Question Time (TV programme)
Question Time is a topical debate programme broadcast on BBC One at 10:35 pm on Thursdays. It is repeated on BBC Two and on BBC Parliament in the week. Question Time is available on BBC iPlayer. Mentorn has produced Question Time since 1998. Fiona Bruce succeeded David Dimbleby as presenter in January 2019. Question Time was first broadcast on Tuesday 25 September 1979, based on the BBC Radio 4 programme Any Questions? The first panel consisted of Labour MP Michael Foot, author Edna O'Brien, Conservative politician Teddy Taylor, the Archbishop of Liverpool Derek Worlock. Question Time panels are composed of five public figures, "nearly always a representative from the UK government and the official opposition." The panel features "representatives from other political parties across the series, taking as guide the level of electoral support at national level which each party enjoys."High profile journalists and authors and radio broadcasters, comedians, join the panel. As do business leaders from well-known companies, leading or expert academics, police officers, clerics.
Audience members are selected based on age, occupation, disability status, voting intention, voting history, party membership. Audience members are "requested to come up with two questions, to be considered for the programme." The panel hears the questions for the first time. Applicants are contacted on Tuesday, or Wednesday before the programme. Although, due to a "high volume of requests," the team are unable to call everyone. Question Time is recorded "as-live," and in a single-take, shortly before transmission; the programme is only edited on "very rare" occasions for legal or taste reasons, or because it over-runs. For example The Observer newspaper reported in 1986 that "The BBC's lawyers ordered nine seconds of Question Time to be deleted by the old-fashioned method of cutting off the sound". Veteran news presenter Sir Robin Day was the programme's first chair, presenting it for nearly 10 years until June 1989. Question Time soon gained popularity with his quick wit and interrogation skills.
His famous catchphrase when he had introduced the panel was: "There they are, here we go."The programme was filmed at the Greenwood Theatre in London on the south side of London Bridge. Day's last programme as presenter was broadcast from Paris on 12 July 1989, he was allowed to choose his own guests. After Day retired, Peter Sissons took over and continued until 1993. Following Day's departure, the BBC decided to widen the programmes appeal by moving it around the country; the programme changed its London location from the Greenwood Theatre to the Barbican Centre. Sissons' tenure as Question Time chair included three different editors. There were several problems during filming, including a bomb scare during a live recording, which resulted in the programme being taken off the air, the death of an audience member who collapsed while recording; the programme continued to enjoy good ratings during this period, notably on the day of Margaret Thatcher's resignation on 22 November 1990, which featured two different panels over two editions.
David Dimbleby succeeded Sissons as Question Time presenter in 1994, after the BBC held two pilot show auditions between Dimbleby and Jeremy Paxman, with two different audiences and two different panels. For a brief period under Dimbleby in the mid-1990s, there were a number of variations to the format, including the audience using voting keypads to take a poll of the audience at the end of the programme and Dimbleby getting out of his seat at intervals to question the audience. Dimbleby presented Question Time for 25 years, the programme's longest-serving presenter, until his final programme, aged 80, on 13 December 2018. In December 2018, the BBC announced. Bruce—along with Samira Ahmed, Victoria Derbyshire, Emily Maitlis, Nick Robinson, Kirsty Wark—attended October 2018 auditions at London's James Allen's Girls' School. Bruce presented her first Question Time in January 2019. Question Time has seen various presenters deputise for the main chair. Sir Ludovic Kennedy, Sue Lawley, Bernard Levin, Donald MacCormick, all moderated in Day's place.
In November 2009, John Humphrys presented in lieu of Dimbleby. Dimbleby had been "injured by a bullock at his farm" causing him "briefly to be knocked out."In June 2017, Nick Robinson presented a "Leaders Special" edition of Question Time. The programme was moved for news coverage of the London Bridge attack. Dimbleby was preparing for the General Election coverage. Charlie Courtauld was editor from 1998 to 2000, leaving to join the Independent on Sunday as its comment editor. Nick Pisani was appointed in 2000, resigning abruptly in May 2005 after news was leaked that he had been offered a job as David Cameron's head of TV presentation. Ed Havard was made acting editor in May 2005. During his time in charge the BBC offered a seat on the panel to Nick Griffin in 2009, he left. Gill Penlington, the ITV News political producer, was made interim editor in May 2008, when the BBC gave Ed Havard a year-long sabbatical. Viewers of the show can submit comments to the show via SMS. Comments were edited and put to air by a team of four journalists based at Television Centre in London.
