A reservoir is, most an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water. Reservoirs can be created in a number of ways, including controlling a watercourse that drains an existing body of water, interrupting a watercourse to form an embayment within it, through excavation, or building any number of retaining walls or levees. Defined as a storage space for fluids, reservoirs may hold gasses, including hydrocarbons. Tank reservoirs elevated, or buried tanks. Tank reservoirs for water are called cisterns. Most underground reservoirs are used to store liquids, principally either water or petroleum, below ground. Reservoir is most an enlarged natural or artificial lake. A dam constructed in a valley relies on the natural topography to provide most of the basin of the reservoir. Dams are located at a narrow part of a valley downstream of a natural basin; the valley sides act as natural walls, with the dam located at the narrowest practical point to provide strength and the lowest cost of construction.
In many reservoir construction projects, people have to be moved and re-housed, historical artifacts moved or rare environments relocated. Examples include the temples of Abu Simbel, the relocation of the village of Capel Celyn during the construction of Llyn Celyn, the relocation of Borgo San Pietro of Petrella Salto during the construction of Lake Salto. Construction of a reservoir in a valley will need the river to be diverted during part of the build through a temporary tunnel or by-pass channel. In hilly regions, reservoirs are constructed by enlarging existing lakes. Sometimes in such reservoirs, the new top water level exceeds the watershed height on one or more of the feeder streams such as at Llyn Clywedog in Mid Wales. In such cases additional side dams are required to contain the reservoir. Where the topography is poorly suited to a single large reservoir, a number of smaller reservoirs may be constructed in a chain, as in the River Taff valley where the Llwyn-on, Cantref and Beacons Reservoirs form a chain up the valley.
Coastal reservoirs are fresh water storage reservoirs located on the sea coast near the river mouth to store the flood water of a river. As the land based reservoir construction is fraught with substantial land submergence, coastal reservoir is preferred economically and technically since it does not use scarce land area. Many coastal reservoirs were constructed in Europe. Saemanguem in South Korea, Marina Barrage in Singapore and Plover Cove in China, etc are few existing coastal reservoirs. Where water is pumped or siphoned from a river of variable quality or size, bank-side reservoirs may be built to store the water; such reservoirs are formed by excavation and by building a complete encircling bund or embankment, which may exceed 6 km in circumference. Both the floor of the reservoir and the bund must have an impermeable lining or core: these were made of puddled clay, but this has been superseded by the modern use of rolled clay; the water stored in such reservoirs may stay there for several months, during which time normal biological processes may reduce many contaminants and eliminate any turbidity.
The use of bank-side reservoirs allows water abstraction to be stopped for some time, when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are low due to drought. The London water supply system is one example of the use of bank-side storage: the water is taken from the River Thames and River Lee. Service reservoirs store treated potable water close to the point of distribution. Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers as elevated structures on concrete pillars where the landscape is flat. Other service reservoirs can be entirely underground in more hilly or mountainous country. In the United Kingdom, Thames Water has many underground reservoirs, sometimes called cisterns, built in the 1800s, most of which are lined with brick. A good example is the Honor Oak Reservoir in London, constructed between 1901 and 1909; when it was completed it was said to be the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and it is still one of the largest in Europe. This reservoir now forms part of the southern extension of the Thames Water Ring Main.
The top of the reservoir is now used by the Aquarius Golf Club. Service reservoirs perform several functions, including ensuring sufficient head of water in the water distribution system and providing water capacity to out peak demand from consumers, enabling the treatment plant to run at optimum efficiency. Large service reservoirs can be managed to reduce the cost of pumping, by refilling the reservoir at times of day when energy costs are low. Circa 3 000 BC, the craters of extinct volcanoes in Arabia were used as reservoirs by farmers for their irrigation water. Dry climate and water scarcity in India led to early development of stepwells and water resource management techniques, including the building of a reservoir at Girnar in 3000 BC. Artificial lakes dating to the 5th century BC have been found in ancient Greece; the artificial Bhojsagar lake in present-day Madhya Pradesh state of India, constructed in the 11th century, covered 650 square kilometres. In Sri Lanka large reservoirs were created by ancient Sinhalese kings in order to save the water for irrigation.
The famous Sri Lankan king Pa
Archuleta County, Colorado
Archuleta County is one of the 64 counties in the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 12,084; the county seat and the only incorporated municipality in the county is Pagosa Springs. Archuleta County was created by the Colorado legislature on April 14, 1885, out of western Conejos County, it was named for Jose Manuel Archuleta, "head of one of the old Spanish families of New Mexico", in honor of his son Antonio D. Archuleta, the Senator from Conejos County at the time. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,356 square miles, of which 1,350 square miles is land and 5.3 square miles is water. Mineral County, Colorado - north Rio Grande County, Colorado - northeast Conejos County, Colorado - east Rio Arriba County, New Mexico - south San Juan County, New Mexico - southwest La Plata County, Colorado - west Hinsdale County, Colorado - northwest Rio Grande National Forest San Juan National Forest Chimney Rock National Monument South San Juan Wilderness Navajo State Park Continental Divide National Scenic Trail Old Spanish National Historic Trail As of the census of 2000, there were 9,898 people, 3,980 households, 2,873 families residing in the county.
The population density was 7 people per square mile. There were 6,212 housing units at an average density of 5 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 88.33% White, 0.35% Black or African American, 1.40% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 6.97% from other races, 2.60% from two or more races. 16.76% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,980 households out of which 31.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.80% were married couples living together, 8.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.80% were non-families. 22.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.89. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.30% under the age of 18, 6.30% from 18 to 24, 26.10% from 25 to 44, 30.40% from 45 to 64, 11.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years.
For every 100 females there were 102.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,901, the median income for a family was $43,259. Males had a median income of $29,521 versus $21,851 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,683. About 9.00% of families and 11.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.00% of those under age 18 and 6.60% of those age 65 or over. Pagosa Springs Arboles Chimney Rock Chromo Juanita Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles Colorado census statistical areas National Register of Historic Places listings in Archuleta County, Colorado Archuleta County Government website Colorado County Evolution by Don Stanwyck Colorado Historical Society
Blue Mesa Dam
Blue Mesa Dam is a 390-foot-tall zoned earthfill dam on the Gunnison River in Colorado. It creates Blue Mesa Reservoir, is within Curecanti National Recreation Area just before the river enters the Black Canyon of the Gunnison; the dam is upstream of the Morrow Point Dam. Blue Mesa Dam and reservoir are part of the Bureau of Reclamation's Wayne N. Aspinall Unit of the Colorado River Storage Project, which retains the waters of the Colorado River and its tributaries for agricultural and municipal use in the American Southwest; the dam's primary purpose is hydroelectric power generation. State Highway 92 passes over the top of the dam. Blue Mesa Dam houses two turbine generators and produces an average of 264,329,000 kilowatt-hours each year; the dam stands in an area where sandstone and shale overlay pre-Cambrian granite and gneiss. It is situated at a narrows in the river valley where the Gunnison enters the upper reaches of the Black Canyon of the Gunnison; the dam has a volume of 3,080,000 cubic yards and the spillway intake structure has two radial gates.
These discharge into a concrete-lined tunnel which in turn discharges through a flip bucket into a stilling basin. The Curecanti Project was conceived in 1955 with four dams, it was approved by the Secretary of the Interior in 1959, comprising Blue Mesa Dam and Morrow Point Dam. Crystal Dam's design was unfinished and was approved in 1962. Plans for a fourth dam were dropped as uneconomical; the project was restricted to the stretch of the Gunnison above Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Monument, a 40 miles length of the river. Planned as a concrete dam, the project was changed to an earthfill design. Work on the dam started with foundation drilling and survey work. Construction of the reservoir required the relocation of US 50 and State Highway 149; this relocation was among the first work to be performed, starting in 1962 and continuing through 1964. The Sapinero Cemetery was relocated; the primary construction contract for the dam was awarded to the Tecon Corporation of Dallas, with notice to proceed on April 23, 1962.
