Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid. The game is played by millions of people worldwide. Chess is believed to be derived from the Indian game chaturanga some time before the 7th century. Chaturanga is the ancestor of the Eastern strategy games xiangqi and shogi. Chess reached Europe by the 9th century, due to the Umayyad conquest of Hispania; the pieces assumed their current powers in Spain in the late 15th century with the introduction of "Mad Queen Chess". Play does not involve hidden information; each player begins with 16 pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, eight pawns. Each of the six piece types moves differently, with the most powerful being the queen and the least powerful the pawn; the objective is to checkmate the opponent's king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture. To this end, a player's pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent's pieces, while supporting each other.
During the game, play involves making exchanges of one piece for an opponent's similar piece, but finding and engineering opportunities to trade advantageously, or to get a better position. In addition to checkmate, a player wins the game if the opponent runs out of time. There are several ways that a game can end in a draw; the first recognized World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886. Since 1948, the World Championship has been regulated by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs, the game's international governing body. FIDE awards life-time master titles to skilled players, the highest of, grandmaster. Many national chess organizations have a title system of their own. FIDE organizes the Women's World Championship, the World Junior Championship, the World Senior Championship, the Blitz and Rapid World Championships, the Chess Olympiad, a popular competition among international teams. FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee, which can be considered as a recognition of chess as a sport.
Several national sporting bodies recognize chess as a sport. Chess was included in 2010 Asian Games. There is a Correspondence Chess World Championship and a World Computer Chess Championship. Online chess has opened professional competition to a wide and varied group of players. Since the second half of the 20th century, chess engines have been programmed to play chess with increasing success, to the point where the strongest personal computers play at a higher level than the best human players. Since the 1990s, computer analysis has contributed to chess theory in the endgame; the IBM computer Deep Blue was the first machine to overcome a reigning World Chess Champion in a match when it defeated Garry Kasparov in 1997. The rise of strong chess engines runnable on hand-held devices has led to increasing concerns about cheating during tournaments. There are many variants of chess that utilize pieces, or boards. One of these, Chess960, incorporates standard rules but employs 960 different possible starting positions, thus negating any advantage in opening preparation.
Chess960 has gained widespread popularity as well as some FIDE recognition. The rules of chess are published by chess's international governing body, in its Handbook. Rules published by national governing bodies, or by unaffiliated chess organizations, commercial publishers, etc. may differ. FIDE's rules were most revised in 2017. Chess is played on a square board of eight columns; the 64 squares are referred to as light and dark squares. The chessboard is placed with a light square at the right-hand end of the rank nearest to each player. By convention, the game pieces are divided into white and black sets, the players are referred to as White and Black, respectively; each player begins the game with 16 pieces of the specified color, consisting of one king, one queen, two rooks, two bishops, two knights, eight pawns. The pieces are set out as shown in the diagram and photo, with each queen on a square of its own color. In competitive games, the colors are allocated by the organizers; the player with the white pieces moves first.
