Serenje is a town of Serenje District, lying just off the Great North Road and TAZARA Railway. Serenje has a railway station on the TAZARA railway. Serenje is 191 km from Kapiri Mposhi on the Great North Road. Mkushi is the district west of Serenje; the Mulembo Falls lie near the town. The inhabitants of Serenje district engage in subsistence agriculture. Though the area is blessed with rich soils and thick forests, economic development appears to have eluded this Zambian rural outpost. Serenje is home to the Lala people; the Lala language, like most languages spoken on the Copperbelt and Central provinces of Zambia, is classified as belonging to the Bemba language group. The Lala people, like most ethnic groups in central and northern and northwestern parts of Zambia, are said to have descended from the Luba-Lunda Kingdom in present-day Congo DRC. Serenje district is constituted by a number of Chiefdoms; these are the chiefdoms of Muchinda, Chisomo, Kabamba and Chibale. In 2015, raillink to Chipata and Malawi was proposed.
Emeli Sandé's father went to Kabamba Primary School in Serenje. Railway stations in Zambia Chief Chitambo UN Map
Luapula Province is one of Zambia's ten provinces located in the northern part of the country. Luapula Province is named after the Luapula River and its capital is Mansa; as per the 2010 Zambian census, the Province had a population of 991,927, which accounted for 7.57 per cent of the total Zambian population. The province has international border along Democratic Republic of the Congo and domestically extends along the northern and eastern banks of the Luapula river from Lake Bangweulu to Lake Mweru; the province is inhabited by Bemba, who are the major tribe in the country. Bemba is the most spoken language in the province; the major economic activity is fishing, with sweet potato being the major crop. Mutukumbo festival is the most important festival celebrated. Lumangwe Falls, Mumbuluma Falls, Mumbotuta Waterfalls, Kundabwika Waterfalls and Chilongo Waterfalls are the major water falls; the chief artery of the province is the Samfya-Mansa-Mwansabombwe-Nchelenge highway known informally as the Zambia Way.
The province is bordered through Lake Mweru and to its north by DR Congo. Around 80.5 per cent of the population of Luapula is accounted as poor in 2010 census, making it the poorest of all provinces in Zambia. It has eight major attractions of the country among its waterfalls and cultural heritage. Major mineral deposits found in the province are manganese, lime and precious metals. In the 19th century, the valley was dominated by the Kingdom of Lunda of Mwata Kazembe; the boundaries of the province between Zambia and DR Congo were disputed for many years, running from an 1894 treaty into the late 1960s. The province has a long history of opposing colonial rule through militancy. From the 1950s, there were revolutionary groups that supported the Anti Federationist African National Congress. Post independence, the province was the base for the United National Independence Party militants. Laupula has constant migration of labour from DR Congo and from nearby Copperbelt Province. During the 1980s, the President Kenneth Kaunda appointed traditional Chiefs of the region as District Governors or members of the powerful UNIP central committee.
The practice was seen similar to colonial rule. Mwata Kazambe was appointed the District Governor for the province by the President during the 1980s. Frederick Chiluba, the leader of Movement for Multi-Party Democracy, who went on to become the President of Zambia in 1991, obtained majority mandate during the 1991 elections; the province was the least affected among all areas in the country during the 1991 famine. Agriculture suffered in the region on account of removal of agricultural subsidies and rural credit schemes during the 1990s; the province is bordered through Lake Mweru and to its north by DR Congo. The Congo Pedicle is located between the province and the industrial and commercial heartland of the Copperbelt; the issues in transportation was resolved with the construction of the Luapula Bridge and the Samfya-Serenje road, being further alleviated by the construction of the Chembe Bridge. The capital of the province is Mansa, the headquarters of Mansa district; the province borders along DR Congo and it extends along the northern and eastern banks of the river from Lake Bangweulu to Lake Mweru, including waters and islands of those lakes.