The diversion tunnel was holed through on September 7, 1962, with excavation of the spillway tunnel completed by the April 1963. Drilling and grouting for the dam's foundation started in March 1963; the Gunnison was diverted through its tunnel on October, with excavation of the foundation to bedrock after. Placement of the dam embankments started in 1964, continuing through the year, with the dam embankment completed at the end of 1965; the diversion tunnel was closed in December and the reservoir began to fill, with final closure of the diversion tunnel on February 7, 1966. The dam project was declared complete on October 19, 1966; the powerplant project was delayed by a delivery accident to a transformer, damaged in an accident in September 1966 near Monarch Pass and had to be shipped back to its manufacturer in Sweden for repair. The powerplant was completed on February 16, 1968. Spillway modifications took place in 1984-85 to repair damage, while a uniform and cosmetic covering of riprap was applied to the dam face.
The Blue Mesa Powerplant is fed by one 16-foot diameter penstock, which supplies two turbines, as well as feeding the outlet works. The laterals feeding the Francis turbines are controlled by 156-inch butterfly valves. Initial generating capacity was 60 MW, increased in 1988 to 86.4 MW. The powerplant is located above ground at the toe of the dam, it operates as peaking plant. Blue Mesa Dam at the Bureau of Reclamation Blue Mesa Powerplant at the Bureau of Reclamation Wayne N. Aspinall Storage Unit at Curecanti National Recreation Area
San Juan County, New Mexico
San Juan County is a county in the U. S. state of New Mexico. As of the 2010 census, the population was 130,044, making it the fifth-most populous county in New Mexico, its county seat is Aztec. The county was created in 1887. San Juan County is part of NM Metropolitan Statistical Area, it includes the New Mexico portion of the Four Corners. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 5,538 square miles, of which 5,513 square miles is land and 25 square miles is water. Indian reservations comprise 63.4 percent of the county's land area: The Navajo Nation takes up 60.45% and the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Reservation another 2.93%. The physical features include three rivers: the San Juan, La Plata rivers. Aztec Ruins National Monument Chaco Culture National Historical Park U. S. Route 64 U. S. Route 491 U. S. Route 550 New Mexico State Road 371 New Mexico State Road 516 New Mexico State Road 597 As of the census of 2000, there were 113,801 people, 37,711 households, 28,924 families residing in the county.
The population density was 21 people per square mile. There were 43,221 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 52.83% White, 0.44% Black or African American, 36.88% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 6.77% from other races, 2.78% from two or more races. 14.99% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 37,712 households, out of which 42.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.70% were married couples living together, 14.70% had a female head of household with no husband present, 23.30% were non-families. 19.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.99 and the average family size was 3.43. In the county, the population was spread out with 32.60% under the age of 18, 10.00% from 18 to 24, 28.10% from 25 to 44, 20.20% from 45 to 64, 9.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years.
For every 100 females there were 98.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,762, the median income for a family was $37,382. Males had a median income of $35,066 versus $21,299 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,282. About 18.00% of families and 21.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.60% of those under age 18 and 18.20% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, there were 130,044 people, 44,404 households, 32,457 families residing in the county; the population density was 23.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 49,341 housing units at an average density of 8.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 51.6% white, 36.6% American Indian, 0.6% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 7.3% from other races, 3.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 19.1% of the population. The largest ancestry groups were: Of the 44,404 households, 40.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.7% were married couples living together, 15.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.9% were non-families, 21.9% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.89 and the average family size was 3.38. The median age was 33.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $46,189 and the median income for a family was $53,540. Males had a median income of $44,984 versus $30,245 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,725. About 15.9% of families and 20.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.0% of those under age 18 and 19.1% of those age 65 or over. Aztec Bloomfield Farmington Fruitland Riverside Bisti/De-Na-Zin Wilderness National Register of Historic Places listings in San Juan County, New Mexico
Morrow Point Dam
Morrow Point Dam is a 468-foot-tall concrete double-arch dam on the Gunnison River located in Colorado, the first dam of its type built by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation. Located in the upper Black Canyon of the Gunnison, it creates Morrow Point Reservoir, is within the National Park Service-operated Curecanti National Recreation Area; the dam is between the Crystal Dam. Morrow Point Dam and reservoir are part of the Bureau of Reclamation's Wayne N. Aspinall Unit of the Colorado River Storage Project, which retains the waters of the Colorado River and its tributaries for agricultural and municipal use in the American Southwest; the dam's primary purpose is hydroelectric power generation. The dam and reservoir are contained in pre-Cambrian metamorphic rocks micaceous quartzite, quartz-mica and biotite schists, with granitic veining; the dam site is in a narrow canyon about 200 feet wide at the river and 550 feet wide at the top. The spillway discharge falls 350 feet into a stilling basin whose waters are retained by a weir below the dam.
