The Sopwith Baby was a British single-seat tractor seaplane used by the Royal Naval Air Service from 1915. The Baby was a development of the two-seat Sopwith Schneider. Although the Schneider had won the Schneider trophy in 1914, the RNAS did not place a formal order until January 1915. Sopwith's initial production version of the Baby differed little from the Schneider Trophy winner; the Baby utilized a wooden structure with fabric covering. A Lewis Gun was fitted, either above the fuselage firing through the propeller arc without the benefit of synchronization, or over the top wing, firing above it. To meet the more demanding conditions of 1916–18, Further modifications were made on aircraft built by Blackburn Aircraft at Leeds, United Kingdom. A modified variant of the Baby, the Fairey Hamble Baby was built by Parnall; the Royal Naval Air Service ordered 286 Sopwith Babies of which 100 were built by Sopwith at Kingston and 186 by Blackburn Aircraft at Leeds with others for export. License manufacture was undertaken in Italy by SA Aeronautica Gio Ansaldo of Turin, who built 100 examples for the Italian Aviazione della Regia Marina.
The Baby was used as a shipborne reconnaissance and bomber aircraft operating from seaplane carriers and cruisers, as well as naval trawlers and minelayers. Many Babies were attached to RNAS coastal air stations located in England and Scotland and RNAS stations in Egypt and Italy. A major role of the Baby was to intercept German Zeppelin raids as far from Britain as possible, along with tracking German naval movements. Babies saw service with the United States, Chile and Norway. In Norway additional Babies were built as replacements, with some seeing service until 1930. Two of the 10 Sopwith Baby floatplanes that were acquired by the Royal Norwegian Navy Air Service were brought to Svalbard in the summer of 1928 to participate in the search for the lost Norwegian polar explorer Roald Amundsen, but were not used for the search; the original components of two Babies built by Sopwith, Nos. 8214 and 8215, have been utilized to complete a composite aircraft for display at the Fleet Air Arm Museum at RNAS Yeovilton, Somerset.
The exhibit has been marked with the serial N-2078, a Blackburn-built aircraft, has been named Jabberwock. AustraliaRoyal Australian Navy operated 1 example in 1917 from cruiser HMAS Brisbane. ChileChilean Navy operated 3 examples from 1919–1923 FranceFrench Navy operated 33 examples from 1916–1919 GreeceHellenic Navy operated 19 from 1918–1919 Kingdom of Italy Aviazione della Regia Marina 102 examples from 1917–1923 Japan Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service operated 1 example from 1916 NetherlandsDutch Naval Aviation Service 1 example from 1916–1919 An RNAS aircraft force landed forty miles off the Dutch coast and was towed in and interned. NorwayRoyal Norwegian Navy Air Service operated 10 examples from 1917–1931 United KingdomRoyal Naval Air Service Royal Air Force No. 219 Squadron RAF No. 229 Squadron RAF No. 246 Squadron RAF No. 248 Squadron RAF No. 249 Squadron RAF No. 263 Squadron RAF No. 269 Squadron RAF No. 270 Squadron RAF United StatesUnited States Navy Data from Holmes, 2005. P 44.
General characteristics Crew: one Length: 23 ft 0 in Wingspan: 25 ft 8 in Height: 10 ft 0 in Wing area: 240 ft² Empty weight: 1,226 lb Loaded weight: 1,715 lb Powerplant: 1 × Clerget rotary engine, driving a two blade wooden propeller, 110 hp Performance Maximum speed: 87 knots at sea level Service ceiling: 10,000 ft Rate of climb: 285 ft/min Endurance: 2.25 hrsArmament 1 × Lewis gun 2 × 65 lb bombs Related development Sopwith Tabloid Fairey Hamble Baby Port Victoria P. V.1 Related lists List of seaplanes and amphibious aircraft List of aircraft of the Royal Naval Air Service Alegi, Gregory. Ansaldo Baby. Windsock Mini Datafile 15. Hertfordshire, UK: Albatros Publications. ISBN 978-1902207308. Bruce, J. M.. Sopwith Baby. Windsock Datafile 60. Hertfordshire, UK: Albatros Publications. ISBN 978-0948414794. Ellis, Ken. British Museum Aircraft. Liverpool: Merseyside Aviation Society. ISBN 0-902420-15-1. Holmes, Tony. Jane's Vintage Aircraft Recognition Guide. London: Harper Collins. P. 44. ISBN 0-00-719292-4.
Huertas, Salvador Mafé. "The Chilean Air Force...an air arm with a problem". Air International. Vol. 26 no. 2. Pp. 69–74, 91, 98–101. ISSN 0306-5634. Lamberton, W. M.. Fighter Aircraft of the 1914–1918 War. Herts, UK: Harleyford Publications. Thetford, Owen. British Naval Aircraft since 1912. Putnam and Company Limited. ISBN 0-370-30021-1. Woodman, Harry. Early Aircraft Armament. London: Arms and Armour. ISBN 0-85368-990-3
Hellenic Air Force
The Hellenic Air Force is the air force of Greece with ‘Hellenic’ being a synonym for ‘Greek’ in the Greek language. During the period of monarchy between 1935–1973 the force was known as the Royal Hellenic Air Force; the mission of the Hellenic Air Force is to guard and protect Greek airspace, provide air assistance and support to the Hellenic Army and the Hellenic Navy, as well as the provision of humanitarian aid in Greece and around the world. The Hellenic Air Force includes 33,000 active troops, of whom 11,750 are career officers, 14,000 are professional conscripts, 7,250 are volunteer conscripts and 1,100 are women; the motto of the Hellenic Air Force is the ancient Greek phrase Αἰὲν Ὑψικρατεῖν, the HAF ensign represents a flying eagle in front of the Hellenic Air Force roundel. The Hellenic Air Force is one of the three branches of the Hellenic Armed Forces. In 1911, the Greek Government appointed French specialists to form the Hellenic Aviation Service. Six Greek officers were sent to France for training, while the first four Farman type aircraft were ordered.
All six graduated from the Farman school in Étampes near Paris, but only four subsequently served in aviation. The first Greek civilian aviator, given military rank was Emmanuel Argyropoulos, who flew in a Nieuport IV. G. "Alkyon" aircraft, on February 8, 1912. The first military flight was made on 13 May 1912 by Lieutenant Dimitrios Kamberos. In June, Kamberos flew with the "Daedalus", a Farman Aviation Works aircraft, converted into a seaplane, setting a new average speed world record at 110 km/h. In September of the same year the Greek Army fielded its first squadron, the "Aviators Company". On October 5 1912, Kamberos flew a reconnaissance flight over Thessaly; this was on the first day of the Balkan wars. On the same day a similar mission was flown by German mercenaries in Ottoman service, over the Thrace front against the Bulgarian Army; the Greek and the Ottoman missions, coincidentally flown on the same day, were the first military aviation missions in the history of conventional war. As a matter of fact, all Balkan countries used military aircraft and foreign mercenaries during the Balkan Wars.
January 24, 1913 saw the first naval co-operation mission in history, which took place over the Dardanelles. Aided by the Royal Hellenic Navy destroyer RHNS Velos, 1st Lieutenant Michael Moutoussis and Ensign Aristeidis Moraitinis flew the Farman hydroplane and drew up a diagram of the positions of the Turkish fleet, against which they dropped four bombs; this was not the first air-to-ground attack in military history, as there was a precedent in the Turkish-Italian war of 1911, but the first recorded attack against ships from the air. The Hellenic Army and the Royal Hellenic Navy operated separate Army Aviation and Naval Aviation units. During the Balkan Wars, various French Henry and Maurice Farman aircraft types were used; the Hellenic Naval Air Service was founded in 1914 by the Commander in Chief of the Royal Hellenic Navy, British Admiral Mark Kerr. Greek aviation units participated in World War I and the Asia Minor Campaign, equipped by the Allies with a variety of French and British designs.
In 1930 the Aviation Ministry was founded, establishing the Air Force as the third branch of the Hellenic Armed Forces. The Hellenic Army Air Service and Hellenic Naval Air Service were merged into a single service, the Royal Hellenic Air Force. In 1931 the Hellenic Air Force Academy, the Icarus School, was founded. In 1939, an order for 24 Marcel Bloch MB.151 fighter aircraft was placed, but only 9 of the aircraft reached Greece, since the outbreak of World War II prevented the French from completing the order. The aircraft entered service in the 24th Pursuit Squadron of the Air Force. During the Italian invasion of Greece in the Second World War, although being outnumbered and counting only 79 aircraft against 380 fighters and bombers of the Italian Regia Aeronautica, RHAF managed to resist the assault. On 30 October, two days after the start of the war, there was the first air battle; some Henschel Hs126s of 3/2 Flight of 3 Observation Mira took off to locate Italian Army columns. But they were attacked by Fiat CR.42 s of 393a Squadriglia.