Congo Pedicle, the southeast salient of the Katanga Province of the DR Congo, which sticks into neighbouring Zambia, divides it into two lobes. It is bordered by Northern Province on the eastern side and Central Province on the southeastern side; the major towns in the province include Samfya, Mansa and Mwamsombwe. Around 40 per cent of Luapula is covered with water and there are a number of rivers and lakes, it has eight attractions in waterfalls and cultural heritage. Major mineral deposits found in the province are manganese, lime and precious metals; as per the 2010 Zambian census, Luapula Province had a population of 991,927 which accounted for 7.57 per cent of the total Zambian population of 13,092,666. There were 488,589 males and 503,338 females, making the sex ratio to 1,030 for every 1,000 males, compared to the national average of 1,028; the literacy rate stood at 62.60 per cent against a national average of 70.2 per cent. The rural population constituted 80.39 per cent. The total area of the province was 50,567 km2 and the population density was 19.60 per km2.
The population density during 2000 Zambian census stood at 19.60. The decadal population growth of the province was 2.50 per cent. The median age in the province at the time of marriage was 20.3. The average household size was 4.9, with the families headed by females being 4.0 and 5.4 for families headed by men. The total eligible voters in the province was 65.40 per cent. The unemployment rate of the province was 7.70 per cent. The total fertility rate was 7.3, complete birth rate was 6.5, crude birth rate was 39.0, child women population at birth was 835, general fertility rate was 172, gross reproduction rate was 2.7 and net reproduction rate was 1.8. The total labour force constituted 58.60 per cent of the total population. Out of the labour force, 66.2 per cent were 51.7 per cent women. The annual growth rate of labour force was 1.9 per cent. Bemba was the most spoken language with 71.30 per cent speaking it. Albinism is a condition where the victims do not have any pigment in hair or eyes; the total population in the province with the condition stood at 2,278.
The life expectancy at birth stood at 45 compared to the national average of 51. Luapula is one of the poorest provinces in Zambia with 80.5 per cent of the popu
A ferry is a merchant vessel used to carry passengers, sometimes vehicles and cargo, across a body of water. A passenger ferry with many stops, such as in Venice, Italy, is sometimes called a water bus or water taxi. Ferries form a part of the public transport systems of many waterside cities and islands, allowing direct transit between points at a capital cost much lower than bridges or tunnels. Ship connections of much larger distances may be called ferry services if they carry vehicles; the profession of the ferryman is embodied in Greek mythology in Charon, the boatman who transported souls across the River Styx to the Underworld. Speculation that a pair of oxen propelled a ship having a water wheel can be found in 4th century Roman literature "Anonymus De Rebus Bellicis". Though impractical, there is no reason why it could not work and such a ferry, modified by using horses, was used in Lake Champlain in 19th-century America. See "When Horses Walked on Water: Horse-Powered Ferries in Nineteenth-Century America".
See Experiment. The Marine Services Company of Tanzania offers passenger and cargo services in Lakes Victoria and Malawi, it operates one of the oldest ferries in the region, the MV Liemba, built in 1913 during the German colonial rule. The busiest seaway in the world, the English Channel, connects Great Britain and mainland Europe, with ships sailing to French ports, such as Calais, Dieppe, Cherbourg-Octeville, Caen, St Malo and Le Havre. Ferries from Great Britain sail to Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway and Ireland; some ferries carry tourist traffic, but most carry freight, some are for the use of freight lorries. In Britain, car-carrying ferries are sometimes referred to as RORO for the ease by which vehicles can board and leave; the busiest single ferry route is across the northern part of Øresund, between Helsingborg, Scania and Elsinore, Denmark. Before the Øresund bridge was opened in July 2000, car and "car & train" ferries departed up to seven times every hour. In 2013, this has been reduced, but a car ferry still departs from each harbor every 15 minutes during daytime.