The system displayed one message at a time, showed several tens of messages throughout each hour-long episode. The system's popularity sprang from its mix of light-hearted comments. On average, around 3,500 texts are received during each
Far-right politics in the United Kingdom
Far-right politics in the United Kingdom have existed since at least the 1930s, with the formation of Nazi and anti-semitic movements. It went on to acquire more explicitly racial connotations, being dominated in the 1960s and 1970s by self-proclaimed white nationalist organisations that oppose non-white and Muslim immigration, such as the National Front, the British Movement and British National Party, or the British Union of Fascists. Since the 1980s, the term has been used to describe those who express the wish to preserve what they perceive to be British culture, those who campaign against the presence of non-indigenous ethnic minorities and what they perceive to be an excessive number of asylum seekers; the NF and the BNP have been opposed to non-white immigration. They have encouraged the repatriation of ethnic minorities: the NF favours compulsory repatriation, while the BNP favours voluntary repatriation; the BNP have had a number of local councillors in some inner-city areas of east London, towns in Yorkshire and Lancashire, such as Burnley and Keighley.
East London has been the bedrock of far-right support in the UK since the 1930s, whereas BNP success in the north of England is a newer phenomenon. The only other part of the country to provide any significant level of support for such views is the West Midlands; the British far right rose out of the fascist movement. In 1932, Oswald Mosley founded the British Union of Fascists, banned during World War II. Founded in 1954 by A. K. Chesterton, the League of Empire Loyalists became the main British far right group at the time, it was a pressure group rather than a political party, did not contest elections. Most of its members were part of the Conservative Party, they were known for politically embarrassing stunts at party conferences, it has been argued that the majority of this group were more'Colonel Blimpish' traditionalists, rather than fascists. However, its more extreme elements wanted to make the group more political; this led to a number of splinter groups forming, including the White Defence League and the National Labour Party.
These both stood in local elections in 1958, merged in 1960 to form the British National Party. With the decline of the British Empire becoming inevitable, British far-right parties turned their attention to internal matters; the 1950s had seen an increase in immigration to the UK from its former colonies India, the Caribbean and Uganda. Led by John Bean and Andrew Fountaine, the BNP opposed the admittance of these people to the UK. A number of its rallies, such as one in 1962 in Trafalgar Square, ended in race riots. After a few early successes, the party got into difficulties and was destroyed by internal arguments. In 1967 it joined forces with John Tyndall and the remnants of Chesterton's League of Empire Loyalists to form the National Front; the Conservative Monday Club, a far-right group within the Conservative Party, was formed in 1961. Its stated aim was "to safeguard the liberty of the subject and integrity of the family in accordance with the customs and character of the British people".
They expressed general opposition to post-colonial states and immigration, as well as support for hard-line loyalism in Northern Ireland. The NF grew to be the biggest British far right party in the UK, it polled 44% in a local election in Deptford and finished third in three by-elections, although these results were atypical of the country as a whole. The party supported extreme loyalism in Northern Ireland, attracted Conservative Party members who had become disillusioned after Harold Macmillan had recognised the right to independence of the African colonies, had criticised Apartheid in South Africa. During the 1970s, the NF's rallies became a regular feature of British politics. Election results remained strong in a few working class urban areas, with a number of local council seats won, but the party never came anywhere near winning representation in parliament; the smaller far right groups maintained anti-immigration policies, but there was a move towards a more inclusionist vision of the UK, a focus on opposing the European Union.
The NF began to support non-white radicals such as Louis Farrakhan. This led to the splintering of the various groups, with radical political soldiers such as a young Nick Griffin forming the Third Way group, traditionalists creating the Flag Group. Membership of the Monday Club meanwhile, who gave strong support to Apartheid in South Africa and to Ian Smith's illegal declaration of independence in Rhodesia, fell to under 600 by 1987. John Tyndall formed the New National Front in 1980, changed its name to the British National Party in 1982. They, alongside the Conservative Monday Club, campaigned against the increasing integration of the UK into the European Union. However, Tyndall's reputation of a'brutal, street fighting background' and his admiration for Hitler and the Nazis prevented the party from gaining any respectability, they developed a policy of eschewing the traditional far right methods of extra-parliamentary movements, concentrated instead on the ballot box. Nick Griffin replaced Tyndall as BNP leader in 1999 and introduced several policies to make the party more electable.
Repatriation of ethnic minorities was made voluntary and several other policies were moderated. The National Front continued to decline, whilst the BNP grew in popularity. Around the turn of the 21st century, the BNP won a number of councillor seats, they continued their anti-immigration policy, a damaging BBC documentary led to Griffin being charged with incitement to racial hatred. The 2006 local elections brought the BNP the most successful results of
Violence against women
Violence against women known as gender-based violence and sexual and gender-based violence are violent acts or committed against women and girls. Considered a form of hate crime, this type of violence is gender-based, meaning that the acts of violence are committed against women and girls expressly because they are female; the UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women states, "violence against women is a manifestation of unequal power relations between men and women" and "violence against women is one of the crucial social mechanisms by which women are forced into a subordinate position compared with men." Kofi Annan, Secretary-General of the United Nations, declared in a 2006 report posted on the United Nations Development Fund for Women website:Violence against women and girls is a problem of pandemic proportions. At least one out of every three women around the world has been beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused in her lifetime with the abuser someone known to her.
Violence against women can fit into several broad categories. These include violence carried out by "individuals" as well as "states"; some of the forms of violence perpetrated by individuals are: rape, domestic violence, sexual harassment, reproductive coercion, female infanticide, prenatal sex selection, obstetric violence, mob violence. Some forms of violence condoned by certain states such as war rape. Many forms of VAW, such as trafficking in women and forced prostitution are perpetrated by organized criminal networks; the World Health Organization, in its research on VAW, has analyzed and categorized the different forms of VAW occurring through all stages of life from before birth to old age. In recent years, there has been a trend of approaching VAW at an international level through means such as conventions or, in the European Union, through directives; the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence known as the Istanbul Convention, provides the following definition of violence against women: "Violence against women" is understood as a violation of human rights and a form of discrimination against women and shall mean all acts of gender-based violence that result in, or are to result in, sexual, psychological or economic harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life Although the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women includes VAW in its General Recommendations 12 and 19, the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action mentions VAW at paragraph 18, it was the 1993 United Nations General Assembly resolution on the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women, which became the first international instrument to explicitly define VAW and elaborate on the subject.
Other definitions of VAW are provided by the 1994 Inter-American Convention on the Prevention and Eradication of Violence against Women and by the 2003 Maputo Protocol. In addition, the term gender-based violence refers to "any acts or threats of acts intended to hurt or make women suffer physically, sexually or psychologically, which affect women because they are women or affect women disproportionately"; the definition of gender-based violence is most "used interchangeably with violence against women", some articles on VAW reiterate these conceptions by suggesting that men are the main perpetrators of this violence. Moreover, the definition stated by the 1993 Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women supported the notion that violence is rooted in the inequality between men and women when the term violence is used together with the term'gender-based.'In Recommendation Rec5 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the protection of women against violence, the Council of Europe stipulated that VAW "includes, but is not limited to, the following": a. violence occurring in the family or domestic unit, inter alia and mental aggression and psychological abuse and sexual abuse, rape between spouses, regular or occasional partners and cohabitants, crimes committed in the name of honour, female genital and sexual mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, such as forced marriages.