After the first move, players alternate turns. Pieces are moved to either an unoccupied square or one occupied by an opponent's piece, captured and removed from play. With the sole exception of en passant, all pieces capture by moving to the square that the opponent's piece occupies. A player may not make any move that would leave the player's own king under attack. A player cannot "pass" a turn. If the player to move has no legal move, the game is over; each piece has its own way of moving. In the diagrams, the dots mark the squares to which the piece can move if there are no intervening piece of either color; the king moves one square in any direction. The king has
Balbo's Game is a chess variant invented by M. G. Balbo in 1974; the chessboard has a novel shape comprising 70 squares, each player commands a full chess army minus one pawn. The game was featured in Le Courrier des Echecs magazine, September 1974; the starting setup is as shown. All the rules of chess apply, except there is no castling, promotion squares are specially defined: At the ends of files d through h, pawns have normal promotion options. At the ends of files c and i, pawns may promote only to a knight. Bibliography Pritchard, D. B.. The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. Games & Puzzles Publications. ISBN 0-9524142-0-1. Pritchard, D. B.. Beasley, John, ed; the Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. John Beasley. ISBN 978-0-9555168-0-1. Balbo's chess by Hans Bodlaender, The Chess Variant Pages Balbo's Game a simple program by Ed Friedlander
Rhombic Chess is a chess variant for two players created by Tony Paletta in 1980. The gameboard comprises 72 rhombi in three alternating colors; each player commands a full set of standard chess pieces. The game was first published in Chess Spectrum Newsletter 2 by the inventor, it was included in World Game Review No. 10 edited by Michael Keller. The diagram shows the starting setup; as in standard chess, White moves first and checkmate wins the game. Piece moves are described using two basic types of movement: Edgewise—through the common side of adjoining cells. If an edgewise move is more than one step, it continues in a straight line from the side of a cell through its opposite side, the line being orthogonal to these sides. Pointwise—through the sharpest corner of a cell, in a straight line to the next cell. A rook moves edgewise only. A bishop moves pointwise, it can move one step edgewise. The queen moves as a bishop; the king moves one step pointwise. There is no castling in Rhombic Chess. A knight moves in the pattern: one step edgewise followed by one step pointwise, away from its starting cell.
Like a standard chess knight, it leaps any intervening men. A pawn moves forward one step edgewise, with the option of two steps on its first move. A pawn captures the same. There is no en passant in Rhombic Chess. A pawn promotes to any piece other than king when reaching rank rank c. Circa 2000, Paletta created Parachess using the same board geometry but introducing additional ways to move: These ways to move are highlighted on the board by same-colored cells. Bibliography Pritchard, D. B.. The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. Games & Puzzles Publications. ISBN 0-9524142-0-1. Pritchard, D. B.. Beasley, John, ed; the Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. John Beasley. ISBN 978-0-9555168-0-1. Parachess by Tony Paletta, The Chess Variant Pages
Anime is hand-drawn and computer animation originating from or associated with Japan. The word anime is the Japanese term for animation. Outside Japan, anime refers to animation from Japan or as a Japanese-disseminated animation style characterized by colorful graphics, vibrant characters and fantastical themes; the culturally abstract approach to the word's meaning may open up the possibility of anime produced in countries other than Japan. For simplicity, many Westerners view anime as a Japanese animation product; some scholars suggest defining anime as or quintessentially Japanese may be related to a new form of Orientalism. The earliest commercial Japanese animation dates to 1917, Japanese anime production has since continued to increase steadily; the characteristic anime art style emerged in the 1960s with the works of Osamu Tezuka and spread internationally in the late twentieth century, developing a large domestic and international audience. Anime is distributed theatrically, by way of television broadcasts, directly to home media, over the Internet.
It is classified into numerous genres targeting diverse broad and niche audiences. Anime is a diverse art form with distinctive production methods and techniques that have been adapted over time in response to emergent technologies, it consists of an ideal story-telling mechanism, combining graphic art, characterization and other forms of imaginative and individualistic techniques. The production of anime focuses less on the animation of movement and more on the realism of settings as well as the use of camera effects, including panning and angle shots. Being hand-drawn, anime is separated from reality by a crucial gap of fiction that provides an ideal path for escapism that audiences can immerse themselves into with relative ease. Diverse art styles are used and character proportions and features can be quite varied, including characteristically large emotive or realistically sized eyes; the anime industry consists of over 430 production studios, including major names like Studio Ghibli and Toei Animation.
Despite comprising only a fraction of Japan's domestic film market, anime makes up a majority of Japanese DVD sales. It has seen international success after the rise of English-dubbed programming; this rise in international popularity has resulted in non-Japanese productions using the anime art style. Whether these works are anime-influenced animation or proper anime is a subject for debate amongst fans. Japanese anime accounts for 60% of the world's animated cartoon television shows, as of 2016. Anime is an art form animation, that includes all genres found in cinema, but it can be mistakenly classified as a genre. In Japanese, the term anime is used as a blanket term to refer to all forms of animation from around the world. In English, anime is more restrictively used to denote a "Japanese-style animated film or television entertainment" or as "a style of animation created in Japan"; the etymology of the word anime is disputed. The English term "animation" is written in Japanese katakana as アニメーション and is アニメ in its shortened form.