A first Henschel was hit and crashed, killing its observer, Pilot Officer Evanghelos Giannaris, the first Greek aviator to die in the war. A second Hs 126 was downed over Mount Smolikas, killing Pilot Officer Lazaros Papamichail and Sergeant Constantine Yemenetzis.. On 2nd November 1940, a Breguet 19 intercepted the 3 Alpine Division Julia while it was penetrating the Pindos mountain range in an attempt to occupy Metsovo. On the same day, 2nd Lieutenant Marinos Mitralexis having run out of ammunition, aimed the nose of his PZL P.24 right into the tail of an enemy Cant Z1007bis bomber, smashing the rudder and sending the aircraft out of control. However, after 65 days of war the RHAF had lost 31 officers, 7 wounded, plus 4 NCOs killed and 5 wounded. Meanwhile, the number of combat aircraft had dropped to 7 battleworthy bombers. Still by March 1941, the Italian invasion had been repelled, aided by the vital contribution of the RHAF to the Greek victory. During the Greco-Italian War the Hellenic Air Force shot down 68 enemy aircraft and claimed another 24.
However, the Italian Air Force lost just 65 aircraft during the entire campaign agai
A roundel is a circular disc used as a symbol. The term is used in heraldry, but commonly used to refer to a type of national insignia used on military aircraft circular in shape and comprising concentric rings of different colours. Other symbols often use round shapes. In heraldry, a roundel is a circular charge. Roundels are among the oldest charges used in coats of arms, dating from at least the twelfth century. Roundels in British heraldry have different names depending on their tincture. Thus, while a roundel may be blazoned by its tincture, e.g. a roundel vert, it is more described by a single word, in this case pomme or, from the same origins, pomeis—as in "Vert. One special example of a named roundel is the fountain, depicted as a roundel barry wavy argent and azure, that is, containing alternating horizontal wavy bands of blue and silver; the French Air Service originated the use of roundels on military aircraft during the First World War. The chosen design was the French national cockade, whose colours are the blue-white-red of the flag of France.
Similar national cockades, with different ordering of colours, were designed and adopted as aircraft roundels by their allies, including the British Royal Flying Corps and the United States Army Air Service. After the First World War, many other air forces adopted roundel insignia, distinguished by different colours or numbers of concentric rings; the term "roundel" is used for those military aircraft insignia that are not round, like the Iron Cross-Balkenkreuz symbol of the Luftwaffe or the red star of the Russian Air Force. Among flags which display a roundel are the flag of Japan. Flags for British Overseas Territories are a British Blue Ensign defaced with a white roundel displaying the arms or badge of the dependency; the same pattern is used for all the states of Australia except Victoria. The roundel that used by the Royal Air Force, has been associated with pop art of the 1960s, appearing in paintings by Jasper Johns, it became part of the pop consciousness when British rock group The Who wore RAF roundels as part of their stage apparel at the start of their career.
Subsequently it came to symbolise the Mod revival. Some of Paul Weller's material involves the use of a roundel in psychedelic colours. Ben Harper's album Fight For Your Mind uses roundels from several air forces as graphics in the liner notes. In the British television series Doctor Who, the circular decorations on the interior walls of the TARDIS control room are known as roundels; some corporations and organizations make use of roundels in their branding. Bezant#Heraldry Cockade Goutte Smith, Whitney. Flags: Through the Ages and Around the World. McGraw Hill. Pp. 24, 342. ISBN 0-07-059093-1. Donald, David, ed.. The pocket guide to the World's Air Forces. Temple Press Aerospace. Pp. 136–189. ISBN 0-600-55002-8
In Greek mythology, Daedalus was a skillful craftsman and artist, was seen as a symbol of wisdom and power. He is the father of Icarus, the uncle of Perdix, also the father of Iapyx, although this is unclear, he invented and built the labyrinth for king Minos of Crete, but shortly after finishing it king Minos had Daedalus imprisoned within the labyrinth. He and his son Icarus devised a plan to escape by using wings made of wax that Daedalus had invented, they escaped. The wax melted and Icarus fell to his death; this left Daedalus heartbroken. Daedalus's parentage was supplied as a addition, providing him with a father in Metion, Eupalamus, or Palamaon, a mother, Iphinoe, or Phrasmede. Daedalus had two sons: Iapyx, along with a nephew either Talos or Perdix. Athenians transferred Cretan Daedalus to make him Athenian-born, the grandson of the ancient king Erechtheus, claiming that Daedalus fled to Crete after killing his nephew Talos. Over time, other stories were told of Daedalus. Daedalus is first mentioned by Homer as the creator of a wide dancing-ground for Ariadne.
He created the Labyrinth on Crete, in which the Minotaur was kept. In the story of the labyrinth as told by the Hellenes, the Athenian hero Theseus is challenged to kill the Minotaur, finding his way with the help of Ariadne's thread. Daedalus' appearance in Homer is in an extended metaphor, "plainly not Homer's invention", Robin Lane Fox observes: "He is a point of comparison and so he belongs in stories which Homer's audience recognized." In Bronze Age Crete, an inscription da-da-re-jo-de has been read as referring to a place at Knossos, a place of worship. In Homer's language, daidala refers to finely crafted objects, they are objects of armor, but fine bowls and furnishings are daidala, on one occasion so are the "bronze-working" of "clasps, twisted brooches and necklaces" made by Hephaestus while cared for in secret by the goddesses of the sea. Ignoring Homer writers envisaged the Labyrinth as an edifice rather than a single dancing path to the center and out again, gave it numberless winding passages and turns that opened into one another, seeming to have neither beginning nor end.
Ovid, in his Metamorphoses, suggests that Daedalus constructed the Labyrinth so cunningly that he himself could escape it after he built it. Daedalus built the labyrinth for King Minos; the story is told that Poseidon had given a white bull to Minos so that he might use it as a sacrifice. Instead, Minos kept it for himself. For Pasiphaë, as Greek mythologers interpreted it, Daedalus built a wooden cow so she could mate with the bull, for the Greeks imagined the Minoan bull of the sun to be an actual, earthly bull, the slaying of which required a heroic effort by Theseus; this story thus encourages others to consider the long-term consequences of their own inventions with great care, lest those inventions do more harm than good. As in the tale of Icarus' wings, Daedalus is portrayed assisting in the creation of something that has subsequent negative consequences, in this case with his creation of the monstrous Minotaur's impenetrable Labyrinth, which made slaying the beast an endeavour of legendary difficulty.
The most familiar literary telling explaining Daedalus' wings is a late one, that of Ovid: in his Metamorphoses Daedalus was shut up in a tower to prevent the knowledge of his Labyrinth from spreading to the public. He could not leave Crete by sea, as the king kept a strict watch on all vessels, permitting none to sail without being searched. Since Minos controlled the land and sea routes, Daedalus set to work to fabricate wings for himself and his young son Icarus, he tied feathers together, from smallest to largest so as to form an increasing surface. He secured the feathers at their midpoints with string and at their bases with wax, gave the whole a gentle curvature like the wings of a bird; when the work was done, the artist, waving his wings, found himself buoyed upward and hung suspended, poising himself on the beaten air. He next equipped his son in the same manner, taught him how to fly; when both were prepared for flight, Daedalus warned Icarus not to fly too high, because the heat of the sun would melt the wax, nor too low, because the sea foam would soak the feathers.
They had passed Samos and Lebynthos by the time the boy, forgetting himself, began to soar upward toward the sun. The blazing sun softened the wax that held the feathers together and they came off. Icarus fell in the sea and drowned, his father cried, bitterly lamenting his own arts, called the island near the place where Icarus fell into the ocean Icaria in memory of his child. Some time the goddess Athena visited Daedalus and gave him wings, telling him to fly like a god. An early image of winged Daedalus appears on an Etruscan jug of ca 630 BC found at Cerveteri, where a winged figure captioned Taitale appears on one side of the vessel, paired on the other side, with Metaia, Medea: "its linking of these two mythical figures is unparalleled," Robin Lane Fox observes: "The link was based on their wondrous, miraculous art. Magically, Daedalus could fly, magically Medea was able to rejuvenate the old"; the image
Eleftherios Kyriakou Venizelos was an eminent Greek leader of the Greek national liberation movement and a charismatic statesman of the early 20th century, remembered for his contribution in the expansion of Greece and promotion of liberal-democratic policies. As leader of the Liberal Party, he was elected several times, in total eight, as Prime Minister of Greece, serving from 1910 to 1920 and from 1928 to 1933. Venizelos had such profound influence on the internal and external affairs of Greece that he is credited with being "the maker of modern Greece", is still known as the "Ethnarch", his first entry into the international scene was with his significant role in the autonomy of the Cretan State and in the union of Crete with Greece. Soon, he was invited to Greece to resolve the political deadlock and became the country's Prime Minister. Not only did he initiate constitutional and economic reforms that set the basis for the modernization of Greek society, but reorganized both army and navy in preparation of future conflicts.
Before the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913, Venizelos' catalytic role helped gain Greece entrance to the Balkan League, an alliance of the Balkan states against the Ottoman Empire. Through his diplomatic acumen, Greece doubled its area and population with the liberation of Macedonia and most of the Aegean islands. In World War I, he brought Greece on the side of the Allies. However, his pro-Allied foreign policy brought him into direct conflict with Constantine I of Greece, causing the National Schism; the Schism polarized the population between the royalists and Venizelists and the struggle for power between the two groups affected the political and social life of Greece for decades. Following the Allied victory, Venizelos secured new territorial gains in Anatolia, coming close to realizing the Megali Idea. Despite his achievements, he was defeated in the 1920 General Election, which contributed to the eventual Greek defeat in the Greco-Turkish War. Venizelos, in self-imposed exile, represented Greece in the negotiations that led to the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne, the agreement of a mutual exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey.
In his subsequent periods in office, Venizelos succeeded in restoring normal relations with Greece's neighbors and expanded his constitutional and economical reforms. In 1935 he resurfaced from retirement to support a military coup, its failure weakened the Second Hellenic Republic. In the 18th century, the ancestors of Venizelos, named Cravvatas, lived in Mystras, in southern Peloponnese. During the Ottoman raids in the peninsula in 1770, a member of the Cravvatas family, Venizelos Cravvatas, the youngest of several brothers, managed to escape to Crete where he established himself, his sons called themselves Venizelos. The family was of Laconic and Cretan origin. Eleftherios was born in Mournies, near Chania in then-Ottoman Crete to Kyriakos Venizelos, a Cretan merchant and revolutionary, Styliani Ploumidaki; when the Cretan revolution of 1866 broke out, Venizelos' family fled to the island of Syros, due to the participation of his father in the revolution. They were not allowed to return to Crete, stayed in Syros until 1872, when Abdülaziz granted an amnesty.
He spent his final year of secondary education at a school in Ermoupolis in Syros from which he received his Certificate in 1880. In 1881 he enrolled at the University of Athens Law School and got his degree in Law with excellent grades, he worked as a lawyer in Chania. Throughout his life he maintained a passion for reading and was improving his skills in English, Italian and French; the situation in Crete during Venizelos' early years was fluid. The Ottoman empire was undermining the reforms, which were made under international pressure, while the Cretans desired to see the Sultan, Abdul Hamid II, abandon "the ungrateful infidels". Under these unstable conditions Venizelos entered into politics in the elections of 2 April 1889 as a member of the island's liberal party; as a deputy he was distinguished for his radical opinions. The numerous revolutions in Crete and after the Greek War of Independence were the result of the Cretans' desire for Enosis — Union with Greece. In the Cretan revolution of 1866, the two sides, under the pressure of the Great Powers, came to an agreement, finalized in the Pact of Chalepa.
The Pact was included in the provisions of the Treaty of Berlin, supplementing previous concessions granted to the Cretans — e.g. the Organic Law Constitution designed by William James Stillman. In summary the Pact was granting a large degree of self-government to Greeks in Crete as a means of limiting their desire to rise up against their Ottoman overlords; however the Muslims of Crete, who identified with Ottoman Empire, were not satisfied with these reforms, as in their view the administration of the island was delivered to the hands of the Christian Greek population. In practice, the Ottoman Empire failed to enforce the provisions of the Pact, thus fueling the existing tensions between the two communities. Throughout that period, the Cretan Question was a major issue of friction in the relations of independent Greece with the Ottoman Empire. In January 1897 violence and disorder were escalating on the island, thus polari
Provisional Government of National Defence
The Provisional Government of National Defence, or the Movement of National Defence, was a parallel administration set up in the city of Thessaloniki by former Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos and his supporters during World War I, in opposition and rivalry to the official royal government in Athens. The establishment of this second Greek state had its origins in the debate over Greece's entry into the war on behalf of the Entente, as advocated by Venizelos, or a Germanophile neutrality as preferred by King Constantine I; this dissension soon began to divide Greek society around the two leaders, beginning the so-called "National Schism". In August 1916, as parts of eastern Macedonia were not defended by the royal government against a Bulgarian invasion, Venizelist officers of the Hellenic Army launched an Entente-supported coup in Thessaloniki. After a brief hesitation and his principal supporters joined the uprising and began the establishment of a second Greek government in the north of the country, which entered the war on the side of the Entente.
The National Defence government endured until June 1917, when the Entente powers forced Constantine I to abdicate, allowed Venizelos to return to Athens as Prime Minister of a unified country. The establishment of the National Defence government deepened the rift of the National Schism, which would plague Greek political life for over a generation, contribute to the Asia Minor Catastrophe. Greece had emerged victorious from the 1912-1913 Balkan Wars, with her territory doubled, but found itself in a difficult international situation; the status of the Greek-occupied eastern Aegean islands was left undetermined, the Ottoman Empire continued to claim them, leading to a naval arms race and mass expulsions of ethnic Greeks from Anatolia. In the north, defeated in the Second Balkan War, harbored revanchist plans against Greece and Serbia; the two countries were bound by a treaty of alliance which promised military assistance in case of a Bulgarian attack, but in August 1914, the danger would emerge from a different quarter altogether: the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand led to the declaration of war by Austria-Hungary on Serbia and the outbreak of the First World War.
Greece, like Bulgaria maintained neutrality, but as the war continued, both warring camps began wooing the two countries. At this point the first rifts appeared among the Greek leadership: The capable Prime Minister, Eleftherios Venizelos, an ardent admirer of Great Britain, supported entry in the war on the side of the Entente, while the King, educated in Germany, married to the Kaiser's sister, a deep admirer of Prussian militarism, anticipated a German victory. Aware that Greece was vulnerable to the British Fleet, he advocated a course of neutrality. In early 1915 the British offered Greece "territorial concessions in Asia Minor" if it would participate in the upcoming Gallipoli Campaign. Venizelos run into the opposition from the King and his military advisors; as a result, Venizelos submitted his resignation on 21 February 1915. The Liberal Party won the May elections, Venizelos again formed a government; when Bulgaria mobilized against Serbia in September 1915, Venizelos ordered a Greek counter-mobilization and called upon the Anglo-French to establish themselves in Thessaloniki as to aid Serbia.
Indeed, the Allies began landing on 22 September 1915 and started entrenching themselves around the city. The King unconstitutionally dismissed Venizelos and the parliament, making the breach between the two men and their followers irreparable; the Liberals boycotted the December elections. In the same month, the French, with the permission of Venizelos, occupied Corfu, where the remains of the Serbian Army were gathered before being sent to Thessaloniki. In view of these events, a clandestine "Revolutionary Committee of National Defence" was formed in Thessaloniki by a group of prominent Liberals and representatives of all over Macedonia, including Alexandros Zannas, Konstantinos Angelakis and Periklis Argyropoulos, Dimitrios Dingas and Dimitrios Pazis, Nikolaos Manos, P. Grekos, Major General Emmanouil Zymvrakakis and others; the group acknowledged Venizelos as its leader, began approaching officers of the Army and the Cretan Gendarmerie. During the following year, Greece's official governments were hard-pressed to maintain the country's neutrality.
The final straw came when, on 12/25 May 1916, the Athens government, succumbing to German pressure, ordered the surrender of the vital Rupel Fortress to the Germans and their Bulgarian Allies. In response, on 21 May/3 June, the pro-Entente Venizelists imposed martial law abolishing royal sovereignty in all of northern Greece. On 5/18 August, the Bulgarian invasion of eastern Macedonia commenced, facing little resistance, since the Athens government refused to condone any firm action; as a result, more than 6000 men of IV Corps surrendered to the Germans on 13 August and were deported to Görlitz in Germany. This surrender of hard-won territories with only token resistance, outraged most Greeks. At the same time, the establishment of the exiled Serbian King and his government in Thessaloniki in April, the presence of 120,000 Serbian troops in the Macedonian Front, accompanied by threats from the Entente that he would install a Serbian prefect in the city, raised fears that the city would be handed over to the Serbians.
Incensed by the successive humiliations and the Bulgarian advance in Macedonia, several Greek officers had flocked to Thessaloniki and volunteered t
Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th millennium BC. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state that emerged in conjunction with the seagoing development of the port of Piraeus, a distinct city prior to its 5th century BC incorporation with Athens. A center for the arts and philosophy, home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum, it is referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy because of its cultural and political impact on the European continent, in particular the Romans. In modern times, Athens is a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, industrial, maritime and cultural life in Greece. In 2012, Athens was ranked the world's 39th richest city by purchasing power and the 67th most expensive in a UBS study. Athens is a global one of the biggest economic centres in southeastern Europe.
It has a large financial sector, its port Piraeus is both the largest passenger port in Europe, the second largest in the world. While at the same time being the sixth busiest passenger port in Europe; the Municipality of Athens had a population of 664,046 within its administrative limits, a land area of 38.96 km2. The urban area of Athens extends beyond its administrative municipal city limits, with a population of 3,090,508 over an area of 412 km2. According to Eurostat in 2011, the functional urban area of Athens was the 9th most populous FUA in the European Union, with a population of 3.8 million people. Athens is the southernmost capital on the European mainland; the heritage of the classical era is still evident in the city, represented by ancient monuments and works of art, the most famous of all being the Parthenon, considered a key landmark of early Western civilization. The city retains Roman and Byzantine monuments, as well as a smaller number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Acropolis of Athens and the medieval Daphni Monastery.
Landmarks of the modern era, dating back to the establishment of Athens as the capital of the independent Greek state in 1834, include the Hellenic Parliament and the so-called "architectural trilogy of Athens", consisting of the National Library of Greece, the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and the Academy of Athens. Athens is home to several museums and cultural institutions, such as the National Archeological Museum, featuring the world's largest collection of ancient Greek antiquities, the Acropolis Museum, the Museum of Cycladic Art, the Benaki Museum and the Byzantine and Christian Museum. Athens was the host city of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896, 108 years it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics, making it one of only a handful of cities to have hosted the Olympics more than once. In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι a plural. In earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the singular form though, as Ἀθήνη, it was rendered in the plural on, like those of Θῆβαι and Μυκῆναι.
The root of the word is not of Greek or Indo-European origin, is a remnant of the Pre-Greek substrate of Attica. In antiquity, it was debated whether Athens took its name from its patron goddess Athena or Athena took her name from the city. Modern scholars now agree that the goddess takes her name from the city, because the ending -ene is common in names of locations, but rare for personal names. During the medieval period, the name of the city was rendered once again in the singular as Ἀθήνα. However, after the establishment of the modern Greek state, due to the conservatism of the written language, Ἀθῆναι became again the official name of the city and remained so until the abandonment of Katharevousa in the 1970s, when Ἀθήνα, Athína, became the official name. According to the ancient Athenian founding myth, the goddess of wisdom, competed against Poseidon, the god of the seas, for patronage of the yet-unnamed city. According to the account given by Pseudo-Apollodorus, Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a salt water spring welled up.
In an alternative version of the myth from Vergil's Georgics, Poseidon instead gave the Athenians the first horse. In both versions, Athena offered the Athenians the first domesticated olive tree. Cecrops declared Athena the patron goddess of Athens. Different etymologies, now rejected, were proposed during the 19th century. Christian Lobeck proposed as the root of the name the word ἄθος or ἄνθος meaning "flower", to denote Athens as the "flowering city". Ludwig von Döderlein proposed the stem of the verb θάω, stem θη- to denote Athens as having fertile soil. In classical literature, the city was sometimes referred to as the City of the Violet Crown, first documented in Pindar's ἰοστέφανοι Ἀθᾶναι, or as τὸ κλεινὸν ἄστυ. In medieval texts, variant names include Setines and Astines, all derivations involving false splitting of p