These definitions of VAW as being gender-based are seen by some to be unsatisfactory and problematic. These definitions are conceptualized in an understanding of society as patriarchal, signifying unequal relations between men and women. Opponents of such definitions argue that the definitions disregard violence against men and that the term gender, as used in gender based viole
North West England
North West England, one of nine official regions of England, consists of the five counties of Cheshire, Greater Manchester and Merseyside. The North West had a population of 7,052,000 in 2011, it is the third-most populated region in the United Kingdom after the South Greater London. The largest settlements are Manchester, Warrington and Blackpool. North West England is bounded to the west by the Irish Sea; the region extends from the Scottish Borders in the north to the West Midlands region in the south. To its southwest is North Wales. Amongst the better known of the North West's physiographical features are the Lake District and the Cheshire Plain; the highest point in North West England is Cumbria, at a height of 3,209 feet. Windermere is the largest natural lake in England. Broad Crag Tarn on Broad Crag is England's highest lake. Wast Water is England's deepest lake, being 74m deep. A mix of rural and urban landscape, two large conurbations, centred on Liverpool and Manchester, occupy much of the south of the region.
The north of the region, comprising Cumbria and northern Lancashire, is rural, as is the far south which encompasses parts of the Cheshire Plain and Peak District. The region includes parts of three National parks and three areas of Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the official region consists of the following subdivisions: *metropolitan county After abolition of the Greater Manchester and Merseyside County Councils in 1986, power was transferred to the Metropolitan Boroughs making them Unitary Authorities. In April 2011, Greater Manchester gained a top-tier administrative body in the form of the Greater Manchester Combined Authority, which means the 10 Greater Manchester Boroughs are once again second-tier authorities. Source: Office for National Statistics Mid Year Population Estimates North West England's population accounts for just over 13% of England's overall population. 37.86% of the North West's population resides in Greater Manchester, 21.39% in Lancashire, 20.30% in Merseyside, 14.76% in Cheshire and 7.41% live in the largest county by area, Cumbria.
According to 2009 Office for National Statistics estimates, 91.6% of people in the region describe themselves as'White': 88.4% White British, 1.0% White Irish and 2.2% White Other. During the Industrial Revolution hundreds of thousands of Welsh people migrated to the North West of England to work in the coal mines. Parts with notably high populations with Welsh ancestry as a result of this include Liverpool, Widnes, Wallasey, Ashton-in-Makerfield and Birkenhead; the Mixed Race population makes up 1.3% of the region's population. There are 323,800 South Asians, making up 4.7% of the population, 1.1% Black Britons. 0.6% of the population are Chinese and 0.5% of people belong to another ethnic group. North West England is a diverse region, with Manchester and Liverpool amongst the most diverse cities in Europe. 19.4% of Blackburn with Darwen's population are Muslim, the third-highest among all local authorities in the United Kingdom and the highest outside London. Areas such as Moss Side in Greater Manchester are home to a 30%+ Black British population.
In contrast, the town of St. Helens in Merseyside, unusually for a city area, has a low percentage of ethnic minorities with 98% identifying as White British; the City of Liverpool, over 800 years old, is one of the few places in Britain where ethnic minority populations can be traced back over dozens of generations: being the closest major city in England to Ireland, it is home to a significant ethnic Irish population, with the city being home to one of the first Afro-Caribbean communities in the UK, as well as the oldest Chinatown in Europe. Summarised There are around 400,000 people living in the North West of any Asian ethnicity Around 125,000 people from the North West are of full or partial Sub-African and/or Caribbean descent The single largest non-white ethnic group in the North West are Pakistanis, numbering at least 144,400 The list below is not how many people belong to each ethnic group; the fifteen most common countries of birth in 2001 for North West citizens were as follows England – 6,169,753 Scotland – 109,163 Wales – 73,850 Ireland – 56,887 Pakistan – 46,529 Northern Ireland – 34,879 India – 34,600 Germany – 19,931 China and Hong Kong – 15,491 Bangladesh – 13,746 South Africa – 7,740 United States – 7,037 Jamaica – 6,661 Italy – 6,325 Australia – 5,880 Poland – The table below is based on the 2011 UK Census.