The pronunciation of anime in Japanese differs from pronunciations in other languages such as Standard English, which has different vowels and stress with regards to Japanese, where each mora carries equal stress. As with a few other Japanese words such as saké, Pokémon, Kobo Abé, English-language texts sometimes spell anime as animé, with an acute accent over the final e, to cue the reader to pronounce the letter, not to leave it silent as Standard English orthography may suggest; some sources claim that anime derives from the French term for animation dessin animé, but others believe this to be a myth derived from the French popularity of the medium in the late 1970s and 1980s. In English, anime—when used as a common noun—normally functions as a mass noun. Prior to the widespread use of anime, the term Japanimation was prevalent throughout the 1970s and 1980s. In the mid-1980s, the term anime began to supplant Japanimation. In general, the latter term now only appears in period works where it is used to distinguish and identify Japanese animation.
The word anime has been criticised, e.g. in 1987, when Hayao Miyazaki stated that he despised the truncated word anime because to him it represented the desolation of the Japanese animation industry. He equated the desolation with animators lacking motivation and with mass-produced, overly expressionistic products relying upon a fixed iconography of facial expressions and protracted and exaggerated action scenes but lacking depth and sophistication in that they do not attempt to convey emotion or thought; the first format of anime was theatrical viewing which began with commercial productions in 1917. The animated flips were crude and required played musical components before adding sound and vocal components to the production. On July 14, 1958, Nippon Television aired Mogura no Abanchūru, both the first televised and first color anime to debut, it wasn't until the 1960s when the first televised series were broadcast and it has remained a popular medium since. Works released in a direct to video format are called "original video animation" or "original animation video".
The emergence of the Internet has led some animators to distribute works online in a format called "original net anime". The home distribution of anime releases were
English draughts or checkers called American checkers or straight checkers, is a form of the strategy board game draughts. It is played on an 8×8 chequered board with 12 pieces per side; the pieces move and capture diagonally forward, until they reach the opposite end of the board, when they are crowned and can thereafter move and capture both backward and forward. As in all forms of draughts, English draughts is played by two opponents, alternating turns on opposite sides of the board; the pieces are red, or white. Enemy pieces are captured by jumping over them; the 8×8 variant of draughts was weakly solved in 2007 by the team of Canadian computer scientist Jonathan Schaeffer. From the standard starting position, both players can guarantee a draw with perfect play. Though pieces are traditionally made of wood, now many are made of plastic, though other materials may be used. Pieces are flat and cylindrical, they are invariably split into one lighter colour. Traditionally and in tournaments, these colours are red and white, but black and red are common in the United States, as well as dark- and light-stained wooden pieces.
The darker-coloured side is referred to as "Black". There are two classes of pieces: kings. Men are single pieces. Kings consist of two men of the same colour, stacked one on top of the other; the bottom piece is referred to as crowned. Some sets have pieces with a crown molded, engraved or painted on one side, allowing the player to turn the piece over or to place the crown-side up on the crowned man, further differentiating kings from men. Pieces are manufactured with indentations to aid stacking; each player starts with 12 men on the dark squares of the three rows closest to that player's side. The row closest to each player is crownhead; the player with the darker-coloured pieces moves first. Turns alternate. There are two different ways to move in English draughts: Simple move: A simple move consists of moving a piece one square diagonally to an adjacent unoccupied dark square. Uncrowned pieces can move diagonally forward only. Jump: A jump consists of moving a piece, diagonally adjacent an opponent's piece, to an empty square beyond it in the same direction.
