service and became a protégé of Merkelis Giedraitis, the bishop of Samogitia. Stryjkowski became a Catholic priest and ended as a provost at the parish of Jurbarkas, a small village in the Lithuanian-Prussian borderland. There he devoted his life to writing a monumental chronicle of the lands of Poland-Lithuania published in Königsberg in 1582.
The book, published under the title of Chronicle of Poland, Lithuania and all of Ruthenia of Kiev, Novgorod... is a classic piece of literature written in the Polish language and detailed much of the history of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and its parts from their legendary roots up to 1581. Some fragments of his work are written in Lithuanian language, he encouraged Lithuanian nobility to use the Lithuanian language. The chronicle was a successful compilation of earlier chronicles by Jan Długosz and Maciej Miechowita, but includes Ruthenian chronicles, folk tales and legends, it gained much fame among the szlachta and it is argued that Stryjkowski was among the Polish-Lithuanian writers to shape the Lithuanian national identity, as his works were copied by scores of writers and chroniclers in all parts of the region. Until the 19th century the works of Stryjkowski were considered to be the basic sources of information on early period of history of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, it was not until the advent of modern historiography that his chronicle started to be criticised and disputed due to his favour of the magnates, lack of distinction between legends and historic accounts and his theory on the Roman origin of the Lithuanian ruling families.
In 1577 Stryjkowski authored a large epic poem On the beginnings of the famed nation of Lithuania, which however was not published until after Stryjkowski's death. He died around the year 1593, though place remain unknown. J. Radziszewska, Maciej Stryjkowski, historyk-poet z epoki Odrodzenia, Katowice, 1978. Julia Radziszewska. Maciej Stryjkowski: historyk-poeta z epoki Odrodzenia. Katowice: Silesian University. * List of Lithuanian Gods Found in Maciej Sryjkowski chonicle by Gintaras Beresnevičius Front page of Strykowski's chronicle and his contemporary portrait
Olyka Castle was the principal seat of the Radziwill princely family in Volhynia from 1564 until the late 18th century. The founder of the castle was Prince Mikołaj "the Black" Radziwiłł who gave Olyka to his youngest son Stanisław. Two senior branches of the Radziwill family were based in Kletsk; the Olyka Castle was immensely influential as the first square fort with corner bastions in the Kresy and the prototype of many similar structures found in Eastern Europe. It was continuously under construction for eight decades and sustained numerous sieges between 1591 and 1648, it is one of the biggest castles in Ukraine, with 365 rooms. During Napoleon's invasion of Russia a Russian military hospital moved in and continued in use until 1837. An 1840 document refers to the castle as untenanted. In 1883, a campaign of restoration was launched but it was not taken to its conclusion until after the First World War; the Olyka Castle comprises four residential buildings of unequal height, forming a court in the middle and encircled by a moat.
The towers of the original castle have crumbled to the ground, but the network of bastions is still in place. The main palace of three storeys, although built in the 16th century, is the upshot of renovations carried out in the 17th and 18th centuries. Other buildings of the castle complex include a 17th-century gateway, a two-storey clock tower, the Collegiate Church of the Holy Trinity, an elaborate replica of Il Gesu. During World War II, the Radziwill Fortress was the site of Nazi persecution of Olyka Jews in the Holocaust; as part of the Einsatzgruppen aktion of August 1941, 720 Jews were killed at the Olyka Castle and nearby. In July 1942, several hundred Jews perished in the castle. Monuments outside Olyka commemorate the place of execution of more than 4,000 Jews in Summer 1942 – in and around the Olyka ghetto, Radziwill Fortress, Olyka Castle, surrounding areas. Israel's Holon Cemetery has a monument in memory of the Jews of Olyka and its surroundings, who perished in the Holocaust. A psychiatric hospital, Volyn’s Hospital No.