One in five of the population in the North West is Catholic, a result of large-scale Irish emigration in the nineteenth century as well as the high number of English recusants in Lancashire. For top-tier authorities, Manchester has the highest teenage pregnancy rate in the region. For council districts, Burnley has the highest rate followed by Hyndburn, both in Lancashire. Of the nine regions of the England, the North West has the fourth-highest GVA per capita—the highest outside southern England. Despite this the region has above average multiple deprivation with wealth concentrated on affluent areas like rural Cheshire, rural Lancashire, south Cumbria; as measured by the Indices of deprivation 2007, the
The Troubles was an ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland during the late 20th century. Known internationally as the Northern Ireland conflict, it is sometimes described as an "irregular war" or "low-level war"; the conflict began in the late 1960s and is deemed to have ended with the Good Friday Agreement of 1998. Although the Troubles took place in Northern Ireland, at times the violence spilled over into parts of the Republic of Ireland and mainland Europe; the conflict was political and nationalistic, fuelled by historical events. It had an ethnic or sectarian dimension, although it was not a religious conflict. A key issue was the constitutional status of Northern Ireland. Unionists/loyalists, who were Protestants, wanted Northern Ireland to remain within the United Kingdom. Irish nationalists/republicans, who were Catholics, wanted Northern Ireland to leave the United Kingdom and join a united Ireland; the conflict began during a campaign to end discrimination against the Catholic/nationalist minority by the Protestant/unionist government and police force.
The authorities were accused of police brutality. Increasing inter-communal violence, conflict between nationalist youths and police led to riots in August 1969 and the deployment of British troops, who constructed'peace walls' to keep the opposing communities apart; some Catholics welcomed the army as a more neutral force, but it soon came to be seen as hostile and biased. The emergence of armed paramilitary organisations led to the subsequent warfare over the next three decades; the main participants in the Troubles were republican paramilitaries such as the Provisional Irish Republican Army and the Irish National Liberation Army. The security forces of the Republic played a smaller role. Republican paramilitaries carried out a guerrilla campaign against the British security forces, as well as a bombing campaign against infrastructure and political targets. Loyalists targeted republicans/nationalists, attacked the wider Catholic community in what they claimed was retaliation. At times there were bouts of sectarian tit-for-tat violence.
The British security forces undertook both a policing and a counter-insurgency role against republicans. There were some incidents of collusion between British security loyalists; the Troubles involved numerous riots, mass protests and acts of civil disobedience, led to segregation and the creation of no-go areas. More than 3,500 people were killed in the conflict, of whom 52% were civilians, 32% were members of the British security forces, 16% were members of paramilitary groups. There has been sporadic violence since the Good Friday Agreement was signed, including a campaign by anti-ceasefire republicans. "The Troubles" refers to the three-decade conflict between unionists. The term "Troubles" had been used in conjunction with the 17th century Wars of the Three Kingdoms, as well as to describe the Irish revolutionary period in the early twentieth century, it was subsequently adopted to refer to the escalating violence in Northern Ireland after 1969. The violence was characterised by the armed campaigns of Irish republican and Ulster loyalist paramilitary groups and British state security forces.
It thus became the focus for the longest major campaign in the history of the British Army. The British government's position is that its forces were neutral in the conflict, trying to uphold law and order in Northern Ireland and the right of the people of Northern Ireland to democratic self-determination. Nationalists regard the state forces as partisan combatants in the conflict; the British security forces focused on republican paramilitaries and activists, the "Ballast" investigation by the Police Ombudsman confirmed that British forces colluded on several occasions with loyalist paramilitaries, were involved in murder, furthermore obstructed the course of justice when claims of collusion and murder were investigated. The Troubles were brought to an uneasy end by a peace process that included the declaration of ceasefires by most paramilitary organisations, the complete decommissioning of the IRA's weapons, the reform of the police, the corresponding withdrawal of the British Army from the streets and sensitive Irish border areas such as South Armagh and County Fermanagh, as agreed by the signatories to the Belfast Agreement.