The route is around 2.2 nautical miles and the crossing takes 22 minutes. Today, all ferries on this route are constructed so that they do not need to turn around in the harbors; this means that the ferries lack stems and sterns, since the vessels sail in both directions. Starboard and port-side are dynamic, depending on the direction the ferry sails. Despite the short crossing, the ferries are equipped with restaurants and kiosks. Passengers without cars make a "double or triple return" journey in the restaurants. Passenger and bicycle passenger tickets are inexpensive compared with longer routes. Large cruiseferries sail in the Baltic Sea between Finland, Åland, Estonia and Saint Petersburg and from Italy to Sardinia, Corsica and Greece. In many ways, these ferries are like cruise ships, but they can carry hundreds of cars on car decks. Besides providing passenger and car transport across the sea, Baltic Sea cruise-ferries are a popular tourist destination unto themselves, with multiple restaurants, bars and entertainment on board.
Many smaller ferries operate on domestic routes in Finland and Estonia. The south-west and southern parts of the Baltic Sea has several routes for heavy traffic and cars; the ferry routes of Trelleborg-Rostock, Trelleborg-Travemünde, Trelleborg-Świnoujście, Gedser-Rostock, Gdynia-Karlskrona, Ystad-Świnoujście are all typical transports ferries. On the longer of these routes, simple cabins are available; the Rødby-Puttgarden route transports day passenger trains between Copenhagen and Hamburg, on the Trelleborg-Sassnitz route, it has capacities for the daily night trains between Berlin and Malmö. In Istanbul, ferries connect the European and Asian shores of Bosphorus, as well as Princes Islands and nearby coastal towns. In 2014 İDO transported the largest ferry system in the world. Due to the numbers of large freshwater lakes and length of shoreline in Canada, various provinces and territories have ferry services. BC Ferries operates the third largest ferry service in the world which carries travellers between Vancouver Island and the British Columbia mainland on the country's west coast.
This ferry service operates to other islands including the Gulf Islands and Haida Gwaii. In 2015, BC Ferries carried 20 million passengers. Canada's east coast has been home to numerous inter- and intra-provincial ferry and coastal services, including a large network operated by the federal government under CN Marine and Marine Atlantic. Private and publicly owned ferry operations in eastern Canada include Marine Atlantic, serving the island of Newfoundland, as well as Bay, NFL, CTMA, Coastal Transport, STQ. Canadian waters in the Great Lakes once hosted numerous ferry services, but these have been reduced to those offered by Owen Sound Transportation and several smaller operations. There are several commuter passenger ferry services operated in major cities, such as Metro Transit in Halifax, Toronto Island ferries in Toronto and SeaBus in Vancouver. Washington State Ferries operates the most extensive ferry system in the continental United States and the second largest in t
Lake Mweru is a freshwater lake on the longest arm of Africa's second-longest river, the Congo. Located on the border between Zambia and Democratic Republic of the Congo, it makes up 110 km of the total length of the Congo, lying between its Luapula River and Luvua River segments. Mweru means'lake' in a number of Bantu languages, so it is referred to as just'Mweru'. Mweru is fed by the Luapula River, which comes in through swamps from the south, the Kalungwishi River from the east. At its north end the lake is drained by the Luvua River, which flows in a northwesterly direction to join the Lualaba River and thence to the Congo, it is the second-largest lake in the Congo's drainage basin and is located 150 km west of the southern end of the largest, Lake Tanganyika. The Luapula forms a swampy delta as wide as the southern end of the lake. In a number of respects the lower river and lake can be treated as one entity. For a lake in a region with pronounced wet and dry seasons, Mweru does not change much in level and area.
The annual fluctuation in level is 1.7m, with seasonal highs in May and lows in January. This is because the Luapula drains out of the Bangweulu Swamps and floodplain which tend to regulate the water flow, absorbing the annual flood and releasing it and because Mweru's outlet, the Luvua and flows swiftly, without vegetation to block it. A rise in Mweru is offset by a faster flow down the Luvua. Mweru's average length is 118 km and its average width is 45 km, with its long axis oriented northeast-southwest, its elevation is 917 m, quite a bit higher than Tanganyika. It is a rift valley lake lying in the Lake Mweru-Luapula graben, a branch of the East African Rift; the western shore of the lake in DR Congo exhibits the steep escarpment typical of a rift valley lake, rising to the Kundelungu Mountains beyond, but the rift valley escarpment is less pronounced on the eastern shore. Mweru is shallow in the south and deeper in the north, with two depressions in the north-eastern section with maximum depths of 20 m and 27 m.
