The Baloch or Baluch are an Iranian peoples who live in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan and Afghanistan, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula. They speak the Balochi language, a branch of Northwestern Iranian languages. About 50 % of the total Baloch population live in a western province of Pakistan, they make up nearly 3.6% of the Pakistani population, about 2% of Iran's population and about 2% of Afghanistan's population. Baloch people co-inhabit desert and mountainous regions along with Pashtuns. Baloch people practice Islam, are predominantly Sunni, use Urdu as the lingua franca to communicate with other ethnic groups such as Pashtuns and Sindhis; the exact origin of the word'Baloch' is unclear. Rawlinson believed that it is derived from the name of god Belus. Dames believed that it is derived from the Persian term for cockscomb, said to have been used as a crest on the helmets of Baloch troops in 6th century BCE. Herzfeld proposed that it is derived from the Median term brza-vaciya, which describes a loud or aggressive way of speaking.
Naseer Dashti presents another possibility, that of being derived from the name of the ethnic group'Balaschik' living in Balashagan, between the Caspian Sea and Lake Van in present day Turkey and Azerbaijan, who are believed to have migrated to Balochistan during the Sassanid times. The remnants of the original name such as'Balochuk' and'Balochiki' are said to be still used as ethnic names in Balochistan; some writers suggest a derivation from Sanskrit words bal, meaning strength, och meaning high or magnificent. An earliest Sanskrit reference to the Baloch might be the Gwalior inscription of the Gurjara-Pratihara ruler Mihira Bhoja, which says that the dynasty's founder Nagabhata I repelled a powerful army of Valacha Mlecchas, translated as "Baluch foreigners" by D. R. Bhandarkar; the army in question is that of the Umayyad Caliphate after the conquest of Sindh. According to Baloch lore, their ancestors hail from Aleppo in, they are descendants of uncle of the prophet Muhammad, who settled in Halab.
They fled to the Sistan region, remaining there for nearly 500 years until they fled to the Makran region following a deception against the Sistan leader Badr-ud-Din. However, based on an analysis of the linguistic connections of the Balochi language, one of the Western Iranian languages, the original homeland of the Balochi tribes was to the east or southeast of the central Caspian region; the Baloch began migrating towards the east in the late Sasanian period. The cause of the migration is unknown but may have been as a result of the unstable conditions in the Caspian area; the migrations occurred over several centuries. By the 9th century, Arab writers refer to the Baloch as living in the area between Kerman, Khorasan and Makran in what is now eastern Iran. Although they kept flocks of sheep, the Baloches engaged in plundering travellers on the desert routes; this brought them into conflict with the Buyids, the Ghaznavids and the Seljuqs. Adud al-Dawla of the Buyid dynasty launched a punitive campaign against them and defeated them in 971–972.
After this, the Baloch continued their eastward migration towards what is now Balochistan province of Pakistan, although some remained behind and there are still Baloch in eastern part of the Iranian Sistan-Baluchestan and Kerman provinces. By the 13th–14th centuries waves of Baloch were moving into Sindh, by the 15th century into the Punjab. According to Dr. Akhtar Baloch, Professor at University of Karachi, the Balochis migrated from Balochistan during the Little Ice Age and settled in Sindh and Punjab; the Little Ice Age is conventionally defined as a period extending from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries, or alternatively, from about 1300 to about 1850. Although climatologists and historians working with local records no longer expect to agree on either the start or end dates of this period, which varied according to local conditions. According to Professor Baloch, the climate of Balochistan was cold and the region was inhabitable during the winter so the Baloch people migrated in waves and settled in Sindh and Punjab.
The area where the Baloch tribes settled was disputed between the Persian Safavids and the Mughal emperors. Although the Mughals managed to establish some control over the eastern parts of the area, by the 17th century, a tribal leader named Mir Hasan established himself as the first "Khan of the Baloch". In 1666, he was succeeded by Mir Aḥmad Khan Qambarani who established the Balochi Khanate of Kalat under the Ahmadzai dynasty. In alliance with the Mughals, the Khanate lost its autonomy in 1839 with the signing of a treaty with the British colonial government and the region became part of British Raj. Gold ornaments such as necklaces and bracelets are an important aspect of Baloch women's traditions and among their most favoured items of jewellery are dorr, heavy earrings that are fastened to the head with gold chains so that the heavy weight will not cause harm to the ears, they wear a gold brooch, made by local jewellers in different shapes and sizes and is used to fasten the two parts of the dress together over the chest.