2, is now located at the site of the Olyka Castle. The only part of the castle closed for visitors is a chamber for the Princes and their servants. Памятники градостроительства и архитектуры Украинской ССР. В 4-х томах. Гл. редкол.: Н. Л. Жариков. -К.: Будiвельник, 1983—1986. Том 2, с. 79-82
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth – formally, the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and, after 1791, the Commonwealth of Poland – was a dual state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, both King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. It was one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th– to 17th-century Europe. At its largest territorial extent, in the early 17th century, the Commonwealth covered 400,000 square miles and sustained a multi-ethnic population of 11 million; the Commonwealth was established by the Union of Lublin in July 1569, but the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania had been in a de facto personal union since 1386 with the marriage of the Polish queen Hedwig and Lithuania's Grand Duke Jogaila, crowned King jure uxoris Władysław II Jagiełło of Poland. The First Partition of Poland in 1772 and the Second Partition of Poland in 1793 reduced the state's size and the Commonwealth collapsed as an independent state following the Third Partition of Poland in 1795.
The Union possessed many features unique among contemporary states. Its political system was characterized by strict checks upon monarchical power; these checks were enacted by a legislature controlled by the nobility. This idiosyncratic system was a precursor to modern concepts of democracy, constitutional monarchy, federation. Although the two component states of the Commonwealth were formally equal, Poland was the dominant partner in the union; the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was marked by high levels of ethnic diversity and by relative religious tolerance, guaranteed by the Warsaw Confederation Act 1573. The Constitution of 1791 acknowledged Catholicism as the "dominant religion", unlike the Warsaw Confederation, but freedom of religion was still granted with it. After several decades of prosperity, it entered a period of protracted political and economic decline, its growing weakness led to its partitioning among its neighbors during the late 18th century. Shortly before its demise, the Commonwealth adopted a massive reform effort and enacted the May 3 Constitution—the first codified constitution in modern European history and the second in modern world history.
The official name of the state was The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Latin term was used in international treaties and diplomacy. In the 17th century and it was known as the Most Serene Commonwealth of Poland, the Commonwealth of the Polish Kingdom, or the Commonwealth of Poland, its inhabitants referred to it in everyday speech as the "Rzeczpospolita". Western Europeans simply called it Poland and in most past and modern sources it is referred to as the Kingdom of Poland, or just Poland; the terms: the Commonwealth of Poland and the Commonwealth of Two Nations were used in the Reciprocal Guarantee of Two Nations. The English term'Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth' and German'Polen-Litauen' are seen as renderings of the Commonwealth of Two Nations variant. Other names include the Republic of Nobles and the First Commonwealth, the latter common in Polish historiography. Poland and Lithuania underwent an alternating series of wars and alliances during the 14th century and early 15th century.
Several agreements between the two were struck before the permanent 1569 Union of Lublin. This agreement was one of the signal achievements of Sigismund II Augustus, last monarch of the Jagiellon dynasty. Sigismund believed, his death in 1572 was followed by a three-year interregnum during which adjustments were made to the constitutional system. The Commonwealth reached its Golden Age in the early 17th century, its powerful parliament was dominated by nobles who were reluctant to get involved in the Thirty Years' War. The Commonwealth was able to hold its own against Sweden, the Tsardom of Russia, vassals of the Ottoman Empire, launched successful expansionist offensives against its neighbors. In several invasions during the Time of Troubles, Commonwealth troops entered Russia and managed to take Moscow and hold it from 27 September 1610 to 4 November 1612, when they were driven out after a siege. Commonwealth power began waning after a series of blows during the following decades. A major rebellion of Ukrainian Cossacks in the southeastern portion of the Commonwealth began in 1648.
It resulted in a Ukrainian request, under the terms of the Treaty of Pereyaslav, for protection by the Russian Tsar. Russian annexation of part of Ukraine supplanted Polish influence; the other blow to the Commonwealth was a Swedish invasion in 1655, known as the Deluge, supported by troops of Transylvanian Duke George II Rákóczi a
Kremenets Castle is situated in the city of Kremenets, Ukraine. The castle was built of limestone on a steep hill; the keep located on its west side, its width was 65 metres and length of 135 metres. All the elevation was surrounded by a tall stone wall, in the earlier ages of the 13th century wood as building material was used instead; the castle is known as an impregnable citadel, tried by many as 1226 Hungarian king Andrew the Second, 1240 – 1241 Batu Khan. Kremenets Castle was one of few that survived inroads of Mongol hordes on the land of Kievan Rus', 1255 Kuremsa, tumen of Batu Khan, 1261 fortress was demolished to an order of Vasyl’ko the Landlord in demand of Boroldai, Mongol general. Anew the castle was rebuilt by landlords Liubartas, Svitrigaila. 1569 the castle became a property of queen Bona Sforza with forthcoming renovation conforming to Renaissance architectural style and upgrade. 1648 marshal bastion had been captured by Cossacks squadrons in an aftermath of 6 week long siege.