Intake structures near the south abutment feed two 18 feet diameter penstock tunnels with 13.5 feet steel linings leading to the powerplant. A streamflow of 100 cubic feet per second is maintained at all times, equivalent to 200 acre feet per day; the Curecanti Project was conceived in 1955 with four dams. It was approved by the Secretary of the Interior in 1959, comprising Blue Mesa Dam and Morrow Point Dam. Crystal Dam's design was unfinished and was approved in 1962. Plans for a fourth dam were dropped as uneconomical; the project was restricted to the stretch of the Gunnison above Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Monument, a 40 miles length of the river. Work began at the damsite in 1961 with foundation drilling. In 1962 the power plant exploratory tunnel was excavated; the construction contract for the dam was awarded to a joint venture between the Al Johnson Construction Company and Morrison-Knudsen, with notice to proceed given on June 13, 1963. Access roads and a diversion tunnel were begun that year, with the diversion tunnel complete by May 1964.
Keyway excavation on either side of the dam continued through 1964. In 1965 work got underway with several tunnels started. Concrete for the dam was first placed on September 3, 1965; the powerplant was excavated by April 1966. Final concrete placement on the dam took place on September 14, 1967; the diversion tunnel was closed on January 24, 1968, with releases through the outlet structures the next day. Final completion was achieved for the dam on October 7, 1968, while work continued on the powerplant; the plant was accepted and a visitor center was completed in 1971, with final completion on May 12, 1972. The dam's grout curtain was extended in 1970 after leakage into the power plant reached 429 gallons per minute, using asphaltic emulsion and cement grout, reducing leakage to 37 gpm. Morrow Point Dam's powerplant is tunneled into the canyon wall 400 feet below the surface at the dam's left abutment, it houses two 86.667 MW generators, uprated from 60 MW each in 1992-1993. The generating hall measures 231 feet with between 64 metres and 134 feet of height.
First operating in 1970, it is operated as a peaking plant. An exploratory tunnel became a ventilation tunnel, while initial access during construction was made through the cable tunnel, with two headings raising the head of the tunnel arch. An access tunnel intersects the generating hall at a right angle, with two draft tubes excavated below. In irrigation season the powerplant is operated as a base load plant, providing peaking power in other seasons. Morrow Point Dam at the Bureau of Reclamation Morrow Point Powerplant at the Bureau of Reclamation Wayne N. Aspinall Storage Unit at Curecanti National Recreation Area
The Navajos are a Native American people of the Southwestern United States. The Navajo people are politically divided between two federally recognized tribes, the Navajo Nation and the Colorado River Indian Tribes. At more than 300,000 enrolled tribal members as of 2015, the Navajo Nation is the second-largest federally recognized tribe in the U. S. and has the largest reservation in the country. The reservation straddles the Four Corners region and covers more than 27,000 square miles of land in Arizona and New Mexico; the Navajo language is spoken throughout the region, most Navajo speak English. The states with the largest Navajo populations are New Mexico. More than three-quarters of the enrolled Navajo population resides in these two states; the Navajo are speakers of a Na-Dené Southern Athabaskan language. The language comprises mutually intelligible dialects; the Apache language is related to the Navajo language. Speakers of various other Athabaskan languages located in Canada may still comprehend the Navajo language despite the geographic and linguistic deviation of the languages.
