United States Naval Institute
The United States Naval Institute, based in Annapolis, Maryland, is a private, non-profit, professional military association that seeks to offer independent, nonpartisan forums for debate of national defense and security issues. In addition to publishing magazines and books, the Naval Institute holds several annual conferences. Established in 1873, the Naval Institute has about 50,000 members active and retired personnel of the United States Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard; the organization has members in over 90 countries. The organization has no official or funding ties to the United States Naval Academy or the U. S. Navy, although it is based on the grounds of the Naval Academy through permission granted by a 1936 Act of Congress; the Naval Institute's mission is "to provide an independent forum for those who dare to read, think and write to advance the professional and scientific understanding of sea power and other issues critical to global security". The Institute has a Vision, its chair is a retired Navy admiral.
Its CEO is a retired Navy vice admiral. On October 9, 1873, 15 naval officers gathered at the U. S. Naval Academy's Department of Physics and Chemistry building in Annapolis to discuss the implications of a smaller, post-Civil War Navy and other matters of professional interest; the U. S. Naval Institute was established as a forum for the exchange of ideas, to disseminate and advance the knowledge of sea power, to preserve U. S. naval and maritime heritage. Rear Admiral John L. Worden served as the first president. In 1874, the Naval Institute began to accept papers and publish the "proceedings" of its discussions which were distributed to the organization's members, a practice that continues to this day. Two decades the Naval Institute Press was created to publish basic naval guides. Having outgrown its offices at Preble Hall, the Naval Institute gave the building to the Naval Academy and, in 1999, renovated a derelict Navy hospital to serve as its new headquarters; the building was named Beach Hall to honor the contributions of Captain Edward L. Beach, Jr. and his father and namesake, Captain Edward L. Beach, Sr. who had served as the Institute's secretary-treasurer.
The monthly magazine Proceedings is the Naval Institute's flagship product. Published since 1874, it is one of the oldest continuously published magazines in the United States. Issues include articles from military professionals and civilian experts, historical essays, book reviews, full-color photography, reader commentary. A third are written by active duty and active reserve personnel, a third by retired military, a third by civilians. Proceedings frequently carries feature articles by Secretaries of Defense, Secretaries of the Navy, Chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, top leaders of the Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard; the magazine has published controversial articles on contentious issues. For example, in 1962, DoD officials prevented a Marine Corps lieutenant colonel from sending to Proceedings an article about a 1949 proposal to merge the Marines' aviation units into the Air Force. Naval History magazine was first published in 1987 to explore the role of sea power in U. S. history.
A bimonthly publication, the richly illustrated magazine’s contributors have included historians David McCullough and James M. McPherson; the Naval Institute Press publishes about 80 books a year. Its twice-yearly catalog includes works on history, professional military education, occasional works of popular fiction, such as Tom Clancy's first novel, The Hunt for Red October and Stephen Coonts' Flight of the Intruder. Among the professional development titles are The Bluejacket's Manual, Naval Shiphandling, The Naval Officer's Guide, The Marine Officer’s Guide, The Coast Guardsman’s Manual; the Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World and The Naval Institute Guide to Ships and Aircraft of the U. S. Fleet are popular reference books with the military and maritime enthusiasts. Launched in December 2008, the blog is another forum for debate. Contributors have included former NATO Supreme Commander Admiral James G. Stavridis, USN and Admiral Thad Allen, the 23rd Commandant of the Coast Guard.
Launched in February 2012, USNI News provides breaking insight on emerging issues. It is a daily news service. In 1985, the Institute began to hold conferences, open to the public, to foster discussion of defense-related topics; the largest of these, are held in San Diego and Washington, D. C; the conferences feature the Chief of Naval Operations and the Commandant of the Marine Corps, as well as other leaders. In 2007, USNI produced Americans At War, a series of video interviews with U. S. combat veterans of conflicts dating to World War I. Former President George H. W. Bush, Senators Bob Dole, Daniel Inouye, Bob Kerrey, other men and women described how combat changed their lives; the series was broadcast on Public Broadcasting Service television stations nationwide. The U. S. Naval Institute holds one of the world’s largest private collections of military photographs: more than 450,000 images of people and aircraft from all branches of the armed forces; the photographs da
A magazine is a publication a periodical publication, printed or electronically published. Magazines are published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content, they are financed by advertising, by a purchase price, by prepaid subscriptions, or a combination of the three. At its root, the word "magazine" refers to a storage location. In the case of written publication, it is a collection of written articles; this explains why magazine publications share the word root with gunpowder magazines, artillery magazines, firearms magazines, and, in French, retail stores such as department stores. By definition, a magazine paginates with each issue starting at page three, with the standard sizing being 8 3⁄8 in × 10 7⁄8 in. However, in the technical sense a journal has continuous pagination throughout a volume, thus Business Week, which starts each issue anew with page one, is a magazine, but the Journal of Business Communication, which starts each volume with the winter issue and continues the same sequence of pagination throughout the coterminous year, is a journal.
Some professional or trade publications are peer-reviewed, an example being the Journal of Accountancy. Academic or professional publications that are not peer-reviewed are professional magazines; that a publication calls itself a journal does not make it a journal in the technical sense. Magazines can be distributed through the mail, through sales by newsstands, bookstores, or other vendors, or through free distribution at selected pick-up locations; the subscription business models for distribution fall into three main categories. In this model, the magazine is sold to readers for a price, either on a per-issue basis or by subscription, where an annual fee or monthly price is paid and issues are sent by post to readers. Paid circulation allows for defined readership statistics; this means that there is no cover price and issues are given away, for example in street dispensers, airline, or included with other products or publications. Because this model involves giving issues away to unspecific populations, the statistics only entail the number of issues distributed, not who reads them.
This is the model used by many trade magazines distributed only to qualifying readers for free and determined by some form of survey. Because of costs associated with the medium of print, publishers may not distribute free copies to everyone who requests one; this allows a high level of certainty that advertisements will be received by the advertiser's target audience, it avoids wasted printing and distribution expenses. This latter model was used before the rise of the World Wide Web and is still employed by some titles. For example, in the United Kingdom, a number of computer-industry magazines use this model, including Computer Weekly and Computing, in finance, Waters Magazine. For the global media industry, an example would be VideoAge International; the earliest example of magazines was Erbauliche Monaths Unterredungen, a literary and philosophy magazine, launched in 1663 in Germany. The Gentleman's Magazine, first published in 1731, in London was the first general-interest magazine. Edward Cave, who edited The Gentleman's Magazine under the pen name "Sylvanus Urban", was the first to use the term "magazine," on the analogy of a military storehouse.
Founded by Herbert Ingram in 1842, The Illustrated London News was the first illustrated magazine. The oldest consumer magazine still in print is The Scots Magazine, first published in 1739, though multiple changes in ownership and gaps in publication totalling over 90 years weaken that claim. Lloyd's List was founded in Edward Lloyd's England coffee shop in 1734. Under the ancient regime, the most prominent magazines were Mercure de France, Journal des sçavans, founded in 1665 for scientists, Gazette de France, founded in 1631. Jean Loret was one of France's first journalists, he disseminated the weekly news of music and Parisian society from 1650 until 1665 in verse, in what he called a gazette burlesque, assembled in three volumes of La Muse historique. The French press lagged a generation behind the British, for they catered to the needs the aristocracy, while the newer British counterparts were oriented toward the middle and working classes. Periodicals were censored by the central government in Paris.
They were not quiescent politically—often they criticized Church abuses and bureaucratic ineptitude. They supported the monarchy and they played at most a small role in stimulating the revolution. During the Revolution, new periodicals played central roles as propaganda organs for various factions. Jean-Paul Marat was the most prominent editor, his L'Ami du peuple advocated vigorously for the rights of the lower classes against the enemies of the people Marat hated. After 1800 Napoleon reimposed strict censorship. Magazines flourished after Napoleon left in 1815. Most were based in Paris and most emphasized literature and stories, they served religious and political communities. In times of political crisis they expressed and helped shape the views of their readership and thereby were major