Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories
The Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories, or Legislative Council of the Northwest Territories, is the legislature and the seat of government of Northwest Territories in Canada. It is a unicameral elected body that amends law in the Northwest Territories. Permanently located in Yellowknife since 1993, the assembly was founded in 1870 and became active in 1872 with the first appointments from the Government of Canada. Under the Northwest Territories Act, the assembly is defined under federal law as "Legislative Council". However, under Northwest Territories territorial law, it is defined as "Legislative Assembly". Under different periods of its history it has alternated names; the Legislative Assembly was first known as the Temporary North-West Council and was created in 1870. The first appointments to the council were made on December 28, 1872; the Temporary Council was dissolved in 1876 and a new permanent council was appointed and moved to the new capital of Fort Livingstone in 1876.
The council moved to Battleford a year based on the planned location there of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The first election to the Assembly would take place on March 23, 1881, as Lawrence Clarke was elected to represent the electoral district of Lorne. In 1883 the Assembly moved south to Regina based on amendments to the route of the railway; the first territory-wide election took place on September 15, 1885, known as the 1885 Northwest Territories election. Three years the first general election took place. All the voting members of the Assembly were elected for the first time, an elected speaker took office; the Lieutenant Governor still appointed and ran the cabinet. After the second general election in 1891 the first elected Assembly without any appointed members; the Assembly achieved Responsible Government for the first time in October 1897 as the Lieutenant Governor appointed Frederick Haultain as the first Premier to form a government. Robert Brett became the first Leader of the official opposition and party lines were drawn based on Conservatives and Liberals.
The Haultain government lobbied for Government of Canada for provincial powers for the Northwest Territories. In response on September 1, 1905, the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan were created by Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier out of the southern populated portion of the territories; the Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories served as the first court of law in the Northwest Territories from 1876 until the creation of the Supreme Court of the Northwest Territories in 1887. Appointed members of the council served as Stipendiary Magistrates would travel the territories and oversee legal cases when the Legislature was not sitting. In 1887 the Northwest Territories moved to a new system that assigned Judges to judicial districts and separated the legal and judicial branches. After the creation of Alberta and Saskatchewan, the remainder of the Northwest Territories was too sparsely populated by enfranchised voters to justify holding elections; the territory reverted to its confederation entry status.
A new council was set up in Ottawa consisting of a Commissioner—the effective replacement of the Lieutenant Governor—and four appointed members. Frederick White was appointed as the first Commissioner and did not recall the council to sit during his time in office. During this time, the Territories were run by the federal Department of Resources; the first session of the Council of the Northwest Territories took place in 1921. The council members were bureaucrats appointed from the Interior Ministry and were not resident citizens of the territory. In 1939, the Yellowknife Administration District was created to provide services within 25 miles of Yellowknife. However, it was not until 1947. McNiven was the first member appointed to the council from north of the 60th parallel. In 1951 the council held its first general election in 49 years; the fifth general election elected three members from the District of Mackenzie. The old council was dissolved and five members were appointed along with the three elected representatives.
The council gained more powers back from the federal government as the population in the territory grew. In 1967 the Carrothers Commission moved the territorial capital from Ottawa to Yellowknife and for the first time elected members represented all parts of the territories. In 1975 the Legislative Assembly became elected, the first elected speaker since 1905, David Searle, presided over the Assembly. Commissioner John Parker gave up his powers of running the executive council and appointed George Braden as leader of the Government and the first Premier since 1905; the model of responsible government, used this time around was known as Consensus government. The executive council or cabinet forms government while all the regular members form an unofficial opposition; the modern Consensus Government model is inherently non-partisan and serves as a constant minority government. The Legislature uses this model up to the current day; the building that has housed the Northwest Territories Legislative Assembly has changed many times since it was founded.
The first building was the original Manitoba Legislature in Fort Garry. After the council moved to Fort Livingstone it was housed in the Swan River Barracks used by the North-West Mounted Police; the first building built for the needs of the Assembly was NWT Government House in Battleford. That building served as a residence for the Lieutenant Governor. In 1883 the Assembly moved to Regina; the Territorial Administration building was built to accommodate the growing Assembly and used until 1905. After the creation of Alberta and Saskatc
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew; the three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.
The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland. The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.
Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All t
In Canada, the First Nations are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle. Those in the Arctic area are distinct and known as Inuit; the Métis, another distinct ethnicity, developed after European contact and relations between First Nations people and Europeans. There are 634 recognized First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. Under the Employment Equity Act, First Nations are a "designated group", along with women, visible minorities, people with physical or mental disabilities. First Nations are not defined as a visible minority under the Act or by the criteria of Statistics Canada. North American indigenous; some of their oral traditions describe historical events, such as the Cascadia earthquake of 1700 and the 18th-century Tseax Cone eruption. Written records began with the arrival of European explorers and colonists during the Age of Discovery, beginning in the late 15th century.