One part of the Agreement is that Northern Ireland will remain within the United Kingdom unless a majority of the Northern Irish electorate vote otherwise. It established the Northern Ireland Executive, a devolved power-sharing government, which must consist of both unionist and nationalist parties. Although the number of active participants was small, the Troubles affected many in Northern Ireland on a daily basis. In 1609, Scottish and English settlers, known as planters, were given land escheated from the native Irish in the Plantation of Ulster. Coupled with Protestant immigration to "unplanted" areas of Ulster Antrim and Dow
Islam in the United Kingdom
Islam is the second largest religion in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, with results from the United Kingdom 2011 Census giving the UK Muslim population in 2011 as 2,786,635, 4.4% of the total population. The vast majority of Muslims in the United Kingdom live in England: 2,660,116. 76,737 Muslims live in Scotland, 45,950 in Wales, 3,832 in Northern Ireland. London has the greatest population of Muslims in the country; the majority of Muslims in United Kingdom adhere to Sunni Islam, while smaller numbers are associated with Shia Islam. During the Middle Ages, there was some general cultural exchange between Christendom and the Islamic world, there were no Muslims in the British Isles. During the Elizabethan age contacts became more explicit as the Tudors made alliances against Catholic Habsburg Spain, including with Morocco and the Ottoman Empire; as the British Empire grew and the British union emerged in the Indian Sub-Continent, Britain came to rule territories with many Muslim inhabitants.
In the 19th century, Victorian Orientalism spurred an interest in Islam and some British people, including aristocrats, converted. Marmaduke Pickthall, an English Muslim convert, provided the first complete English language translation of the Qu'ran in 1930. Under the British Indian Army, a signficant number of Muslims fought for the United Kingdom during the First World War and the Second World War. In the decades following the latter conflict and the Partition of India in 1947, many British Asian Muslims settled in Britain itself. To this day British Asians constitute the majority of Muslims in Britain in terms of ethnicity, although there are significant Arab and Turkish communities, as well as up to 100,000 native British converts. Islam is the fastest growing religion in the United Kingdom and its adherents have the lowest average age out of all the major religious groups. Between 2001 and 2009 the Muslim population increased 10 times faster than the non-Muslim population; the earliest evidence of Islamic influence in England dates to the 8th century, when Offa, the Anglo-Saxon king of Mercia, minted a coin with an Islamic inscription a copy of coins issued by a contemporary Muslim ruler, Caliph Al-Mansur.
In the 16th century, Muslims from North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia were present in London, working in a range of roles, from diplomats and translators to merchants and musicians. See Islam in England for more information on Muslims in England prior to the United Kingdom's founding in 1707. Bengal, an affluent province of Mughal India with a Hindu majority and Muslim minority, was conquered by the British East India Company at the Battle of Plassey in 1757; the plunder of Bengal directly contributed to the Industrial Revolution in Britain, with the capital amassed from Bengal used to invest in British industries such as textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution and increase British wealth, while at the same time leading to deindustrialization in Bengal. With the establishment of British India, the British Empire ruled over a large Muslim population; the first group of Muslims to come to the UK in significant numbers, in the 18th century, were lascars recruited from the Indian subcontinent from the Bengal region, to work for the East India Company on British ships, some of whom settled down and took local wives.
Due to the majority being lascars, the earliest Muslim communities were found in port towns. Naval cooks came, many of them from the Sylhet Division of the Bengal Presidency in British India. One of the most famous early Asian immigrants to England was the Bengali Muslim entrepreneur Sake Dean Mahomet, a captain of the East India Company who in 1810 founded London's first Indian restaurant, the Hindoostanee Coffee House, he is reputed for introducing shampoo and therapeutic massage to the United Kingdom. Between 1803 and 1813, there were more than 10,000 lascars from the Indian subcontinent visiting British port cities and towns. By 1842, 3,000 lascars visited the UK annually, by 1855, 12,000 lascars were arriving annually in British ports. In 1873, 3,271 lascars arrived in Britain. Throughout the early 19th century lascars visited Britain at a rate of 1,000 every year, which increased to a rate of 10,000 to 12,000 every year throughout the late 19th century. A prominent English convert of the 18th century was Henry Stanley, 3rd Baron Stanley of Alderley, who became a Muslim in 1862.
