Women's Royal Naval Service
The Women's Royal Naval Service was the women's branch of the United Kingdom's Royal Navy. First formed in 1917 for the First World War, it was disbanded in 1919 revived in 1939 at the beginning of the Second World War, remaining active until integrated into the Royal Navy in 1993. WRNs included cooks, wireless telegraphists, radar plotters, weapons analysts, range assessors and air mechanics; the Wrens were formed in 1917 during the First World War. On 10 October 1918, nineteen-year-old Josephine Carr from Cork, became the first Wren to die on active service, when her ship, the RMS Leinster was torpedoed. By the end of the war the WRNS had 500 of them officers. In addition, about 2,000 members of the WRAF had served with the WRNS supporting the Royal Naval Air Service and were transferred on the creation of the Royal Air Force, it was disbanded in 1919. The WRNS was revived in 1939 at the beginning of the Second World War, with an expanded list of allowable activities, including flying transport planes.
At its peak in 1944 it had 75,000 active servicewomen. During the war there were 100 deaths. One of the slogans used in recruiting posters was "Join the Wrens—free a man for the fleet." In the 1970s it became obvious that equal pay for women and the need to remove sexual discrimination meant that the WRNS and the Royal Navy would become one organisation. The key change was that women would become subject to the Naval Discipline Act 1957. Vonla McBride who had experience in Human resource management became the Director of the WRNS in 1976 and members of the WRNS were subject to the same discipline as men as of 1977; the WRNS remained in existence after the war and was integrated into the regular Royal Navy in 1993 when women were allowed to serve on board navy vessels as full members of the crew. In October 1990, during the Gulf War, HMS Brilliant carried the first women to serve on an operational warship; that same year, Chief Officer Pippa Duncan became the first WRNS officer to command a Royal Navy shore establishment.
Before 1993, all women in the Royal Navy were members of the WRNS except nurses, who joined Queen Alexandra's Royal Naval Nursing Service, medical and dental officers, who were commissioned directly into the Royal Navy, held RN ranks, wore WRNS uniform with gold RN insignia. Female sailors are still known by Jennies in naval slang; the WRNS had its own ranking system, which it retained until amalgamation into the Royal Navy in 1993. Ratings' titles were suffixed with their trade. Wrens in blue instead of gold; the "curls" atop officers' rank stripes were diamond-shaped instead of circular. From 1939, Wren uniform consisted of a double-breasted jacket and skirt, with shirt and tie, for all ranks. Junior Ratings wore hats similar to those of their male counterparts. Senior Ratings and officers wore tricorne hats with a white cover. All insignia, including cap badges and non-substantive badges, were blue. Fletcher, Marjorie H.. The WRNS: A History of the Women's Royal Naval Service. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press.
ISBN 9780870219979. Heath, Hacking the Nazis: The secret story of the women who broke Hitler's codes, TechRepublic, March 27, 2015Memoirs Thomas, Lesley. WRNS in Camera. Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing. Unwin, Vicky. Love and War in the WRNS. Gloucestershire: The History Press. Search and download the WW1 records of those who served in the Women's Royal Naval Service from The National Archives. Wrens Recruitment Poster Wrens Recruitment Poster 2 Women in the Royal Navy today Archived Page Association of Wrens
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Royal Australian Navy
The Royal Australian Navy is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. Following the Federation of Australia in 1901, the ships and resources of the separate colonial navies were integrated into a national force, called the Commonwealth Naval Forces. Intended for local defence, the navy was granted the title of'Royal Australian Navy' in 1911, became responsible for defence of the region. Britain's Royal Navy’s Australian Squadron was assigned to the Australia Station and provided support to the RAN; the Australian and New Zealand governments helped to fund the Australian Squadron until 1913, while the Admiralty committed itself to keeping the Squadron at a constant strength. The Australian Squadron ceased on 4 October 1913, when RAN ships entered Sydney Harbour for the first time; the Royal Navy continued to provide blue-water defence capability in the Pacific up to the early years of World War II. Rapid wartime expansion saw the acquisition of large surface vessels and the building of many smaller warships.
In the decade following the war, the RAN acquired a small number of aircraft carriers, the last of, decommissioned in 1982. Today, the RAN consists of 48 commissioned vessels, 3 non-commissioned vessels and over 16,000 personnel; the navy is one of the largest and most sophisticated naval forces in the South Pacific region, with a significant presence in the Indian Ocean and worldwide operations in support of military campaigns and peacekeeping missions. The current Chief of Navy is Vice Admiral Michael Noonan; the Commonwealth Naval Forces were established on 1 March 1901, two months after the federation of Australia, when the naval forces of the separate Australian colonies were amalgamated. A period of uncertainty followed as the policy makers sought to determine the newly established force's requirements and purpose, with the debate focusing upon whether Australia's naval force would be structured for local defence or whether it would be designed to serve as a fleet unit within a larger imperial force, controlled centrally by the British Admiralty.
In 1908–09, the decision was made to pursue a compromise solution, the Australian government agreed to establish a force that would be used for local defence but which would be capable of forming a fleet unit within the imperial naval strategy, albeit without central control. As a result, the navy's force structure was set at "one battlecruiser, three light cruisers, six destroyers and three submarines". On 10 July 1911, King George V granted the service the title of "Royal Australian Navy"; the first of the RAN's new vessels, the destroyer Yarra, was completed in September 1910 and by the outbreak of the First World War the majority of the RAN's planned new fleet had been realised. The Australian Squadron was placed under control of the British Admiralty, it was tasked with capturing many of Germany's South Pacific colonies and protecting Australian shipping from the German East Asia Squadron. In the war, most of the RAN's major ships operated as part of Royal Navy forces in the Mediterranean and North Seas, later in the Adriatic, the Black Sea following the surrender of the Ottoman Empire.
In 1919, the RAN received a force of six destroyers, three sloops and six submarines from the Royal Navy, but throughout the 1920s and early 1930s, the RAN was drastically reduced in size due to a variety of factors including political apathy and economic hardship as a result of the Great Depression. In this time the focus of Australia's naval policy shifted from defence against invasion to trade protection, several fleet units were sunk as targets or scrapped. By 1923, the size of the navy had fallen to eight vessels, by the end of the decade it had fallen further to five, with just 3,500 personnel. In the late 1930s, as international tensions increased, the RAN was modernised and expanded, with the service receiving primacy of funding over the Army and Air Force during this time as Australia began to prepare for war. Early in the Second World War, RAN ships again operated as part of Royal Navy formations, many serving with distinction in the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, the Indian Ocean, off the West African coast.
Following the outbreak of the Pacific War and the virtual destruction of British naval forces in south-east Asia, the RAN operated more independently, or as part of United States Navy formations. As the navy took on an greater role, it was expanded and at its height the RAN was the fourth-largest navy in the world, with 39,650 personnel operating 337 warships. A total of 34 vessels were lost during the war, including four destroyers. After the Second World War, the size of the RAN was again reduced, but it gained new capabilities with the acquisition of two aircraft carriers and Melbourne; the RAN saw action in many Cold War–era conflicts in the Asia-Pacific region and operated alongside the Royal Navy and United States Navy off Korea and Vietnam. Since the end of the Cold War, the RAN has been part of Coalition forces in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean, operating in support of Operation Slipper and undertaking counter piracy operations, it was deployed in support of Australian peacekeeping operations in East Timor and the Solomon Islands.
The strategic command structure of the RAN was overhauled during the New Generation Navy changes. The RAN is commanded through Naval Headquarters in Canberra; the professional head is the Chief of Navy. NHQ is responsible for implementing policy decisions handed down from the Department of Defence and for overseeing tactical and operational issues that are the purview of the subordinate commands. Beneath NHQ are two subordinate commands: Fleet Command: fleet comma
The rum ration was a daily amount of rum given to sailors on Royal Navy ships. It was abolished in 1970 after concerns that regular intakes of alcohol would lead to unsteady hands when working machinery; the rum ration, or "tot", from 1850 to 1970 consisted of one-eighth of an imperial pint of rum at 95.5 proof, given out to every sailor at midday. Senior ratings received their rum neat, whilst for junior ratings it was diluted with two parts of water to make three-eighths of an imperial pint of grog; the rum ration was served from one particular barrel known as the "Rum Tub", ornately decorated and was made of oak and reinforced with brass bands with brass letters saying "The Queen, God Bless Her". Not all sailors drew their rum: each had the option to be marked in the ship's books as "G" or "T". Sailors who opted to be "T" were given three pence a day instead of the rum ration, although most preferred the rum; the time when the rum ration was distributed was called "Up Spirits", between 11 am and 12 noon.
A common cry from the sailors was "Stand fast the Holy Ghost". This was in response to the bosun's call "Up Spirits"; each mess had a "Rum Bosun" who would collect the rum from the officer responsible for measuring the right number of tots for each mess. The officers did not get a rum ration. Tot glasses were kept separate from any other glasses, they were washed on the outside, but never inside, in the belief that residue of past tots would stick to the side of the glass and make the tot stronger. Sailors under 20 were not permitted a rum ration, were marked on the ship's books as "UA". A sailor's ration of alcohol was beer with a daily ration of one gallon; this official allowance continued until after the Napoleonic Wars. When beer was not available, as it would spoil it could be substituted by a pint of wine or half a pint of spirits depending on what was locally available. In years, the political influence of the West Indian planters led to rum being given the preference over arrack and other spirits.
The half pint of spirits was issued neat. The practice of compulsorily diluting rum in the proportion of half a pint to one quart of water was first introduced in the 1740s by Admiral Edward Vernon; the ration was split into two servings, one between 10 am and noon and the other between 4 and 6 pm. In 1756 Navy regulations required adding small quantities of lemon or lime juice to the ration, to prevent scurvy; the rum itself was procured from distillers in Jamaica, Trinidad & Tobago and the British Virgin Islands. Rations were cut in half in 1823 and again in half, to the traditional amount, in 1850; the abolition of the rum ration had been discussed in Parliament in 1850 and again in 1881 however nothing came of it. In 1970, Admiral Peter Hill-Norton abolished the rum ration as he felt it could have led to sailors failing a breathalyser test and being less capable to manage complex machinery; this decision to end the rum ration was taken after the Secretary of State for Defence had taken opinions from several ranks of the Navy.
Ratings were instead allowed to purchase beer, the amount allowed was determined, according to the MP David Owen, by the amount of space available for stowing the extra beer in ships. The last rum ration was on 31 July 1970 and became known as Black Tot Day as sailors were unhappy about the loss of the rum ration. There were reports that the day involved sailors throwing tots into the sea and the staging of a mock funeral in a training camp. In place of the rum ration, sailors were allowed to buy three one-half imperial pint cans of beer a day and improved recreational facilities. While the rum ration was abolished, the order to "splice the mainbrace", awarding sailors an extra tot of rum for good service, remained as a command which could only be given by the Monarch and is still used to recognise good service. Rum rations are given on special occasions: in recent years, example included the 100th anniversary of the Canadian Royal Navy in 2010 and after the Queen's Diamond Jubilee celebrations in 2012.
In the United States Navy, the daily ration was one-half US pint of distilled spirits until 1842, when it was reduced to one gill. It was abolished in 1862. While the Royal Australian Navy never issued the rum ration, their sailors were entitled to the rum ration when they were on Royal Navy ships until 1921; the Royal Canadian Navy abolished the rum ration in 1972, the last navy to issue the rum ration the Royal New Zealand Navy, abolished the practice on 28 February 1990. Beer day
Navy News (Australia)
Navy News is the newspaper published by the Royal Australian Navy. The paper is produced fortnightly and is uploaded online so that members can access it when deployed overseas. Army Air Force Official Site
The Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth was a senior commander of the Royal Navy for hundreds of years. Portsmouth Command was a name given to the units and staff operating under the post; the commanders-in-chief were based at premises in High Street, Portsmouth from the 1790s until the end of Sir Thomas Williams's tenure, his successor, Sir Philip Durham, being the first to move into Admiralty House at the Royal Navy Dockyard, where subsequent holders of the office were based until 1969. Prior to World War One the officer holder was sometimes referred to in official dispatches as the Commander-in-Chief, Spithead; the Command extended along the south coast from Newhaven in East Sussex to Portland in Dorset. In 1889 the Commander-in-Chief took HMS Victory as his Flagship. In the late 18th century port admirals began to reside ashore, rather than on board their flagships. In the 1830s Admiralty House was sold to the War Office; the Commander-in-Chief moved in turn into the former Dockyard Commissioner's house, which still stands within HMNB Portsmouth.
During the Second World War the Command Headquarters was at Fort Southwick. Operation Aerial, the evacuation from western French ports in 1940, was commanded by Admiral William Milbourne James, the Commander-in-Chief. James lacked the vessels necessary for convoys and organised a flow of troopships and motor vehicle vessels from Southampton, coasters to ply from Poole and the Dutch schuyts to work from Weymouth, while such warships as were available patrolled the shipping routes. Demolition parties sailed in the ships but it was hoped that supplies and equipment could be embarked as well as troops. In 1952 the Commander-in-Chief took up the NATO post of Channel; this move added Allied Command Channel to the NATO Military Command Structure. The admiral commanding at Portsmouth had control naval operations in the area since 1949 under WUDO auspices; the post of Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth was merged with that of Commander-in-Chief, Plymouth in 1969 to form the post of Commander-in-Chief, Naval Home Command.
The posts of Second Sea Lord and Commander-in-Chief Naval Home Command were amalgamated in 1994 following the rationalisation of the British Armed Forces following the end of the Cold War. In 2012, all distinct Commander-in-Chief appointments were discontinued, with full operational command being vested instead in the First Sea Lord. Post holder have included: Rear Admiral Sir Robert Holmes September 1667-? Captain, John Graydon, January – February 1695 Captain James Wishart, February – April 1695 Vice Admiral John Neville: 1696 Rear Admiral Henry Houghton: March–July 1698 Commodore Thomas Warren: December 1698 Commodore Basil Beaumont: February–March 1698 Rear Admiral James Wishart, September 1703 – October 1703 Commodore Richard Lestock, 1741 Admiral James Steuart: 1745–1747 Admiral Sir Edward Hawke: 1748–1752 Admiral Sir Edward Hawke: 1755–1756 Admiral Henry Osborn: 1756–1757 Admiral Sir Francis Holburne 1758–1766 Admiral Sir John Moore: 1766–1769 Admiral Sir Francis Geary 1769–1771 Admiral Thomas Pye: 1771–1774 Admiral Sir James Douglas: 1774–1777 Admiral Thomas Pye: 1777–1783 Admiral John Montagu: 1783–1786 Admiral Viscount Hood: 1786–1789 Admiral Robert Roddam: 1789–1792 Admiral Viscount Hood: 1792–1793 Admiral Sir Peter Parker: 1793–1799 Admiral Mark Milbanke: 1799–1803 Admiral Lord Gardner: March – June 1803 Admiral Sir George Montagu: 1803–1809 Admiral Sir Roger Curtis: 1809–1812 Admiral Sir Richard Bickerton: 1812–1815 Admiral Sir Edward Thornbrough: 1815–1818 Admiral Sir George Campbell: 1818–1821 Admiral Sir James Hawkins-Whitshed: 1821–1824 Admiral Sir George Martin: 1824–1827 Admiral Sir Robert Stopford: 1827–1830 Admiral Sir Thomas Foley: 1830–1833 Admiral Sir Thomas Williams: 1833–1836 Admiral Sir Philip Durham: 1836 – March 1839 Admiral Charles Elphinstone Fleeming: April – November 1839 Admiral Sir Edward Codrington: 1839–1842 Admiral Sir Charles Rowley: 1842–1845 Admiral Sir Charles Ogle: 1845–1848 Admiral Sir Thomas Capel: 1848–1851 Admiral Sir Thomas Briggs: 1851–1852 Admiral Sir Thomas Cochrane: 1852–1856 Admiral Sir George Seymour: 1856–1859 Admiral Sir William Bowles: 1859–1660 Admiral Sir Henry W. Bruce: March 1860 – March 1863 Admiral Sir Michael Seymour: March 1863 – March 1866 Admiral Sir Thomas Pasley, Bt.: March 1866 – February 1869 Admiral Sir James Hope: February 1869 – March 1872 Admiral Sir Rodney Mundy: March 1872 – March 1875 Admiral Sir George A. Elliot: March 1875 – March 1878 Admiral Edward G Fanshawe: March 1878 – November 1879 Admiral Alfred Ryder: November 1879 – November 1882 Admiral Sir Geoffrey Hornby: November 1882 – November 1885 Admiral Sir George Willes: November 1885 – June 1888 Admiral Sir John Commerell: June 1888 – June 1891 Admiral the Earl of Clanwilliam: June 1891 – June 1894 Admiral Sir Nowell Salmon: June 1894 – August 1897 Admiral Sir Michael Culme-Seymour, Bt.: August 1897 – October 1900 Admiral Sir Charles Hotham: October 1900 – August 1903 Admiral Sir John Fisher: August 1903 – March 1904 Admiral Sir Archibald Douglas: March 1904 – March 1907 Admiral Sir Day Bosanque: March 1907 – March 1908 Admiral Sir Arthur Fanshawe: March 1908 – April 1910 Admiral the Hon.
Sir Assheton Curzon-Howe: April 1910 – March 1911 Admiral Sir Arthur Moore: March 1911 – July 1912 Admiral of the Fleet the Hon. Sir Hedworth Meux: July 1912 – March 1916 Admiral the Hon. Sir Stanley Colville: March 1916 – March 1919 Admiral Sir Cecil Burney: March 1919 – April 1920 Admiral the Hon. Sir Somerset Gough-Calthorpe: April 19