In ancient times during the pre-Islamic era, it was common for Baloch women to perform dances and sing folk songs at different events. The tradition of a Baloch mother singing lullabies to her children has played an important role in the transfer of knowledge from generation to generation since ancient t
A condominium shortened to condo, in the United States and in most Canadian provinces, is a type of living space similar to an apartment but independently sellable and therefore regarded as real estate. The condominium building structure is divided into several units that are each separately owned, surrounded by common areas that are jointly owned. Similar concepts in other English-speaking countries include strata title in Australia, New Zealand, the Canadian province of British Columbia. Residential condominiums are constructed as apartment buildings, but there has been an increase in the number of "detached condominiums", which look like single-family homes but in which the yards, building exteriors, streets are jointly owned and jointly maintained by a community association. Unlike apartments, which are leased by their tenants, condominium units are owned outright. Additionally, the owners of the individual units collectively own the common areas of the property, such as hallways, laundry rooms, etc. as well as common utilities and amenities, such as the HVAC system, so on.
Many shopping malls are industrial condominiums in which the individual retail and office spaces are owned by the businesses that occupy them while the common areas of the mall are collectively owned by all the business entities that own the individual spaces. The common areas and utilities are managed collectively by the owners through their association, such as a homeowner association. Scholars have traced the earliest known use of the condominium form of tenure to a document from first-century Babylon; the word condominium originated in Latin. Italy uses condominio, the modern Italian form of condominium. Both condo and condominium are used colloquially in the Canadian province of Quebec, where the official term is divided co-ownership. In France, the term is copropriété, the common areas of these properties are managed by a Syndicat de copropriété, or "co-property union". Latin American nations use the term propiedad horizontal meaning "horizontal property" but abstractly meaning that all owners of the property have equal interest.
The word condominio is used. However, in Spain, the legal term is comunidad de propietarios and the popular term is comunidad de vecinos. "Condominium" is a Latin word formed by adding the prefix con- to the word dominium. Its meaning is therefore "shared property". Condominia referred to territories over which two or more sovereign powers shared joint dominion; this technique was used to settle border disputes when multiple claimants could not agree on how to partition the disputed territory. For example, from 1818 to 1846, Oregon Country was a condominium over which both the United States and Great Britain shared joint sovereignty until the Oregon Treaty resolved the issue by splitting the territory along the 49th parallel and each country gaining sole sovereignty of one side; the difference between an "apartment" complex and condominium is purely legal. There is no way to differentiate a condominium from an apartment by looking at or visiting the building. What defines. A building developed as a condominium could be built at another location as an apartment building.
As a practical matter, builders tend to build condominiums to higher quality standards than apartment complexes because of the differences between the rental and sale markets. Technically, a condominium is a collection of individual home units and common areas along with the land upon which they sit. Individual home ownership within a condominium is construed as ownership of only the air space confining the boundaries of the home; the boundaries of that space are specified by a legal document known as a Declaration, filed on record with the local governing authority. These boundaries will include the wall surrounding a condo, allowing the homeowner to make some interior modifications without impacting the common area. Anything outside this boundary is held in an undivided ownership interest by a corporation established at the time of the condominium's creation; the corporation holds this property in trust on behalf of the homeowners as a group—it may not have ownership itself. Condominiums have conditions and restrictions, additional rules that govern how the individual unit owners are to share the space.
It is possible for a condominium to consist of single-family dwellings. There are "detached condominiums" where homeowners do not maintain the exteriors of the dwellings, etc. and "site condominiums" where the owner has more control and ownership over the exterior appearance. These structures are preferred by gated communities. A homeowners association, whose members are the unit owners, manages the condominium through a board of directors elected by the membership; this exists under various names depending on the jurisdiction, such as "unit title", "sectional title", "commonhold", "strata council", or "tenant-owner's association", "body corporate", "Owners Corporation", "condominium corporation" or "condominium association". Another variation of this concept is the "time share", although not all time shares are condominiums, not all time shares involve actual ownership of real property. C
A commuter town is a populated area with residents who work elsewhere, but in which they live and sleep. The term additionally implies a community that has little commercial or industrial activity beyond a small amount of locally oriented retail business. A commuter town may be called by many other terms: "exurb", "bedroom community", "bedroom town", "bedroom suburb", "dormitory town", "dormitory suburb", or, less "dormitory village". In Japan, a commuter town may be referred to with the wasei-eigo coinage "bed town". Suburbs and commuter towns coincide, but are not synonymous. Similar to college town, resort town and mill town, the term commuter town describes the municipality's predominant economic function. A suburb, in contrast, is a community of lesser size, political power and/or commerce comparative to a nearby community, of greater economic importance. A town's economic function may change, for example when improved transport brings commuters to industrial suburbs or railway towns in search of suburban living.
