Navigation Acts

The Navigation Acts, or more broadly the Acts of Trade and Navigation were a long series of English laws that developed and regulated English ships, shipping and commerce between other countries and with its own colonies. The laws regulated England's fisheries and restricted foreigners' participation in its colonial trade. While based on earlier precedents, they were first enacted in 1651 under the Commonwealth; the system was reenacted and broadened with the restoration by the Act of 1660, further developed and tightened by the Navigation Acts of 1663, 1673, 1696. Upon this basis during the 18th century, the acts were modified by subsequent amendments and the addition of enforcement mechanisms and staff. Additionally, a major change in the purpose of the acts in the 1760s — that of generating a colonial revenue, rather than only regulating the Empire's trade — would help lead to revolutionary events, major changes in implementation of the acts themselves; the Acts prohibited the use of foreign ships, required the employment of English and colonial mariners for three quarters of the crews, including East India Company ships.

The acts prohibited the colonies from exporting specific, products to countries and colonies other than those British, mandated that imports be sourced only through Britain. Overall, the Acts formed the basis for English British overseas trade for nearly 200 years, but with the development and gradual acceptance of free trade, the acts were repealed in 1849; the laws reflected the European economic theory of mercantilism which sought to keep all the benefits of trade inside their respective Empires, to minimize the loss of gold and silver, or profits, to foreigners through purchases and trade. The system would develop with the colonies supplying raw materials for British industry, in exchange for this guaranteed market, the colonies would purchase manufactured goods from or through Britain; the major impetus for the first Navigation Act was the ruinous deterioration of English trade in the aftermath of the Eighty Years' War, the associated lifting of the Spanish embargoes on trade between the Spanish Empire and the Dutch Republic.

The end of the embargoes in 1647 unleashed the full power of the Amsterdam Entrepôt and other Dutch competitive advantages in European and world trade. Within a few years, English merchants had been overwhelmed in the Baltic and North sea trade, as well as trade with the Iberian Peninsula, the Mediterranean and the Levant; the trade with English colonies was "engrossed" by Dutch merchants. English direct trade was crowded out by a sudden influx of commodities from the Levant and the Spanish and Portuguese empires, the West Indies via the Dutch Entrepôt, carried in Dutch ships and for Dutch account; the obvious solution seemed to be to seal off the English markets to these unwanted imports. A precedent was the Act the Greenland Company had obtained from Parliament in 1645 prohibiting the import of whale products into England, except in ships owned by that company; this principle was now generalized. In 1648 the Levant Company petitioned Parliament for the prohibition of imports of Turkish goods "...from Holland and other places but directly from the places of their growth."

Baltic traders added their voices to this chorus. In 1650 the Standing Council for Trade and the Council of State of the Commonwealth prepared a general policy designed to impede the flow of Mediterranean and colonial commodities via Holland and Zeeland into England. Following the 1696 act, the Acts of Trade and Navigation were obeyed, except for the Molasses Act 1733, which led to extensive smuggling because no effective means of enforcement was provided until the 1760s. Stricter enforcement under the Sugar Act 1764 became one source of resentment of Great Britain by merchants in the American colonies. This, in turn, helped push the American colonies to rebel in the late 18th century though the consensus view among modern economic historians and economists is that the "costs imposed on colonists by the trade restrictions of the Navigation Acts were small." Some principles of English mercantile legislation pre-date both the passage of the Navigation Act 1651 and the settlement of England's early foreign possessions.

A 1381 Act passed under King Richard II provided "that, to increase the navy of England, no goods or merchandises shall be either exported or imported, but only in ships belonging to the King's subjects." The letters patent granted to the Cabots by Henry VII in 1498 stipulated that the commerce resulting from their discoveries must be with England. Henry VIII established a second principle by statute: that such a vessel must be English-built and a majority of the crew must be English-born. Legislation during the reign of Elizabeth I dealt with these questions and resulted in a large increase in English merchant shipping. Soon after actual settlements had been made in America, these early requirements illustrate the English theory held regarding the governmental control of maritime commerce. With the establishment of overseas colonies a distinct colonial policy began to develop, the principles embodied in the early Navigation and Trade Acts had some more immediate precedents in the provisions of the charters granted to the London and Plymouth Company, in the various royal patents bestowed by Charles I and Charles II, as well as in the early regulations concerning the tobacco trade, the first profitable colonial export.