Maksym Kryvonis lead the attack. When facts and people put together in millennium long history, it is quite a story. Further we depart into depth of the centuries. According to some Polish sources, Kremenets as a fortified town had existed by the year of 1064, when front ranks of landlord Bolesław II the Generous charged it being an obstacle during his Kievan campaign. A few decades afterwards following unsuccessful attack on the town of Ikva enacted with the same squadrons of Bolesław II the Generous, the castle gates were opened voluntarily to the order of his owner, Denisko Mokasiev; as a reward he with his family received a lifelong town propriety patent of Kremenets. Russian sources based on Galicia annals refer to the fortress in the course of the battle between Galiciaa landlord Mstislav the Lucky against the army of Hungarian king Andrew II the Jerosolimitan in the vicinity of Kremenets; the winning streak of Hungarian forces were snapped. The city was one of a few that persisted through Golden Horde inroads on the land of Galicia and Volyn' during 1241–1255, nonetheless losing its commissioner who resorted to treason trying to remain in power.
The castle only could not survive to the will of its defenders. In 1261 to the order of Khan Boroldai's tumen, the stronghold was disassembled by Volyn' landlord, Vasyl’ko Romanovich. Life on the castle hill revived only 20 years in the 1290s, to those days' initiative of Volyn' ruler, lord Mstislav Danilovych, in the years following 1292. Difficult fortunes plagued that fringed fastness in the 14th century, since the downfall of Galicia-Volyn' dominion brought about power struggle of neighboring sovereigns, as Poland, Lithuanian challenged each other. Kremenets Castle dilapidated at the century winding. Having turned out in the year of 1396 year to the hands of great Lithuanian prince Vytautas, the fortress of Kremenets acquired some certainty, as it was being repaired and battle readiness restored. Behind its walls a military squadron was dislocated; the power gained again together with distinctiveness and illustrious forbidding originated from king's choice of royal dungeon owned by the prince Švitrigaila.
For the centuries to come the fate of disgraced prisoner until the year of 1408 and thereafter the great prince of Lithuania as well as prince of Volhynia tied with that ground. Having become to him a bastile it was a stronghold of his encroach on Litvonia sovereign, it could be for that only reason town was entitled conducting self-governing status under the clause of province equal to Lutsk and Vladimir. Facing increasing Tatar aggression for half of the century, fort-post overlooking river Ikva therein as Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth property became perpetual battleground ascribing it to its borderline disposition. Although for that matter there were benefits reaped out of it. Generous outfitting subventions and security upgrades gave a momentum to further city development. Again, the castle's importance to the state was conformed by the Polish king and Litvonia prince' decree bestowing the town and vicinities to his spouse, Bona Sforza, thanks to whom Castle Hill received its another name, Bona.
By the same streak fortress got new impulse for its development attributed to boundaries expansion of land and property. Last days Kremenets Castle met in September 1648 in the course of a month and a half siege of Maksym Kryvonis' squadrons. Tombstones remained as a mute reminder of a bloody attack, when the fortress first and the last time fell in order to never rise from ashes again. Archaeological excavations organised in the 1970s were performed on the castle ground. There were ethereal ideas of restoration bringing it from the limbo, but inspiration and fund raising are lacking to do it practically. Krements Castle came into existence long before princess Bona Sforza, wife of Polish king Sigismund the First, it is theorized, that the stronghold was erected in the 9th century. First written citations of Krements were found in Polish literature of 1064; the castle received great fame after unsuccessful horde attack of Batu Khan in the winter time of 1240–41. The fortress became known by the name of Polish princess of Bona Sforza.
People of the countryside narrated many imaginary stories on her behalf. She sought eternal youth. In the course of absence any medicinal treatment that would provide it for her, Sforza would have to use blood of innocent virgins, they were thrown off store height in the castle tower on sharp stakes of lettuce work bearing, while the store d