European accounts by trappers, traders and missionaries give important evidence of early contact culture. In addition and anthropological research, as well as linguistics, have helped scholars piece together an understanding of ancient cultures and historic peoples. Although not without conflict, Euro-Canadians' early interactions with First Nations, Métis, Inuit populations were less combative compared to the violent battles between colonists and native peoples in the United States. Collectively, First Nations, Métis peoples constitute Indigenous peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, or first peoples. First Nation as a term became used beginning in 1980s to replace the term Indian band in referring to groups of Indians with common government and language; the term had come into common usage in the 1970s to avoid using the word Indian, which some Canadians considered offensive. No legal definition of the term exists; some indigenous peoples in Canada have adopted the term First Nation to replace the word band in the formal name of their community.
A band is a "body of Indians for whose use and benefit in common lands... have been set apart... moneys are held... or declared... to be a band for the purposes of" the Indian Act by the Canadian Crown. The term Indian is a misnomer given to indigenous peoples of North America by European explorers who erroneously thought they had landed on the Indian subcontinent; the use of the term Native Americans, which the US government and others have adopted, is not common in Canada. It refers more to the Indigenous peoples residing within the boundaries of the United States; the parallel term Native Canadian is not used, but Native and autochtone are. Under the Royal Proclamation of 1763 known as the "Indian Magna Carta," the Crown referred to indigenous peoples in British territory as tribes or nations; the term First Nations is capitalized. Bands and nations may have different meanings. Within Canada, First Nations has come into general use for indigenous peoples other than Inuit and Métis. Individuals using the term outside Canada include U.
S. tribes within the Pacific Northwest, as well as supporters of the Cascadian independence movement. The singular used on culturally politicized reserves, is the term First Nations person. A more recent trend is for members of various nations to refer to themselves by their tribal or national identity only, e.g. "I'm Haida". For pre-history, see: Paleo-Indians and Archaic periods First Nations by linguistic-cultural area: List of First Nations peoplesFirst Nations peoples had settled and established trade routes across what is now Canada by 1,000 BC to 500 BC. Communities developed, each with its own culture and character. In the northwest were the Athapaskan-speaking peoples, Slavey, Tłı̨chǫ, Tutchone-speaking peoples, Tlingit. Along the Pacific coast were the Haida, Kwakiutl, Nuu-chah-nulth, Nisga'a and Gitxsan. In the plains were the Blackfoot, Kainai and Northern Peigan. In the northern woodlands were the Chipewyan. Around the Great Lakes were the Anishinaabe, Algonquin and Wyandot. Along the Atlantic coast were the Beothuk, Innu and Micmac.
The Blackfoot Confederacies reside in the Great Plains of Montana and Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan. The name "Blackfoot" came from the colour of the peoples' leather footwear, known as moccasins, they had painted the bottoms of their moccasins black. One account claimed that the Blackfoot Confederacies walked through the ashes of prairie fires, which in turn coloured the bottoms of their moccasins black, they had migrated onto the Great Plains from the Plateau area. The Blackfoot may have lived in their homeland since the end of the Pleistocene 11,000 years ago.. For thousands of years, they managed the prairie to support bison herds and cultivated berries and edible roots, they allowed only legitimate traders into their territory, making treaties only when the bison herds were exterminated in the 1870s. The Squamish history is a series of past events, both passed on through oral tradition and recent history, of the Squamish indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast.
Prior to colonization, they recorded their history through oral tradition as a way to transmit stories and knowledge across generations. This was common among all the peoples; the writing system esta
Government of Canada
The Government of Canada Her Majesty's Government, is the federal administration of Canada. In Canadian English, the term can mean either the collective set of institutions or the Queen-in-Council. In both senses, the current construct was established at Confederation through the Constitution Act, 1867—as a federal constitutional monarchy, wherein the Canadian Crown acts as the core, or "the most basic building block", of its Westminster-style parliamentary democracy; the Crown is thus the foundation of the executive and judicial branches of the Canadian government. Further elements of governance are outlined in the rest of the Canadian Constitution, which includes written statutes, court rulings, unwritten conventions developed over centuries; the monarch is represented by the Governor General of Canada. The Queen's Privy Council for Canada is the body that advises the sovereign or viceroy on the exercise of executive power. However, in practice, that task is performed only by the Cabinet, a committee within the Privy Council composed of ministers of the Crown, who are drawn from and responsible to the elected House of Commons in parliament.