Some suburbs, for example Teterboro, New Jersey and Emeryville, remained industrial when they became surrounded by commuter towns. As a general rule, suburbs are developed in areas adjacent to a main employment center, such as a town or a city, but may or may not have many jobs locally, whereas bedroom communities have few local businesses, most residents who have jobs commute to employment centers some distance away. Commuter towns may be in rural or semi-rural areas, with a ring of green space separating them from the larger city or town. Where urban sprawl and conurbation have erased clear lines among towns and cities in large metropolitan areas, this is not the case. Commuter towns can arise for a number of different reasons. Sometimes, as in Sleepy Hollow, New York or Tiburon, California, a town loses its main source of employment, leaving its residents to seek work elsewhere. In other cases, a pleasant small town, such as Warwick, New York, over time attracts more residents but not large businesses to employ them, requiring denizens to commute to employment centers.
Another cause relevant in the American South and West, is the rapid growth of once-small cities. Owing to the earlier creation of the Interstate Highway System, the greatest growth was seen by the sprawling metropolitan areas of these cities; as a result, many small cities were absorbed into the suburbs of these larger cities. However, commuter towns form when workers in a region cannot afford to live where they work and must seek residency in another town with a lower cost of living; the late 20th century dot-com bubble and United States housing bubble drove housing costs in Californian metropolitan areas to historic highs, spawning exurban growth in adjacent counties. For example, most cities in western Riverside County, California can be considered exurbs of Orange County and Los Angeles County, California; as of 2003, over 80% of the workforce of Tracy, California was employed in the San Francisco Bay Area. A related phenomenon is common in the resort towns of the American West that require large workforces, yet emphasize building larger single-family residences and other expensive housing.
For example, the resort town of Jackson, Wyoming has spawned several nearby bedroom communities, including Victor, Driggs and Alpine, where the majority of the Jackson workforce resides. On Long Island, New York, many of the workforce who serve The Hamptons reside in communities more modest and more suburban than their workplace, giving rise to a daily reverse commuter flow from more dense to less dense areas. In certain major European cities, such as Berlin and London, commuter towns were founded in response to bomb damage sustained during World War II. Residents were relocated to semi-rural areas within a 50-mile radius, firstly because much inner city housing had been destroyed, secondly in order to stimulate development away from cities as the industrial infrastructure shifted from rail to road. Around London, several towns – such as Basildon, Crawley and Stevenage – were built for this purpose by the Commission for New Towns. In some cases, commuter towns can result from negative economic conditions.
Steubenville, for instance, had its own regional identity along with neighboring Weirton, West Virginia until the collapse of the steel industry in the 1980s. Combined with easier access to the much larger city of Pittsburgh via the Steubenville Pike and the Parkway West, Steubenville has shifted its marketing efforts to being a commuter town to Pittsburgh, as well as one with a lower cost of living in Ohio compared to tax-heavy Pennsylvania. In 2013, Jefferson County, Ohio was added to the Pittsburgh metropolitan area as part of its larger Combined Statistical Area. Where commuters are wealthier and small town housing markets weaker than city housing markets, the development of a bedroom community may raise local housing prices and attract upscale service businesses in a process akin to gentrification. Long-time residents may be displaced by new commuter residents due to rising house prices; this can be influenced by zoning restrictions in urbanized areas that prevent the construction of suitably cheap housing closer to places of employment.