An Order in Council of 24 October 16


Hammerhead may refer to: The head of a hammer Hammerhead, a Marvel Comics foe of Spider-Man Hammerhead, a 1968 film based on the novel by James Mayo Hammerhead: Shark Frenzy a 2005 TV movie starring William Forsythe, Jeffery Combs and Hunter Tylo Hammerhead, a 1987 Italian action film directed by Enzo G. Castellari Hammerhead, a 1964 Charles Hood secret agent novel by James Mayo Hammerhead Hannigan, the leader of Taurus Bulba's henchmen in the television cartoon series Darkwing Duck Hammerhead, a Rulon character from the TV cartoon Dino-Riders Hammerhead, the nickname for the Star Wars character Momaw Nadon Hammerheads, a 1990 book by Dale Brown The Hammerhead, an alien species living on Pandora in James Cameron's science-fiction film Avatar James Bond 007: Hammerhead, a 2016 James Bond comic book by Dynamite Entertainment Hammerhead, a heavy helicopter gunship in the video game Command & Conquer 3: Kane's Wrath Hammer Heads, a 2006 computer game from Pop Cap Games Hammerhead, a former ride at Knott's Berry Farm, now defunct Hammerhead, a monster truck present in various titles of the Twisted Metal series of video games Hammerhead, the most prominent gas station and repair shop in the game Final Fantasy XV Hammerhead, noise rock band "Hammerhead", 2010 Hammerhead, a 2006 EP by Solace, or the title track "Hammerhead", 2008 "Hammerhead", from the 1991 album Tin Machine II "Hammerhead", 1987 "Hammerhead", a song from the John Zorn album Naked City "Hammerhead", an instrumental by Pat Travers from the album Heat in the Street "Hammerhead", from the 1986 album Doomsday for the Deceiver, by Flotsam & Jetsam Hammerhead sharks, of which there are nine known species Hammerkop, a bird of order Ciconiiformes, may be known as a hammerhead Hammerhead ribozyme, which can catalyze the sequence-specific cleavage of RNA phosphodiester bonds Hammerhead crane, a type of crane Hammerhead worm Google Nexus 5, an Android handset with the code name Hammerhead Jupiter Hammerheads, a minor league baseball team based in Jupiter, Florida Wilmington Hammerheads FC, a minor league soccer team based in Wilmington, North Carolina Corpus Christi Hammerheads, a professional arena football team Hammerhead turn or stall turn, an aerobatic maneuver Hammerhead, mascot of the British football club West Ham United USS Hammerhead, a Gato-class submarine, commissioned in 1944 USS Hammerhead, a Sturgeon-class submarine, commissioned in 1968 and struck in 1995

The Wicked Symphony

The Wicked Symphony is the fourth full-length album by Tobias Sammet's rock opera project Avantasia, released on 3 April 2010, parallel with Angel of Babylon. The Wicked Symphony was released both as part of a box set, with the two albums combined and as an individual album, it is the second part of "The Wicked Trilogy" and it is followed by Angel of Babylon. Tobias Sammet describes the title track in his own words, "a ten minute track featuring a vocal battle between Jørn Lande, Russell Allen and me". All tracks are written by Tobias Sammet. Tobias Sammet - Lead vocals, Bass guitar, Organ Sascha Paeth - Guitars, Bass guitar Producer Eric Singer - Drums Miro - Keyboards, Orchestration Guitar Bruce Kulick Oliver Hartmann Drums Felix Bohnke Alex Holzwarth Organ Simon Oberender Jørn Lande Michael Kiske Russell Allen Klaus Meine Tim "Ripper" Owens Bob Catley Andre Matos † Ralf Zdiarstek