A smaller marshy lake called Mweru Wantipa lies about 50 km to its east, north of the Kalungwishi. It is endorheic and takes water from the Kalungwishi through a dambo most of the time, but in times of high flood it may overflow into the Kalungwishi and Lake Mweru; the lake was known to Arab and Swahili traders who used Kilwa Island on the lake as a base at one time. They used trade routes from Zanzibar on the Indian Ocean to Ujiji on Lake Tanganyika to Mweru and to the Lunda, Yeke or Kazembe kingdoms, the last being on the southern shores of Mweru. Western trade routes went from those kingdoms to the Atlantic, so Mweru lay on a transcontinental trade route. Between 1796 and 1831 Portuguese traders/explorers Pereira, Francisco de Lacerda and others visited Kazembe from Mozambique to get treaties to use the trade route between their territories of Mozambique and Angola; the Portuguese must have known of the lake, the visitors only had to walk to higher ground about 5 km north of Kazembe's Kanyembo capital to see the lake 10 km distant.
However they were more interested in trade routes than discovery, they had approached from the south and their movements were restricted by Mwata Kazembe, they did not provide an account of it. Explorer and missionary David Livingstone, who referred to it as'Moero', is credited with its discovery during his travels of 1867-'8. Livingstone witnessed the devastation and suffering caused by the slave trade in the area to the north and east of Mweru, his accounts did help rally opposition to it; the last of the slave trading in the area was as late as the 1890s, however. Meanwhile, between 1870 and 1891, skirmishes and wars between the Yeke king Msiri and neighbouring chiefs and traders unsettled the area. Few Europeans had visited Mweru since Livingstone, until Alfred Sharpe in 1890–1 and the Stairs Expedition in 1892 both passed by on their way to seek treaties with Msiri; the Stairs Expedition took Katanga for the King Leopold II of Belgium. Sharpe left one of his officers to set up the first colonial outpost in the Luapula-Mweru valley, the British boma at Chiengi in 1891.
The western shore of Luapula-Mweru became part of the Belgian Congo and the eastern shore part of Northern Rhodesia, a British protectorate. Although Kilwa Island is closer to the western shore, it was allocated to Northern Rhodesia, Zambia has 58% of the lake waters, DR Congo 42%; the first Belgian outposts on the lake were set up at Lukonzolwa and Pweto which were at various times the headquarters of their administration of Katanga. They stamped out the slave trade going north-east around the lake; the first mission station on the lake was established in 1892 by Scottish missionary Dan Crawford of the Plymouth Brethren at Luanza on the Belgian side of the lake. The British moved their boma from Chiengi to the Kalungwishi, with one or two British officers, a force of African police. In conjunction with operations around Abercorn further down the trade route, this was enough to end the slave trade going east from Mweru, but not enough to bring Mwata Kazembe under British rule, a military expedition had to be sent in 1899 from British Central Africa to do that job.
The move of the boma from Chiengi to Kalungwishi had the effect of leaving the Belgian boma at Pweto a free rein at the northern end of the lake, leading a hundred years to about 33 km² of Zambian territory next to Pweto being ceded to the DR Congo. See the Luapula Province border dispute for further details
Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Democratic Republic of the Congo known as DR Congo, the DRC, DROC, Congo-Kinshasa, or the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa. It is sometimes anachronistically referred to by its former name of Zaire, its official name between 1971 and 1997, it is, by area, the largest country in Sub-Saharan Africa, the second-largest in all of Africa, the 11th-largest in the world. With a population of over 78 million, the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most populated Francophone country, the fourth-most-populated country in Africa, the 16th-most-populated country in the world. Eastern DR Congo is the scene of ongoing military conflict in Kivu, since 2015. Centred on the Congo Basin, the territory of the DRC was first inhabited by Central African foragers around 90,000 years ago and was reached by the Bantu expansion about 3,000 years ago. In the west, the Kingdom of Kongo ruled around the mouth of the Congo River from the 14th to 19th centuries. In the centre and east, the kingdoms of Luba and Lunda ruled from the 16th and 17th centuries to the 19th century.