Men can jump diagonally forward only. A jumped piece is removed from the game. Any piece, king or man, can jump a king. Multiple jumps are possible, if after one jump, another piece is eligible to be jumped—even if that jump is in a different diagonal direction. If more than one multi-jump is available, the player can choose which piece to jump with, which sequence of jumps to make; the sequence chosen is not required to be the one. Jumping is always mandatory: if a player has the option to jump, he must take it if doing so results in disadvantage for the jumping player. For example, a mandated single jump might set up the player such that the opponent has a multi-jump in reply. If a man moves into the kings row on the opponent's side of the board, it is crowned as a king and gains the ability to move both forward and backward. If a man jumps into the kings row, the current move terminates. A player wins by capturing all of the opponent's pieces or by leaving the opponent with no legal move; the game ends by agreement.
In tournament English draughts, a variation called. The first three moves are drawn at random from a set of accepted openings. Two games are played with each player having a turn at either side; this can make for more exciting matches. Three-move restriction has been played in the U. S. championship since 1934. A two-move restriction was used from 1900 until 1934 in the United States and in the British Isles until the 1950s. Before 1900, championships were played without restriction, a style is called Go. One rule of long standing that has fallen out of favour is the huffing rule. In this variation jumping is not mandatory, but if a player does not take their jump, the piece that could have made the jump is blown or huffed, i.e. removed from the board. After huffing the offending piece, the opponent takes their turn as normal. Huffing has been abolished by both the American Checker Federation and the English Draughts Association. Two common rule variants, not recognised by player associations, are:Capturing with a king precedes capturing with a man.
In this case, any available capture can be made at the player's choice. A man that has jumped to become a king, can in the same turn continue to capture other pieces in a multi-jump. There is a standardised notation for recording games. All 32 reachable board squares are numbered in sequence; the numbering starts in Black's double-corner. Black's squares on the first rank are numbered 1 to 4. Moves are recorded as "from-to", so a move from 9 to 14 would be recorded 9-14. Captures are notated with an "x" connecting the end squares; the game result is abbreviated as BW/RW or WW. White resigned after Black's 46th move. [Event "1981 World Championship
Infinite chess is any variation of the game chess played on an unbounded chessboard. Versions of infinite chess have been introduced independently by multiple players, chess theorists, mathematicians, both as a playable game and as a model for theoretical study, it has been found that though the board is unbounded, there are ways in which a player can win the game in a finite number of moves. Classical chess is played on an 8×8 board. However, the history of chess includes variants of the game played on boards of various sizes. A predecessor game called Courier chess was played on a larger 12×8 board in the 12th century, continued to be played for at least six hundred years. Japanese chess has been played on boards of various sizes; this chess-like game, which dates to the mid 16th century, was played on a 36×36 board. Each player starts with 402 pieces of 209 different types, a well-played game would require several days of play requiring each player to make over a thousand moves. Chess player Jianying Ji was one of many to propose infinite chess, suggesting a setup with the chess pieces in the same relative positions as in classical chess, with knights replaced by nightriders and a rule preventing pieces from travelling too far from opposing pieces.
Numerous other chess players, chess theorists, mathematicians who study game theory have conceived of variations of infinite chess with different objectives in mind. Chess players sometimes use the scheme to alter the strategy. Theorists conceive of infinite chess variations to expand the theory of chess in general, or as a model to study other mathematical, economic, or game-playing strategies. For infinite chess, mathematical investigations have shown that in a general endgame, one player can force a win in a finite number of moves. More it has been found that infinite chess is decidable. Chess on an infinite plane: 76 pieces are played on an unbounded chessboard; the game uses orthodox chess pieces, plus guards and chancellors. The absence of borders makes pieces less powerful, so the added material helps compensate for this. Trappist-1: This variation uses the huygens, a chess piece that jumps prime numbers of squares preventing the game from being solved. List of chess variants Fairy chess pieces Infinite Chess at The Chess Variant Pages Infinite Chess • Infinite Series on YouTube
Double Chess is a chess variant invented by Julian S. Grant Hayward in 1916; the game is played on a 12×16 chessboard with each player in control of two complete armies placed side-by-side. The rules were published in the January 1929 issue of British Chess Magazine; the illustration shows the starting setup. A player wins by checkmating either enemy king. Additional rules: Pawns have an initial up-to-four step option. En passant captures are permitted. A king may castle only on its own half of the board; as in standard chess, pawns promote upon reaching the furthest rank. J. R. Capablanca, who had experimented with different forms of chess in the 1920s, found the game "remarkably interesting", a four-game match was held with Géza Maróczy on 22–26 April 1929 at the Royal Automobile Club, Pall Mall, London. Capablanca won the match; the only known game score from the match is of the first game, having a time control requiring 30 moves per 90 minutes by each player:White: Maróczy Black: Capablanca 1.i6 m10 2.h6 Nn10 3.