Although not a convert himself, the Victorian Age adventurer, Sir Richard Francis Burton visited Mecca in disguise, documented in The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night. At the beginning of World War I, there were 51,616 South Asian lascars working on British ships, the majority of whom were of Bengali descent. In 1932, the Indian National Congress survey of'all Indians outside India' estimated that there were 7,128 Indians living in the United Kingdom. By 1911, the British Empire had a Muslim population of 94 million, larger than the empire's 58 million Christian population. By the 1920s, the British Empire included half of the world's Muslim population. More than 400,000 Muslim soldiers of the British Indian Army fought for Britain during World War I, where 62,060 were killed in action, half a million Muslim soldiers of the British Indi
University of Manchester
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester. The University of Manchester is a red brick university, a product of the civic university movement of the late 19th century; the main campus is south of Manchester city centre on Oxford Road. In 2016/17, the university had 40,490 students and 10,400 staff, making it the second largest university in the UK, the largest single-site university; the university had a consolidated income of £1 billion in 2017–18, of which £298.7 million was from research grants and contracts. It has the fourth-largest endowment of any university in the UK, after the universities of Cambridge and Edinburgh, it is a member of the worldwide Universities Research Association, the Russell Group of British research universities and the N8 Group. For 2018–19, the University of Manchester was ranked 29th in the world and 6th in the UK by QS World University Rankings.
In 2017 it was ranked 38th in the world and 6th in the UK by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 55th in the world and 8th in the UK by Times Higher Education World University Rankings and 59th in the world by U. S. News and World Report. Manchester was ranked 15th in the UK amongst multi-faculty institutions for the quality of its research and 5th for its Research Power in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework; the university owns and operates major cultural assets such as the Manchester Museum, Whitworth Art Gallery, John Rylands Library and Jodrell Bank Observatory and its Grade I listed Lovell Telescope. The University of Manchester has 25 Nobel laureates among its past and present students and staff, the fourth-highest number of any single university in the United Kingdom. Four Nobel laureates are among its staff – more than any other British university; the University of Manchester traces its roots to the formation of the Mechanics' Institute in 1824, its heritage is linked to Manchester's pride in being the world's first industrial city.
The English chemist John Dalton, together with Manchester businessmen and industrialists, established the Mechanics' Institute to ensure that workers could learn the basic principles of science. John Owens, a textile merchant, left a bequest of £96,942 in 1846 to found a college to educate men on non-sectarian lines, his trustees established Owens College in 1851 in a house on the corner of Quay Street and Byrom Street, the home of the philanthropist Richard Cobden, subsequently housed Manchester County Court. The locomotive designer, Charles Beyer became a governor of the college and was the largest single donor to the college extension fund, which raised the money to move to a new site and construct the main building now known as the John Owens building, he campaigned and helped fund the engineering chair, the first applied science department in the north of England. He left the college the equivalent of £10 million in his will in 1876, at a time when it was in great financial difficulty.
Beyer funded the total cost of construction of the Beyer building to house the biology and geology departments. His will funded Engineering chairs and the Beyer Professor of Applied mathematics; the university has a rich German heritage. The Owens College Extension Movement based their plans after a tour of German universities and polytechnics. Manchester mill owner, Thomas Ashton, chairman of the extension movement had studied at Heidelberg University. Sir Henry Roscoe studied at Heidelberg under Robert Bunsen and they collaborated for many years on research projects. Roscoe promoted the German style of research led teaching that became the role model for the redbrick universities. Charles Beyer studied at Dresden Academy Polytechnic. There were many Germans on the staff, including Carl Schorlemmer, Britain's first chair in organic chemistry, Arthur Schuster, professor of Physics. There was a German chapel on the campus. In 1873 the college moved to new premises on Oxford Road, Chorlton-on-Medlock and from 1880 it was a constituent college of the federal Victoria University.
The university was established and granted a Royal Charter in 1880 becoming England's first civic university. By 1905, the institutions were active forces; the Municipal College of Technology, forerunner of UMIST, was the Victoria University of Manchester's Faculty of Technology while continuing in parallel as a technical college offering advanced courses of study. Although UMIST achieved independent university status in 1955, the universities continued to work together. However, in the late-20th century, formal connections between the university and UMIST diminished and in 1994 most of the remaining institutional ties were severed as new legislation allowed UMIST to become an autonomous university with powers to award its own degrees. A decade the development was reversed; the Victoria University of Manchester and the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology agreed to merge into a single institution in March 2003. Before the merger, Victoria University of Manchester and UMIST counted 23 Nobel Prize winners amongst their former staff and students, with two further Nobel laureates being subsequently added.
Manchester has traditionally been strong in the sciences. Notable scientists as