In the 1870s, just before the onset of the Scramble for Africa, European exploration of the Congo Basin was carried out, first led by Henry Morton Stanley under the sponsorship of Leopold II of Belgium. Leopold formally acquired rights to the Congo territory at the Berlin Conference in 1885 and made the land his private property, naming it the Congo Free State. During the Free State, the colonial military unit, the Force Publique, forced the local population to produce rubber, from 1885 to 1908, millions of Congolese died as a consequence of disease and exploitation. In 1908, despite initial reluctance, formally annexed the Free State, which became the Belgian Congo; the Belgian Congo achieved independence on 30 June 1960 under the name Republic of the Congo. Congolese nationalist Patrice Lumumba was elected the first Prime Minister, while Joseph Kasa-Vubu became the first President. Conflict arose over the administration of the territory; the provinces of Katanga, under Moïse Tshombe, South Kasai attempted to secede.
After Lumumba turned to the Soviet Union for assistance in the crisis, the U. S. and Belgium became wary and oversaw his removal from office by Kasa-Vubu on 5 September and ultimate execution by Belgian-led Katangese troops on 17 January 1961. On 25 November 1965, Army Chief of Staff Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, who renamed himself Mobutu Sese Seko came into power through a coup d'état. In 1971, he renamed the country Zaire; the country was run as a dictatorial one-party state, with his Popular Movement of the Revolution as the sole legal party. Mobutu's government received considerable support from the United States, due to its anti-communist stance during the Cold War. By the early 1990s, Mobutu's government began to weaken. Destabilisation in the east resulting from the 1994 Rwandan genocide and disenfranchisement among the eastern Banyamulenge population led to a 1996 invasion led by Tutsi FPR-ruled Rwanda, which began the First Congo War. On 17 May 1997, Laurent-Désiré Kabila, a leader of Tutsi forces from the province of South Kivu, became President after Mobutu fled to Morocco, reverting the country's name to the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Tensions between President Kabila and the Rwandan and Tutsi presence in the country led to the Second Congo War from 1998 to 2003. Nine African countries and around twenty armed groups became involved in the war, which resulted in the deaths of 5.4 million people. The two wars devastated the country. President Laurent-Désiré Kabila was assassinated by one of his bodyguards on 16 January 2001 and was succeeded eight days as President by his son Joseph; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is rich in natural resources but has had political instability, a lack of infrastructure, issues with corruption and centuries of both commercial and colonial extraction and exploitation with little holistic development. Besides the capital Kinshasa, the two next largest cities Lubumbashi and Mbuji-Mayi are both mining communities. DR Congo's largest export is raw minerals, with China accepting over 50% of DRC's exports in 2012. In 2016, DR Congo's level of human development was ranked 176th out of 187 countries by the Human Development Index.
As of 2018, around 600,000 Congolese have fled to neighbouring countries from conflicts in the centre and east of the DRC. Two million children risk starvation, the fighting has displaced 4.5 million people. The sovereign state is a member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, African Union, COMESA; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is named after the Congo River, which flows throughout the country. The Congo River is the world's second largest river by discharge; the Comité d'études du haut Congo, established by King Leopold II of Belgium in 1876, the International Association of the Congo, established by him in 1879, were named after the river. The Congo River itself was named by early European sailors after the Kingdom of Kongo and its Bantu inhabitants, the Kongo people, when they encountered them in the 16th century; the word Kongo comes from the Kongo language. According to American writer Samuel Henry Nelson "It is probable that the word'Kongo' itself implies a public gathering and that it is based on the root konga,'to gather'."