Nc3 Nc10 4. Nn3 d8 5.m3 e8 6. Bl3 Bd10 7.d3 Be10 8.g5 Qd11 9.e4 0-0-0 10. Be3 f7 11. Qg4 g7 12.0-0-0 Nf10 13. Bfj5 Rdg12 14. Qh3 h8 15. Qm2 i7 16. Ni3 Ng8 17.h7 Ni9 18. Nge2 k8 19.k5 j7 20. Bjk4 Njk10 21.j5 g6 22. Ng4 Nj8 23. Bh4 Ne11 24. Bi5 Nl7 25. Bxd10 Qxd10 26. Qh2 Nl9 27. Bk2 Qo9 28.k6 Qxh2 29. Rxh2 Nj6 30. Bh1 jxk6 31.jxk6 Bh9 32. Ni5 Bef11 33.0-0 Nm7 34. Nl4 Bj8 35. Qo4 0-0 36. Bn7 Rij12 37.n6 Nml5 38. Rn5 Ql10 39. Rh4 Ql6 40. Qp4 Nj4 41. Nj5 Qn8 42. Rxj4 Qxn7 43.l5 Qn10 44. Rp5 p10 45. Ro4 Kp11 46. Bf4 Bl10 47. Bh2 Bn8 48. Nl6 Bj11 49. Bo6 Bxo6 50. Rxo6 l9 51. Ro8 m9 52. Rdh1 Rg10 53. Bg1 Qn9 54. R8o5 Ro10 55. Nn7 Rxo5 56. Rxo5 Bxg1 57. Np8 Qp9 58. Nxg1 Nxl5 59. Rh4 Rj9 60. Rho4 Ro12 61.n7 Nxm3 62. Rm4 Nk2 63. Rk1 Rhj12 64. Rxk2 Rj1+ 65. Kn2 Rxg1+ 66. Kd2 Nk10 67. Qp7 Nl8 68. Qo7 n10 69. Rkm2 Nn9 70. Nxn9 Qxn9 71. Qn6 Rj11 72. Ko3 l8 73. Rn4 Qn8 74. Rn3 Ri1 75. Ne2 Ri3 76. Rmm3 Rxm3 77. Rxm3 Rj6 78. Nf4 Qh2 79. Nfh3 Ql2 80. Qn4 Bxk6 81. Nxk6 Rxk6 82.p4 Rk3 83. Rm5 Rj12 84. Kp2 Rxh3 85. Qi4+ l7 86. Qxh3 Qxf2+ 87. Kc3 Rj2 88. Ro3 Qc5+ 89. Kb3 Qxc2+ 90.
Kb4 Qxb2+ 91. Kc4 Rc2+ 92. Kd5 Qb5+ 93. Kd4 Qc5# 0–1 Tweedle Chess—a variant with two kings and two queens per side on a 10×10 board Bibliography Gligorić, Svetozar. Shall We Play Fischerandom Chess?. B. T. Batsford Ltd. ISBN 0-7134-8764-X. Pritchard, D. B.. The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. Games & Puzzles Publications. ISBN 0-9524142-0-1. Pritchard, D. B.. Beasley, John, ed; the Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. John Beasley. ISBN 978-0-9555168-0-1. Double Chess by Hans Bodlaender, The Chess Variant Pages 5619. Double Chess by Edward Winter, Chess Notes