The number of commuter towns increased in the US and the UK during the 20th century because of a trend for people to move out of the cities into the surrounding green belt. Commuter towns were developed by railway companies to create demand for their l
Governor-General of Pakistan
The Governor-General of Pakistan, was the representative in Pakistan of the British monarch, from the country's independence in 1947. When Pakistan was proclaimed a republic in 1956, the office of governor-general was abolished. Governor-General of India President of Pakistan List of Presidents of Pakistan
An apartment, flat or unit is a self-contained housing unit that occupies only part of a building on a single storey. There are many names for these overall buildings; the housing tenure of apartments varies from large-scale public housing, to owner occupancy within what is a condominium, to tenants renting from a private landlord. Both words refer to a self-contained residential unit with its own front door, kitchen and bathroom. In some parts of the world, the word apartment refers to a purpose-built unit in a building, whereas the word flat means a converted unit in an older building a big house. In other places the terms are interchangeable; the term apartment is favored in North America. In the UK, the term apartment is more usual in professional real estate and architectural circles where otherwise the term flat is used but not for an apartment on a single level. In some countries the word "unit" is a more general term referring to both apartments and rental business suites; the word'unit' is used only in the context of a specific building.
"This building has three units" or "I'm going to rent a unit in this building", but not "I'm going to rent a unit somewhere". Some buildings can be characterized as'mixed use buildings', meaning part of the building is for commercial, business, or office use on the first floor or first couple of floors, one or more apartments are found in the rest of the building on the upper floors. Tenement law rents, it may be found combined as in "Messuage or Tenement" to encompass all the land and other assets of a property. In the United States, some apartment-dwellers own their units, either as co-ops, in which the residents own shares of a corporation that owns the building or development. Most apartments are in buildings designed for the purpose, but large older houses are sometimes divided into apartments; the word apartment denotes a residential section in a building. In some locations the United States, the word connotes a rental unit owned by the building owner, is not used for a condominium. In England and Wales, some flat owners own shares in the company that owns the freehold of the building as well as holding the flat under a lease.
This arrangement is known as a "share of freehold" flat. The freehold company has the right to collect annual ground rents from each of the flat owners in the building; the freeholder can develop or sell the building, subject to the usual planning and restrictions that might apply. This situation does not happen in Scotland, where long leasehold of residential property was unusual, is now impossible. Bachelor apartment, one-bedroom, etc.. Apartment buildings are multi-story buildings where three or more residences are contained within one structure; such a building may be called an apartment building, apartment complex, flat complex, block of flats, tower block, high-rise or mansion block if it consists of many apartments for rent. A high-rise apartment building is referred to as a residential tower, apartment tower, or block of flats in Australia. A high-rise building is defined by its height differently in various jurisdictions, it may be only residential, in which case it might be called a tower block, or it might include other functions such as hotel, offices, or shops.
There is no clear difference between a tower block and a skyscraper, although a building with fifty or more stories is considered a skyscraper. High-rise buildings became possible with the invention of the elevator and cheaper, more abundant building materials, their structural system is made of reinforced concrete and steel. A low-rise building and mid-rise buildings have fewer storeys. Emporis defines a low-rise as "an enclosed structure below 35 metres, divided into regular floor levels." The city of Toronto defines a mid-rise as a building between 12 stories. In American English, the distinction between rental apartments and condominiums is that while rental buildings are owned by a single entity and rented out to many, condominiums are owned individually, while their owners still pay a monthly or yearly fee for building upkeep. Condominiums are leased by their owner as rental apartments. A third alternative, the cooperative apartment building, acts as a corporation with all of the tenants as shareholders of the building.
Tenants in cooperative buildings do not own their apartment, but instead own a proportional number of shares of the entire cooperative. As in condominiums, cooperators pay a monthly fee for building upkeep. Co-ops are common in cities such as New York, have gained some popularity in other larger urban areas in the U. S. In British English the usual word is "flat", but apartment is used by property developers to denote expensive'flats' in exclusive and expensive residential areas in, for example, parts of London such as Belgravia and Hampstead. In Scotland, it is called a block of flats or, if it is a traditional sandstone building, a tenement, a term which has a negative connotation elsewhere. Australian English and New Zealand Engli
Government of Pakistan
The Government of Pakistan is a federal government established by the Constitution of Pakistan as a constituted governing authority of the four provinces of a proclaimed and established by the parliamentary democratic republic, constitutionally called the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Effecting the Westminster system for governing the state, the government is composed of the executive and judicial branches, in which all powers are vested by the Constitution in the Parliament, the Prime Minister and the Supreme Court; the powers and duties of these branches are further defined by acts and amendments of the Parliament, including the creation of executive institutions and courts inferior to the Supreme Court. By constitutional powers, the President passes bills; the President acts as the ceremonial figurehead while the people-elected Prime Minister acts as the chief executive and is responsible for running the federal government. There is a bicameral Parliament with the National Assembly as a lower house and the Senate as an upper house.
The most influential officials in the Government of Pakistan are considered to be the federal secretaries, who are the highest ranking bureaucrats in the country and run cabinet-level ministries and divisions. The judicial branch systematically contains an apex Supreme Court, Federal Shariat Court, high courts of five provinces, anti-terrorism, the green courts; the full name of the country is the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. No other name appears in the Constitution, this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, in legal cases; the "Pakistan Government" or "Government of Pakistan" are used in official documents representing the federal government collectively. The terms "Federal" and "National" in government institutions or program names indicate affiliation with the federal government; as the seat of government is in Islamabad, "Islamabad" is used as a metonym for the federal government. The Constitution of Pakistan established and constituted the federal government of four provinces of federation of nation-state, known as State of Pakistan.
The Constitution reads as: The Federal Government is Subject to the Constitution. The executive authority of the Federation shall be exercised in the name of the President by the Federal Government, consisting of the Prime Minister and the Ministers, which shall act through the Prime Minister, who shall be the chief executive of the Federation. In the performance of his functions under the Constitution, the Prime Minister may act either directly or through the Ministers; the basic civil and criminal laws governing the citizens of Pakistan are set down in major parliamentary legislation, such as the Exit Control List, the Pakistan Penal Code, the Frontier Crimes Regulations. By the Article 246th and Article 247th to the constitution, the Islamic Jirga system has become an institution for local governance; the 1950s reforms in the government administration, the constitutional law and jurisprudence in Pakistan have been influenced by the United States Of America' legal system. Since the 1970s, the traditional jirga-based law has influenced the country's judicial development.
The legislative branch is known as the parliament, a term for legislature inherited from the United Kingdom. The parliament has two houses. 272 are elected directly by the people, while 70 seats are reserved for women and religious minorities. The Senate is the upper house and has 104 senators elected indirectly by members of provincial assemblies for six-year terms; the Parliament enjoys parliamentary supremacy. All the Cabinet ministers as well as the Prime Minister must be members of Parliament, according to the constitution; the Prime Minister and the Cabinet Ministers are jointly accountable to the Parliament. If there is a policy failure or lapse on the part of the government, all the members of the cabinet are jointly responsible. If a vote of no confidence is passed against the government the government collapses and a new one must be formed. By general definition, the executive branch of government is the one that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy.
The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the republican idea of the separation of powers. The separation of powers system is designed to distribute authority away from the executive branch – an attempt to preserve individual liberty in response to tyrannical leadership throughout history; the Prime Minister of Pakistan, is the executive head of government of Pakistan, constitutionally designated as the Chief Executive. Popularly elected by direct elections in the parliament, the Prime minister is responsible for appointing a cabinet as well as running the government operations; the Prime Minister makes key appointments on various important positions. The chairmen and other members of the federal commissions and public institutions Ambassadors and High Commissioners to other countriesThe Cabinet can have a maximum of 11 percent of the total strength of the Parliament; each Cabinet member must be a member of Parliament. The Cabinet Ministers chair the Cabinet and are further assi
The Kashmiris are an ethnic group native to the Kashmir Valley, in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, who speak Kashmiri, an Indo-Aryan Dardic language. The bulk of Kashmiri people predominantly live in the Kashmir Valley–which is the'actual' Kashmir and does not include the other territories of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. Other ethnic groups living in the Jammu and Kashmir state include Gujjars, Paharis and Ladakhis. While Kashmiris are native to the Kashmir Valley, smaller populations of Kashmiris live in the remaining districts of Jammu and Kashmir. Ethnic Kashmiris can be found in the Chenab region's Doda, Ramban and Kishtwar districts and in the Neelam Valley and Leepa Valley of northern Azad Kashmir. Since 1947, many ethnic Kashmiris are found in Pakistan. Many ethnic Kashmiris from the Kashmir Valley migrated to the Punjab region during the Dogra and Afghan rule of Kashmir. Most Kashmiris today are Sunni Muslim but a sizeable Hindu community exists. Most ethnic Kashmiri Muslims are descended from Kashmiri Pandits and Buddhists, some use the prefix'Sheikh'.
Common surnames among these people include Bhat/Butt, Lone, Malik etc. Although all residents of Azad Kashmir call themselves'Kashmiri', most residents of Azad Kashmir are not ethnic Kashmiris; the Hindu caste system of the Kashmir region was influenced by the influx of Buddhism from the time of Asoka, around the third century BCE, a consequence of this was that the traditional lines of varna were blurred, with the exception of that for the Brahmins, who remained aloof from the changes. Another notable feature of early Kashmiri society was the relative high regard in which women were held when compared to their position in other communities of the period. A contested region, Northern India was subject to attack from Turkic and Arab regimes from the eighth century onwards, but they ignored the mountain-circled Kashmir Valley in favour of easier pickings elsewhere, it was not until the fourteenth century that Muslim rule was established in the Valley and when this happened it did not occur as a consequence of invasion so much as because of internal problems resulting from the weak rule and corruption endemic in the Hindu Lohara dynasty.
Mohibbul Hasan describes this collapse as The Dãmaras grew powerful, defied royal authority, by their constant revolts plunged the country into confusion. Life and property were not safe, agriculture declined, there were periods when trade came to a standstill, and morally too the court and the country had sunk to the depths of degradation. The Brahmins had something to be unhappy about during the reign of the last Lohara king, for Sūhadeva chose to include them in his system of onerous taxation, whereas they appear to have been exempted. Islam arrived in Kashmir starting with the conversion in 1320 of Kashmir's Buddhist ruler, Rinchan, at the hands of the saint, Sayyid Bilal Shah. After conversion to Islam he called himself Malik Sadur-ud-Din and became the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir. In 1339, Shah Mir established the Shah Mir dynasty in Kashmir. Islam grew in the 14th century under the Shah Mir dynasty and numerous Muslim ulama from Central Asia came to preach in Kashmir; some of the famous ulama who propagated Islam in Kashmir included Sayyid Jalaluddin, Sayyid Tajuddin, Sayyid Ḥusayn Simani, Sayyid Ali Ḥamadani, Mir Muḥammad Hamadani, Shaykh Nuruddin.
Sayyid Ali Hamadani, alongside hundreds of his followers, converted thousands of Kashmiris to Islam and imparted Persian influences on the local Kashmiri culture. His son, Sayyid Muḥammad Hamadani, encouraged Kashmir's Muslim ruler Sikandar Butshikan to enforce Islamic law and establish the office of Shaykh al-Islam i.e. the chief religious authority. By the late 1400s the majority of the population had embraced Islam. During the rule of Sultan Sikandar Butshikan, referred as an iconoclast, there were mass migrations of Kashmiri Pandits to other parts of India. In 1540, the Mughal governor of Kashgar and a cousin of Emperor Babur by the name of Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat conquered Kashmir, he ruled until 1551, when he was killed in an outbreak of revolt by Chaks, who became the main force by this time. The Chaks are believed to have been naturalised Kashmiris of Dardic ancestry from Chilas. Today their tribe is based in other parts northern Kashmir valley. In 1557 they came to power; the Chak rulers, being Shias, persecuted their Sunni subjects, causing Sunni scholars to flee to safer environs.
Some disenchanted Sunnis, such as notable Sunni scholar, Sheikh Yaqub Sarfi, went to the court of Akbar and invited the Mughals to conquer Kashmir and overthrow Chak rule on certain conditions. These conditions included a guarantee of Kashmiri rights such as freedom of religion for all of Kashmir's population. Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi forbade Sunnis from carrying out any reprisal against Shias and he devoted his life to restoring peace and communal harmony between the Sunnis and Shias of Kashmir. After being defeated by kashmiri forces twice, In 1586 the Mughal imperial army entered the valley of Kashmir taking advantage of the disunity among Kashmiris. Kashmiri historians see Mughal rule as the beginning of the end of Kashmiri independence; the Mughal Emperor Akbar succeeded in invading the Kashmir Valley, despite tough Kashmiri resistance, due to internal Sunni–Shia divisions amongst Kashmiris. The anti-Shia policies of Mirza Haidar Dughlat and the anti-Sunni polici