The modern name of the Kongo people, Bakongo was introduced in the early 20th century. The Democratic Republic of the Congo has been known in the past as, in chronological order, the Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, the Repub
Chiengi or Chienghospital historic colonial boma of the British Empire in central Africa and today is a settlement in the Luapula Province of Zambia, headquarters of Chiengi District. Chiengi is in the north-east corner of Lake Mweru, at the foot of wooded hills dividing that lake from Lake Mweru Wantipa, overlooking a dambo stretching northwards from the lake, where the Chiengi rivulet flows down from the hills. Chiengi and the area just to its north were ravaged by the slave trade and related ivory trade in the 18th Century. Numerous Arab and Swahili slave traders such as Tippu Tib operated around the north end of Lake Mweru, around Lake Mweru Wantipa and over to Lake Tanganyika. Chiengi boma was established during the race between Belgian King Leopold II's Congo Free State and the British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes to seize Katanga from its king, Msiri, in 1890-91. Alfred Sharpe was sent to obtain a treaty from Msiri by the BSAC from the British Commissioner's office at Zomba in Nyasaland in 1890, but he failed.
On his way back to Nyasaland in early 1891 he passed the Chiengi rivulet and, since Chief Puta Chipalabwe who reigned as a Chief of the Bwile people between 1879-1909. Bwile people, five kilometres to the south, was amenable to a treaty, Sharpe decided to set up a boma there to secure the territory east of Mweru for the BSAC, to act as a forward base for another attempt to wring a treaty out of Msiri, he left his second-in-command, Captain Crayshaw, with some African troops to build and staff the boma. However, Leopold sent the Stairs Expedition to secure Katanga which they achieved in December 1891 after killing Msiri. On the way back to the east coast of Africa, the Stairs Expedition passed close to Chiengi and exchanged messages with Crayshaw regarding the position of the border dividing CFS and BSAC territory between Lake Mweru and Lake Tanganyika. Chiengi Boma was the first colonial post in what was to be called North-Eastern Rhodesia, was one of the most remote outposts of the British Empire, a lonely posting which sent more than one colonial officer mad.
For a number of years the boma was removed to the Kalungwishi River, during this period the Belgian colonial authorities in Pweto, just across the border in DR Congo, controlled the northern end of the lake including the western extremity of Chiengi District, the so-called Lunchinda enclave west of the Lunchinda River. The British re-established the boma at Chiengi but the eventual outcome of de facto Belgian control of the Lunchinda enclave led to it being ceded to DR Congo by Zambia — see the article on the Luapula Province border dispute. Chiengi Boma was closed in 1933 and superseded by Kawambwa and Nchelenge bomas. In addition to fishing in the lake, the chief trade of Chiengi in colonial times was in salt, deposited in the dambo by streams running out of the hills, there was a thriving trade. Chiengi was restored as a sub-administrative administrative centre under Nchelenge District of independent Zambia in the 1970s and as a full administrative District in the 1990s; the area has been affected by conflict in the Congo several times, most in the Second Congo War, when tens of thousands of refugees arrived and were settled in UNHCR camps in Kawambwa and Mporokoso Districts.
Most of these have been repatriated since the end of that war. Reports have been made of Congolese soldiers harassing Zambians at the border and inside Zambian territory. Chiengi is reached by a gravel road impassable in the rainy season, from Nchelenge and Kashikishi 100 km south. From Chiengi a dirt track runs along the flat northern lake shore to Pweto in DR Congo. A new gravel road has been constructed north-east to the border, around the Chipani Swamp and east to Kasongola from where tracks connect to Kaputa in Zambia's Northern Province. Luapula Province Luapula Province border dispute Lake Mweru General Reference Terracarta/International Travel Maps, Vancouver Canada: "Zambia, 2nd edition", 2000
Zambia the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa. It neighbours the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique to the southeast and Botswana to the south, Namibia to the southwest, Angola to the west; the capital city is Lusaka, located in the south-central part of Zambia. The population is concentrated around Lusaka in the south and the Copperbelt Province to the northwest, the core economic hubs of the country. Inhabited by Khoisan peoples, the region was affected by the Bantu expansion of the thirteenth century. After visits by European explorers in the eighteenth century, the region became the British protectorates of Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia towards the end of the nineteenth century; these were merged in 1911 to form Northern Rhodesia. For most of the colonial period, Zambia was governed by an administration appointed from London with the advice of the British South Africa Company.