Additionally, some Navajo speak Navajo Sign Language, either a dialect or daughter of Plains Sign Talk. Some speak Plains Sign Talk itself. Archaeological and historical evidence suggests the Athabaskan ancestors of the Navajo and Apache entered the Southwest around 1400 CE; the Navajo oral tradition is said to retain references to this migration. Until contact with the Pueblo and the Spanish peoples, the Navajo were hunters and gatherers; the tribe adopted crop-farming techniques from the Pueblo peoples, growing the traditional "Three Sisters" of corn and squash. After the Spanish colonists influenced the people, the Navajo began keeping and herding livestock—sheep and goats—as a main source of trade and food. Meat became an essential component of the Navajo diet. Sheep became a form of currency and status symbols among the Navajo based on the overall quantity of herds a family maintained. In addition, women began to weave wool into blankets and clothing. Oral history indicates a long relationship with Pueblo people and a willingness to incorporate Puebloan ideas and linguistic variance into their culture.
There were long-established trading practices between the groups. Spanish records from the mid-16th century recount the Pueblo exchanging maize and woven cotton goods for bison meat and stone from Athabaskans traveling to the pueblos or living in their vicinity. In the 18th century, the Spanish reported the Navajo maintaining large herds of livestock and cultivating large crop areas. Western historians believe that the Spanish before 1600 referred to the Navajo as Apaches or Quechos. Fray Geronimo de Zarate-Salmeron, in Jemez in 1622, used Apachu de Nabajo in the 1620s to refer to the people in the Chama Valley region, east of the San Juan River and northwest of present-day Santa Fe, New Mexico. Navahu comes from the Tewa language. By the 1640s, the Spanish began using the term Navajo to refer to the Diné. During the 1670s, the Spanish wrote that the Diné lived in a region known as Dinétah, about sixty miles west of the Rio Chama valley region. In the 1770s, the Spanish sent military expeditions against the Navajo in the Mount Taylor and Chuska Mountain regions of New Mexico.
The Spanish and Hopi continued to trade with each other and formed a loose alliance to fight Apache and Commanche bands for the next twenty years. During this time there were minor raids by Navajo bands and Spanish citizens against each other. In 1800 Governor Chacon led 500 men in an expedition to the Tunicha Mountains against the Navajo. Twenty Navajo chiefs asked for peace. In 1804 and 1805 the Navajo and Spanish mounted major expeditions against each other's settlements. In May 1805 another peace was established. Similar patterns of peace-making and trading among the Navajo, Apache and Hopi continued until the arrival of Americans in 1846; the Navajo encountered the United States Army in 1846, when General Stephen W. Kearny invaded Santa Fe with 1,600 men during the Mexican–American War. On November 21, 1846, following an invitation from a small party of American soldiers under the command of Captain John Reid, who journeyed deep into Navajo country and contacted him and other Navajo negotiated a treaty of peace with Colonel Alexander Doniphan at Bear Springs, Ojo del Oso.
This agreement by some New Mexicans. The Navajo raided New Mexican livestock, New Mexicans took women and livestock from the Navajo. In 1849, the military governor of New Mexico, Colonel John MacRae Washington—accompanied by John S. Calhoun, an Indian agent—led a force of 400 soldiers into Navajo country, penetrating Canyon de Chelly, he signed a treaty with two Navajo leaders: Mariano Martinez as Head Chief and Chapitone as Second Chief. The treaty acknowledged the transfer of jurisdiction from the United Mexican States to the United States; the treaty allowed forts and trading posts to be built on Navajo land. The United States, on its part, promised "such donations such other liberal and humane measures, as may deem meet and proper." While en route to this treaty signing, Narbona, a prominent Navajo peace leader
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti