Rodeio is a municipality in the state of Santa Catarina in the South region of Brazil. List of municipalities in Santa Catarina
Itapema is a city in Santa Catarina, Brazil. The Azoreans in the communities of São Miguel and Santo Antônio were responsible for the settlement of the bay of Porto Belo, where they helped found the parish of Porto Belo on December 18, 1824 transformed into a village on October 13, 1832; the descendants of these immigrants, in the early 19th Century, populated the region of Itapema, giving its first administrative structure, on December 30, 1914, with the creation of its Police District. It is known that in 1852, it was assumed that some 980 Portuguese and Azorean descendants lived in areas of the current municipality of Itapema; this figure refers to the number of 51 mills of cassava sugar. It was common for families to have both types of mills. Demographic growth until the mid-nineteenth century was slow. From the end of this century, Itapema receives immigrants of German and Spanish origin who soon end up merging with the population of Azorean origin; these other peoples exercise little local cultural influence, since the festivities, such as the feast of the patroness - Our Lady of the Navigators - besides the games, such as Farra do Boi, Boi-de-Mamão and Cantorias do Terno-de-Reis and festivals of the Divine were brought and maintained by the Azoreans.
The first denomination of Itapema was Vila de Santo Antônio de Lisboa or Tapera, term, related to the model of their dwellings. Its economy was based on subsistence, being fishing on the coast, besides the planting of cassava and the production of flour, allied to the culture of other products such as corn, coffee and watermelon. During the district phase, Itapema was incorporated in the city of Camboriú, from 1923 to 1925. With the population growth in the first half of the twentieth century, as well as economic importance, Itapema falls within the conditions to be considered a municipality in 1962. On January 31 of that same year, the first mayor elected in Itapema, Olegário Bernardes, was elected. Since the 1980s, there has been a significant growth in the country's housing sector. In line with what happens on a national scale, Itapema presents an expansion of this sector, resulting in significant changes in the local landscape, linked to an acceleration of tourist flows, placing the municipality in the spotlight in the Santa Catarina scenario.
Itapema can be accessed from highway BR-101 and it is surrounded by a rocky coastline. It's located on the north-central coast of Santa Catarina state; the city has waterfalls and hill. The vegetation is composed by vegetation of restinga and Atlantic forest. Five hundred thousand square meters of civil construction projects were built in Itapema between 2003 and 2005. Itapema is the third most popular tourist destination in Santa Catarina; the beaches are the biggest tourist attraction and the Meia Praia, or Middle Beach of Itapema, is the longest. Itapema has six beaches: Canto da Praia, Costão, Meia Praia, Ilhota and Praia Grossa. Known as the Ultralight Capital, Itapema has annually the Ultralight Encounter is held in the city, the event is a success and attracts thousands of aviation fans; the Pilots Association of Itapema prepares several surprises for the day of the meeting, such as radical maneuvers, aircraft exhibitions, flight raffles, parachuting, flying over the city, among other attractions
Human Development Index
The Human Development Index is a statistic composite index of life expectancy and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores a higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, the GNI per capita is higher, it was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq, with help from Gustav Ranis of Yale University and Meghnad Desai of the London School of Economics, was further used to measure a country's development by the United Nations Development Program's Human Development Report Office. The 2010 Human Development Report introduced an Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index. While the simple HDI remains useful, it stated that "the IHDI is the actual level of human development", "the HDI can be viewed as an index of'potential' human development"; the index does not take into account several factors, such as the net wealth per capita or the relative quality of goods in a country. This situation tends to lower the ranking for some of the most advanced countries, such as the G7 members and others.
The index is based on the human development approach, developed by ul Haq framed in terms of whether people are able to "be" and "do" desirable things in life. Examples include—Being: well fed, healthy; the freedom of choice is central—someone choosing to be hungry is quite different from someone, hungry because they cannot afford to buy food, or because the country is in a famine. The origins of the HDI are found in the annual Human Development Reports produced by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme; these were devised and launched by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990, had the explicit purpose "to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people-centered policies". To produce the Human Development Reports, Mahbub ul Haq formed a group of development economists including Paul Streeten, Frances Stewart, Gustav Ranis, Keith Griffin, Sudhir Anand, Meghnad Desai. Nobel laureate Amartya Sen utilized Haq's work in his own work on human capabilities.
Haq believed that a simple composite measure of human development was needed to convince the public and politicians that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but improvements in human well-being. Published on 4 November 2010, the 2010 Human Development Report calculated the HDI combining three dimensions: A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth Education index: Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling A decent standard of living: GNI per capita In its 2010 Human Development Report, the UNDP began using a new method of calculating the HDI; the following three indices are used: 1. Life Expectancy Index = LE − 20 85 − 20 LEI is 1 when Life expectancy at birth is 85 and 0 when Life expectancy at birth is 20.2. Education Index = MYSI + EYSI 2 2.1 Mean Years of Schooling Index = MYS 15 Fifteen is the projected maximum of this indicator for 2025. 2.2 Expected Years of Schooling Index = EYS 18 Eighteen is equivalent to achieving a master's degree in most countries.3.
Income Index = ln − ln ln − ln II is 1 when GNI per capita is $75,000 and 0 when GNI per capita is $100. The HDI is the geometric mean of the previous three normalized indices: HDI = LEI ⋅ EI ⋅ II 3. LE: Life expectancy at birth MYS: Mean years of schooling EYS: Expected years of schooling GNIpc: Gross national income at purchasing power parity per capita The HDI combined three dimensions last used in its 2009 Report: Life expectancy at birth, as an index of population health and longevity to HDI Knowledge and education, as measured by the adult literacy rate and the combined primary and tertiary gross enrollment ratio. Standard of living, as indicated by the natural logarithm of gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; this methodology was used by the UNDP until their 2011 report. The formula defining the HDI is promulgated by the United Nations Development Programme. In general, to transform a raw variable, say x, into a unit-free index between 0 and 1 (which allo
Bombinhas is a municipality in the state of Santa Catarina in the South region of Brazil. It is the smallest municipality of that state in terms of area; the municipality contains part of the 17,104 hectares Marinha do Arvoredo Biological Reserve, established in 1990. List of municipalities in Santa Catarina
Oeste Catarinense is a mesoregion in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina
Santa Catarina (state)
Santa Catarina is a state in the southern region of Brazil. According to the Index of Economic Well-Being calculated between 2002 and 2008, Santa Catarina was the Brazilian state that showed the highest economic well-being in relation to any other state in Brazil. Florianópolis, the state capital lies on Santa Catarina Island, while Joinville is Santa Catarina's largest city and a major industrial and business center in Brazil. Neighboring states are Rio Grande do Sul to Paraná to the north, it is bounded on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west it borders the province of Misiones, Argentina. The beaches along the coast of Santa Catarina are a great summer attraction. Florianópolis, the capital, has one of the highest HDI among Brazilian cities. Florianopolis beaches attract a large flow of foreign tourists during the summer month. There are several daily direct flights between Florianopolis, Buenos Aires and Santiago throughout the summer months. Tourists from Northern Argentina and Paraguay drive into the state - about a 10-hour drive.
The mountain ridge region of the state, centered around São Joaquim and Urupema, becomes an attraction during winter due to its low temperatures and snow over its green canyons. Blumenau, in the Itajai Valley in Northeast Santa Catarina, is the stage to the largest beer festival in Brazil Southern Region, which possess a strong direct influence from Bavarian culture: the Oktoberfest of Blumenau, a traditional beer party/festival that originated in the 19th century, is the second largest such festival in the world, behind only the one held in Munich. Joinville is a major industrial and tech industry center in Brazil. Joinville's metro area is one of the fastest growing regions in Brazil. Joinville is home to the Joinville Dance Festival, the largest dance event in Brazil, held in the month of July Joinville is home to the only branch of the worldly famous Bolshoi Dance Company With a strong reputation for the strength of its industrial output, Joinville has been changing its focus to the service and educational services - Joinville has become a major college center in the past decade.
Balneario Camboriu is a major beach resort city between Joinville. It has been nicknamed the Brazilian Dubai, as it keeps on building the tallest residential buildings in Brazil; some of the most expensive apartment buildings in Brazil are becoming the norm in this popular summer beach resort. Santa Catarina was one of the few states in Brazil, populated by a settlement program of immigrants coming from every European nation in the 1800s when Brazil had a strong policy of allowing immigrants from Northern Europe to settle in areas of the country that the government at the time deemed in need of settlers. People of German and Austrian descent make up the largest ethnic group among the population of Santa Catarina, at around 50% - with a considerable portion still speaking the German language. Speakers of Venetian Italian make up the third most spoken mother tongue, after Portuguese and assorted German dialects; the state's social indicators are among the best in Latin America, being the Brazilian state with the third highest level of median income, besides exhibiting high levels of education and public health, one of the lowest rates of illiteracy.
Santa Catarina boasts Brazil's highest average life expectancy and lowest homicide rate in addition to lower levels of corruption. The cities of the state are considered some of the most livable in the country, enjoying a reputation of being "clean and organized". Despite the high standard of living, unemployment is still high and according to data census it's one of the most difficult states in Brazil for foreigners finding jobs. Santa Catarina is in a strategic position in Mercosul, the South American Common Market, its position in the map is situated between the parallel 25º57'41" and 29º23'55" of the Southern latitude and between the meridians 48º19'37" and 53º50'00" of Western longitude. Florianópolis, its capital, is 1,673 km from Brasilia, 705 km from São Paulo, 1,144 km from Rio de Janeiro and 1,850 km from Buenos Aires; the Serra Geral, a southern extension of the Serra do Mar, runs north and south through the state parallel to the Atlantic coast, dividing the state between a narrow coastal plain and a larger plateau region to the west.
The Atlantic coast of Santa Catarina has many beaches, bays and lagoons. The humid tropical Serra do Mar coastal forests cover the narrow coastal zone, crossed by numerous short streams from the wooded slopes of the serras; the central part of the state is home to the Araucaria moist forests, dominated by emergent Brazilian pines. The drainage of the plateau is westward to the Paraná River, the rivers being tributaries of the Iguaçu, which forms its northern boundary, of the Uruguay River, which forms its southern boundary; the semi-deciduous Paraná-Paraíba interior forests occupy the westernmost valleys of the Iguaçu and Uruguay rivers. The highest point of the state is the Morro da Boa Vista, with an altitude of 1,827 m, the second highest point is the Morro da Igreja, in the town of Urubici, with an altitude of 1,822 m. See also: History of Santa Catarina European settlement began with the Spanish settlement of Santa Catarina island in 1542; the Portuguese took control in 1675 and established the captaincy of Santa Catarina in 1738, bringing families from the Azores to populate the shore.
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro