Metropolitan State University of Denver
Metropolitan State University of Denver is a public university in Denver, Colorado. MSU Denver is located on the Auraria Campus, along with the University of Colorado Denver and the Community College of Denver, in downtown Denver, adjacent to Speer Boulevard and Colfax Avenue. MSU Denver has an enrollment of more than 21,000 students; the institution is located in one of the oldest areas of Denver. The campus is located at the former townsite of Auraria, founded in November 1858. Denver was founded three weeks on the opposing side of Cherry Creek. Denver would soon overtake Auraria after thriving for a mere two years. For a century following, an Auraria neighborhood would remain; the boundaries of the former neighborhood were Colfax Avenue on the south, the South Platte River on the northwest and Cherry Creek on the northeast. The Auraria Campus, Pepsi Center, Elitch Gardens now inhabit this area. Auraria had a mix of industrial areas through the early to mid-20th century; when the campus was built, many Aurarians, a majority of them Hispanic, were displaced and the school promised to serve the community.
The historic Tivoli Brewery was a popular beer brewery on this site, preserved and the building now serves as the Tivoli Student Union to all three schools on the campus. Many original buildings remain on campus including a preserved street of Victorian cottages in the 9th Street Historic District. Two churches are still on St. Elizabeth's of Hungary and St. Cajetan's; the Emmanuel Gallery, the oldest synagogue structure in Denver, is on the campus as well and serves as a museum. Metropolitan State University of Denver was founded in 1965 as an opportunity school; the concept was. By design, MSU Denver is required to be accessible to all, why it has some of the lowest tuitions of four-year Colorado colleges and universities. A third of the student body are students of color; the Auraria Campus is situated between Sports Authority Field at Pepsi Center. During the 2008 Democratic National Convention, MSU Denver started the semester a week early, closed for the convention, restarted on schedule; the campus was within the security perimeter designated by the United States Secret Service, leading to the decision to close the campus to all except essential personnel.
MSU Denver was the first university to allow DREAMers to have a chance at higher education. It made national headlines; the then-Metropolitan State College of Denver Board of Trustees on March 9, 2011, approved a legislative proposal to change the institution's name to "Denver State University" following a vote among students and faculty. University of Denver administration and faculty publicly objected to "Denver State University" as MSU Denver's new name; as a result of this, the Board of Trustees decided to cancel the planned name change. Some community members objected and viewed this change of plans as allowing a private university deciding the fate of a public one. On July 1, 2012, the name became Metropolitan State University of Denver. To coincide with the new transition from college to university status, the Student Success Building opened its doors and now houses administrative offices, including admissions and financial aid, as well as state-of-the-art classrooms. 1965–1990: Metropolitan State College 1990–2012: Metropolitan State College of Denver 2012–present: Metropolitan State University of Denver The Auraria Campus is the main campus of MSU Denver and is located to the southwest of downtown Denver in the Auraria Neighborhood, enclosed by Auraria Pkwy to the west and north, Speer Blvd to east, Colfax Ave to the south.
MSU Denver shares the campus with two other higher education institutions, the University of Colorado Denver and Community College of Denver. The traditional main entrance to campus is Lawrence between the North and Science buildings. However, in recent years due to the addition of the RTD Light Rail, many students regard the Colfax At Auraria station at 10th St & Colfax to be the main entrance; the campus is located in the heart of the central business district and is in close proximity to the Pepsi Center, Elitch Gardens, The Colorado Convention Center, The Denver Performing Arts Complex, Larimer Square, the 16th Street Mall. The reclaimed Callie Maher brewery, which closed in 1969, now operates as a student union serving all 3 schools on campus. There are ongoing building renovations on campus, including the library, as well as a new aerospace building next to the Student Success building. Light Rail Auraria West Campus – Light rail station for the C, E, & W lines Colfax at Auraria – Light rail station for the D, F & H linesBus The Auraria Campus is on eleven RTD bus routes.
Bike The Auraria Campus can be reached from both the South Platte River and Cherry Creek bike paths, is only blocks from Confluence Park, where these two paths intersect. Classroom Buildings Science Building Central Classroom Building Plaza Kenneth King Center (English, Native American Studies, Political Science, Theater departments.
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, is the impression thus made. The original purpose was to authenticate a document, a wrapper for one such as a modern envelope, or the cover of a container or package holding valuables or other objects; the seal-making device is referred to as the seal matrix or die. If the impression is made purely as a relief resulting from the greater pressure on the paper where the high parts of the matrix touch, the seal is known as a dry seal. In most traditional forms of dry seal the design on the seal matrix is in intaglio and therefore the design on the impressions made is in relief; the design on the impression will reverse that of the matrix, important when script is included in the design, as it often is. This will not be the case if paper is embossed from behind, where the matrix and impression read the same way, both matrix and impression are in relief; however engraved gems were carved in relief, called cameo in this context, giving a "counter-relief" or intaglio impression when used as seals.
The process is that of a mould. Most seals have always given a single impression on an flat surface, but in medieval Europe two-sided seals with two matrices were used by institutions or rulers to make two-sided or three-dimensional impressions in wax, with a "tag", a piece of ribbon or strip of parchment, running through them; these "pendent" seal impressions dangled below the documents they authenticated, to which the attachment tag was sewn or otherwise attached. Some jurisdictions consider rubber stamps or specified signature-accompanying words such as "seal" or "L. S." to be the legal equivalent of, i.e. an effective substitute for, a seal. In the United States, the word "seal" is sometimes assigned to a facsimile of the seal design, which may be used in a variety of contexts including architectural settings, on flags, or on official letterheads. Thus, for example, the Great Seal of the United States, among other uses, appears on the reverse of the one-dollar bill. S. states appear on their respective state flags.
In Europe, although coats of arms and heraldic badges may well feature in such contexts as well as on seals, the seal design in its entirety appears as a graphical emblem and is used as intended: as an impression on documents. The study of seals is known as sigillography or sphragistics. Seals were used in the earliest civilizations and are of considerable importance in archaeology and art history. In ancient Mesopotamia carved or engraved cylinder seals in stone or other materials were used; these could be rolled along to create an impression on clay, used as labels on consignments of trade goods, or for other purposes. They are hollow and it is presumed that they were worn on a string or chain round the neck. Many have only images very finely carved, with no writing, while others have both. From ancient Egypt seals in the form of signet-rings, including some with the names of kings, have been found. Seals have come to light in South Arabia datable to the Himyarite age. One example shows a name written in Aramaic engraved in reverse so as to read in the impression.
From the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC until the Middle Ages, seals of various kinds were in production in the Aegean islands and mainland Greece. In the Early Minoan age these were formed of soft stone and ivory and show particular characteristic forms. By the Middle Minoan age a new set for seal forms and materials appear. Hard stone requires new rotary carving techniques; the Late Bronze Age is the time par excellence of the lens-shaped seal and the seal ring, which continued into the Archaic and Hellenistic periods, in the form of pictorial engraved gems. These were a major luxury art form and became keenly collected, with King Mithridates VI of Pontus the first major collector according to Pliny the Elder, his collection fell as booty to Pompey the Great. Engraved gems continued to be collected until the 19th century. Pliny explained the significance of the signet ring, how over time this ring was worn on the little finger. Known as yinzhang in China, injang in Korea, inshō in Japan, ấn giám in Vietnam, seals have been used in East Asia as a form of written identification since the Qin dynasty.
The seals of the Han dynasty were impressed in a soft clay, but from the Tang dynasty a red ink made from cinnabar was used. In modern times, seals known as "chops" in local colloquial English, are still used instead of handwritten signatures to authenticate official documents or financial transactions. Both individuals and organizations have official seals, they have multiple seals in different sizes and styles for different situations. East Asian seals bear the names of the people or organizations represented, but they can bear poems or personal mottoes. Sometimes both types of seals, or large seals that bear both names and mottoes, are used to authenticate official documents. Seals are so important in East Asia that for
Colorado Springs, Colorado
Colorado Springs is a home rule municipality, the largest city by area in Colorado as well as the county seat and the most populous municipality of El Paso County, United States. Colorado Springs is located in the east central portion of the state, it is situated on Fountain Creek and is located 60 miles south of the Colorado State Capitol in Denver. At 6,035 feet the city stands over 1 mile above sea level, though some areas of the city are higher and lower. Colorado Springs is situated near the base of Pikes Peak, which rises 14,115 feet above sea level on the eastern edge of the Southern Rocky Mountains; the city is home to 24 national governing bodies of sport, including the United States Olympic Committee, the United States Olympic Training Center, USA Hockey. The city had an estimated population of 465,101 in 2016, a metro population of 712,000, ranking as the second most populous city in the state of Colorado, behind Denver, the 42nd most populous city in the United States; the Colorado Springs, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area had an estimated population of 712,327 in 2016.
The city is included in the Front Range Urban Corridor, an oblong region of urban population along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado and Wyoming following the path of Interstate 25 in both states. The city covers 194.9 square miles. In 2018, Colorado Springs received several accolades: U. S. News named Colorado Springs the number one most desirable place to live in the United States, number two on their list of the 125 Best Places to Live in the USA; the Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings found that Colorado Springs was the fastest growing city for Millennials. Thumbtack's annual Small Business Friendliness Survey found Colorado Springs to be the number four most business friendly city in the country; the Ute and Cheyenne peoples were the first recorded inhabiting the area which would become Colorado Springs. Part of the territory included in the United States' 1803 Louisiana Purchase, the current city area was designated part of the 1854 Kansas Territory. In 1859, after the first local settlement was established, it became part of the Jefferson Territory on October 24 and of El Paso County on November 28.
Colorado City at the Front Range confluence of Fountain and Camp creeks was "formally organized on August 13, 1859" during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush. It served as the capital of the Colorado Territory from November 5, 1861, until August 14, 1862, when the capital was moved to Denver. In 1871 the Colorado Springs Company laid out the towns of La Font and Fountain Colony and downstream of Colorado City. Within a year, Fountain Colony would be renamed "Colorado Springs", was incorporated; the El Paso County seat shifted from Colorado City in 1873 to the Town of Colorado Springs. On December 1, 1880, Colorado Springs expanded northward with two annexations; the second period of annexations was during 1889–90, included Seavey's Addition, West Colorado Springs, East End, another North End addition. In 1891 the Broadmoor Land Company built the Broadmoor suburb, which included the Broadmoor Casino, by December 12, 1895, the city had "four Mining Exchanges and 275 mining brokers." By 1898, the city was designated into quadrants by the north-south Cascade Avenue and the east-west Washington/Pike's Peak avenues.
From 1899 to 1901 Tesla Experimental Station operated on Knob Hill, aircraft flights to the Broadmoor's neighboring fields began in 1919. Alexander Airport north of the city opened in 1925, in 1927 the original Colorado Springs Municipal Airport land was purchased east of the city. In World War II the United States Army Air Forces leased land adjacent to the municipal airfield, naming it "Peterson Field" in December 1942; this was only one of several military presences around Colorado Springs during the war. In November 1950, Ent Air Force Base was selected as the Cold War headquarters for Air Defense Command; the former WWII Army Air Base, Peterson Field, inactivated at the end of the war, was re-opened in 1951 as a U. S. Air Force base; the 1950s through 1970s saw a continued expansion of the military presence in the area, with the establishment of NORAD's headquarters in the city, as well as the ADCOM headquarters. Between 1965 and 1968, the University of Colorado Colorado Springs, Pikes Peak Community College and Colorado Technical University were established in or near the city.
In 1977 most of the former Ent AFB became a US Olympic training center. The Libertarian Party was founded within the city in the 1970s. On October 1, 1981, the Broadmoor Addition, Cheyenne Canon, Ivywild and Stratton Meadows were annexed after the Colorado Supreme Court "overturned a district court decision that voided the annexation". Further annexations expanding the city include the Nielson Addition and Vineyard Commerce Park Annexation in September 2008; the city lies in a high desert with the Southern Rocky Mountains to the west, the Palmer Divide to the north, high plains further east, high desert lands to the south when leaving Fountain and approaching Pueblo. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 194.6 square miles, of which 194.6 square miles is land and 0.35 square miles, or 0.19%, is water. Colorado Springs has many features of a modern urban area, such as parks, bike trails, urban open-area spaces. However, it is not exempt from problems that plague cities that experience tremendous growth, such as overcrowded roads and highways, crime and government budget issues.
Many of the problems are indirec
Front Range Community College
Front Range Community College is a two-year institution of higher learning in Colorado. It has campuses in Westminster and Fort Collins, as well as centers in Brighton and Loveland, it is the largest community college in Colorado and the most popular transfer institution for the University of Colorado-Boulder, Colorado State University, Metropolitan State University of Denver, CSU Global.. FRCC traces its heritage to the founding of the State Board for Community Colleges and Occupational Education in 1967, which in 1968 established the North Campus of the Community College of Denver as its first new creation. In 1983 the North Campus was renamed as Front Range Community College and became an independent institution in 1985. In 1988, the Larimer County Voc-Tech Center was incorporated as the Larimer Campus of FRCC; the college was accredited by The Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools in 1975 and received continued accreditation in 2008. From 1968 to 1977, the college was located in facilities at East 62nd Avenue and Downing Street in Denver.
In 1977, the college inaugurated a new building on 112th Avenue in Colorado. When it opened, the Westminster Campus building was heated with an innovative solar system of over 4000 flat-plate solar thermal panels making it the largest solar-heated educational building in the world; the solar system operated until the solar panels were removed during a major building remodel in 1996, now the facilities are heated with conventional methods. During its first decades, the college principally offered career and technical training, with certificates and two-year associate degrees in many fields, including accounting, architectural technology, automotive repair, dental assisting, healthcare, machine drafting, machining and welding. General studies programs in arts and both general and developmental education were offered. In 1997, FRCC transferred and began offering its machining program at the Rocky Mountain Manufacturing Academy, part of the now defunct Higher Education and Advanced Technology Center at the decommissioned Lowry Air Force Base in Aurora, Colorado.
Today the college offers a mix of general academic and transfer courses as well as career and technical education offerings. FRCC maintains campuses in Fort Collins and Longmont, centers in Brighton and Loveland, in addition to the original Westminster campus and a developed online learning program; the college operates its Precision Machining Program in the Advanced Technology Center in Longmont. The college has 29 programs that are guaranteed to transfer to public four-year colleges/universities in Colorado, its 37 career/technical programs include a variety of business, design, computer-related, health-care pathways. FRCC has observatories on each campus. In 2018, the college awarded a further 2,666 certificates; the student body is 57% female and 43% male, with most students studying part-time and pursuing programs in liberal arts and sciences or career/technical fields. FRCC has a student enrollment count of around 27,700. Official website
Fort Lewis College
Fort Lewis College is a public liberal arts college in Durango, Colorado. Because of its unique origins as a military fort turned Indian boarding school turned state public school, Fort Lewis College follows a 1911 mandate to provide a tuition-free education for qualified Native Americans. Fort Lewis College awards 16 percent of the baccalaureate degrees earned by Native American students in the nation. In 2008, FLC was designated as one of six Native American-serving, non-tribal colleges by the U. S. Department of Education. FLC is a member of the Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges and is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission, with additional program-level accreditations in Accounting, Business Administration and Marketing; the college offers 30 bachelor's degrees through its four academic units. The first Fort Lewis army post was constructed in Pagosa Springs, Colorado, in 1878, was relocated in 1880 to Hesperus, Colorado, on the southern slopes of the La Plata Mountains. In 1891, Fort Lewis was decommissioned and converted into a federal, off-reservation Indian boarding school.
In 1911, the fort's property and buildings in Hesperus were transferred to the state of Colorado to establish an "agricultural and mechanic arts high school." That deed came with two conditions: that the land would be used for an educational institution, “to be maintained as an institution of learning to which Indian students will be admitted free of tuition and on an equality with white students” in perpetuity. Both conditions have been the missions and guides for the Fort Lewis school's various incarnations over the past century. In the 1930s, the Fort Lewis high school expanded into a two-year college, in 1948 became Fort Lewis A&M College, under control of State Board of Agriculture; the "Aggies" studying at the Fort Lewis Branch of the Colorado State College of Agriculture and Mechanics could choose from courses including agriculture, engineering, veterinary science, home economics. Fort Lewis College underwent another period of growth and changes starting in 1956, when the college moved from its long-time home in Hesperus to its present location, 18 miles east, atop what was known as Reservoir Hill, overlooking Durango.
Here, FLC became a four-year institution, awarding its first baccalaureate degrees in 1964. In 1964, the college dropped the "A&M" moniker. At that time, the new Fort Lewis College changed its mascot from "Aggies" to the "Raiders," and changed the school's colors from the green and yellow of the Colorado State University system it had been affiliated with to the blue and gold it still sports today. In recent history: In 1994, the college's mascot became the Skyhawks, retaining the blue and gold. In 1995, Fort Lewis College joined the Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges, in 2002, the College became independent of the Colorado State University system, formed its own governing Board of Trustees; the 247-acre Fort Lewis College campus is in southwestern Colorado is situated at 6,872 feet atop a mesa overlooking the Animas River Valley and downtown Durango. A network of trails as well as city bus service connects the town; the campus' distinctive architectural theme utilizes locally quarried sandstone to acknowledge the region's Native puebloan building style and evoke the Four Corners landscape and colors.
The style was crafted by prominent Boulder architect James M. Hunter, contracted to establish a campus building plan by the college in the late 1950s, following the college's move from Hesperus, Colorado, to its Durango location. Today, on-campus housing is in six residence halls and two apartment buildings, with singles and suites. On campus are 14 academic buildings, as well as a Student Life Center, Aquatic Center, Student Union. On-campus athletic facilities include Ray Dennison Memorial Field, Dirks Field, the Softball Complex, Whalen Gymnasium, the Factory Trails, an off-road bicycling race course; the new Student Union opened in Fall 2011, now hosts the college's cultural centers, the Native American Center and El Centro de Muchos Colores, as well as student government, the Environmental Center, the post office, the bookstore. The new Student Union offers several dining options, houses both a Leadership Center and a Media Center that includes the college's news magazine, literary journal, KDUR radio station.
The Student Union building was awarded LEED Gold status in August by the U. S. Green Building Council for its sustainability features, it is the third LEED Gold building on campus, along with the Berndt Hall Biology Wing and the residential Animas Hall. Those environmental awards helped FLC be named one of "America's Coolest Schools" by Sierra magazine, the official publication of the Sierra Club, in 2011. Fort Lewis College is divided into four academic units. Programs are accredited by the Higher Learning Commission, the Accreditation Board for Engineering & Technology, the American Chemical Society, the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education, the National Association of Schools of Music; the college's athletic teams, nicknamed the Skyhawks, compete in the NCAA at the Division II level as a member of the Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference. In 2017, Fort Lewis' cycling program won its 23rd national championship with an overall victory at the 2017 USA Cycling Collegiate Mounta