On 24 October 1964, Zambia became independent of the United Kingdom and prime minister Kenneth Kaunda became the inaugural president. Kaunda's socialist United National Independence Party maintained power from 1964 until 1991. Kaunda played a key role in regional diplomacy, cooperating with the United States in search of solutions to conflicts in Rhodesia and Namibia. From 1972 to 1991 Zambia was a one-party state with the UNIP as the sole legal political party under the motto "One Zambia, One Nation". Kaunda was succeeded by Frederick Chiluba of the social-democratic Movement for Multi-Party Democracy in 1991, beginning a period of social-economic growth and government decentralisation. Levy Mwanawasa, Chiluba's chosen successor, presided over Zambia from January 2002 until his death in August 2008, is credited with campaigns to reduce corruption and increase the standard of living. After Mwanawasa's death, Rupiah Banda presided as Acting President before being elected President in 2008. Holding office for only three years, Banda stepped down after his defeat in the 2011 elections by Patriotic Front party leader Michael Sata.
Sata died on 28 October 2014. Guy Scott served as interim president until new elections were held on 20 January 2015, in which Edgar Lungu was elected as the sixth President. In 2010, the World Bank named Zambia one of the world's fastest economically reformed countries; the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa is headquartered in Lusaka. The territory of what is now Zambia was known as Northern Rhodesia from 1911, it was renamed Zambia at independence in 1964. The new name of Zambia was derived from the Zambezi river; the area of modern Zambia is known to have been inhabited by the Khoisan until around AD 300, when migrating Bantu began to settle around these areas. These early hunter-gatherer groups were either annihilated or absorbed by subsequent more organised Bantu groups. Archaeological excavation work on the Zambezi Valley and Kalambo Falls show a succession of human cultures. In particular, ancient camping site tools near the Kalambo Falls have been radiocarbon dated to more than 36,000 year ago.
The fossil skull remains of Broken Hill Man, dated between 300,000 and 125,000 years BC, further shows that the area was inhabited by early humans. The early history of the peoples of modern Zambia can only be gleaned from knowledge passed down by generations through word of mouth. In the 12th century, waves of Bantu-speaking immigrants arrived during the Bantu expansion. Among them, the Tonga people were the first to settle in Zambia and are believed to have come from the east near the "big sea"; the Nkoya people arrived early in the expansion, coming from the Luba–Lunda kingdoms in the southern parts of the modern Democratic Republic of the Congo and northern Angola, followed by a much larger influx between the late 12th and early 13th centuries To the east, the Maravi Empire spanning the vast areas of Malawi and parts of modern northern Mozambique began to flourish under Kalonga. At the end of the 18th century, some of the Mbunda migrated to Barotseland, Mongu upon the migration of among others, the Ciyengele.
The Aluyi and their leader, the Litunga Mulambwa valued the Mbunda for their fighting ability. In the early 19th century, the Nsokolo people settled in the Mbala district of Northern Province. During the 19th century, the Ngoni and Sotho peoples arrived from the south. By the late 19th century, most of the various peoples of Zambia were established in their current areas; the earliest European to visit the area was the Portuguese explorer Francisco de Lacerda in the late 18th century. Lacerda led an expedition from Mozambique to the Kazembe region in Zambia, died during the expedition in 1798; the expedition was from on led by his friend Francisco Pinto. This territory, located between Portuguese Mozambique and Portuguese Angola, was claimed and explored by Portugal in that period. Other European visitors followed in the 19th century; the most prominent of these was David Livingstone, who had a vision of ending the slave trade through the "3 Cs": Christianity and Civilization. He was the first European to see the magnificent waterfalls on the Zambezi River in 1855, naming them the Victoria Falls after Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
He described them thus: "Scenes so lovely must have been gazed upon by angels in their flight". Locally the falls are known as "Mosi-o-Tunya" or "thunder