The Cabinet is headed by the prime minister, appointed by the governor general after securing the confidence of the House of Commons. In Canadian English, the word government is used to refer both to the whole set of institutions that govern the country, to the current political leadership. In federal department press releases, the government has sometimes been referred to by the phrase Government. In late 2010, an informal instruction from the Office of the Prime Minister urged government departments to use in all department communications the term in place of Government of Canada; the same cabinet earlier directed its press department to use the phrase Canada's New Government. As per the Constitution Acts of 1867 and 1982, Canada is a constitutional monarchy, wherein the role of the reigning sovereign is both legal and practical, but not political; the Crown is regarded as a corporation sole, with the monarch, vested as she is with all powers of state, at the centre of a construct in which the power of the whole is shared by multiple institutions of government acting under the sovereign's authority.
The executive is thus formally called the Queen-in-Council, the legislature the Queen-in-Parliament, the courts as the Queen on the Bench. Royal Assent is required to enact laws and, as part of the Royal Prerogative, the royal sign-manual gives authority to letters patent and orders in council, though the authority for these acts stems from the Canadian populace and, within the conventional stipulations of constitutional monarchy, the sovereign's direct participation in any of these areas of governance is limited; the Royal Prerogative includes summoning and dissolving parliament in order to call an election, extends to foreign affairs: the negotiation and ratification of treaties, international agreements, declarations of war. The person, monarch of Canada is the monarch of 15 other countries in the Commonwealth of Nations, though, he or she reigns separately as King or Queen of Canada, an office, "truly Canadian" and "totally independent from that of the Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms".
On the advice of the Canadian Prime Minister, the sovereign appoints a federal viceregal representative—the Governor General of Canada —who, since 1947, is permitted to exercise all of the monarch's Royal Prerogative, though there are some duties which must be performed by, or bills that require assent by, the king or queen. The government is defined by the constitution as the Queen acting on the advice of her privy council. However, the Privy Council—consisting of former members of parliament, chief justices of the supreme court, other elder statesmen—rarely meets in full; as the stipulations of responsible government require that those who directly advise the monarch and governor general on how to exercise the Royal Prerogative be accountable to the elected House of Commons, the day-to-day operation of government is guided only by a sub-group of the Privy Council made up of individuals who hold seats in parliament. This body of senior ministers of the Crown is the Cabinet. One of the main duties of the Crown is to ensure that a democratic government is always in place, which means appointing a prime minister to thereafter head the Cabinet.
Thus, the governor general must appoint as prime minister the person who holds the confidence of the House of Commons. Should no party hold a majority in the commons, the leader of one party—either the one with the most seats or one supported by other parties—will be called by the governor general to form a minority government. Once sworn in by the viceroy, the prime minister holds office until he or she resigns or is removed by the governor general, after either a motion of no confidence or his or her party's defeat in a general election; the monarch and governor general follow the near-binding advice of
Area code 867
Area code 867, the area code for the three Territories of Canada in the Arctic far north, was created on October 21, 1997, from portions of area codes 403 and 819. It is the least populated mainland North American area code, serving only about 100,000 people, but is the geographically largest, it is adjacent to Greenland and eight provinces or states, more jurisdictions than any other area code in North America. It is one of four Canadian area codes yet to be overlaid, the others being 506, 709, 807 for which 7-digit dialling is still used; the incumbent local exchange carrier in 867 is Northwestel, a subsidiary of BCE. Until 1964, the geographic area now served by 867 did have up to five independent telephone companies, plus Bell Canada; the +1-867 area code is the most expensive geographic calling area in Canada. Iristel bills its subscribers in other area codes a 15¢/minute premium to call 1-867 numbers and charges a $20/year premium to issue a 1-867 number in-region instead of assigning the same subscriber any other Canadian area code.
The digits were chosen to promote the theme "TOP of the world", as 867 spells TOP on a standard North American keypad. 1867 is the year of Canadian confederation. It has the largest land area of any area code in the North American Numbering Plan; the territorial extent reaches 3,173 km from Cape Dyer on Baffin Island to the Alaska border, 4,391 km from the south end of James Bay to the North Pole. The largest distances between exchanges are 2,200 km from Sanikiluaq to Grise Fiord, 3,365 km from Beaver Creek to Pangnirtung. Four different official time zones are observed within the area: Eastern, Central and Pacific; the Yukon Territory and the western portion of the Northwest Territories were covered by Alberta's area code 403, served by a number of local companies that were merged into Canadian National Telecommunications, a subsidiary of the Canadian National Railway. CNT's operations in the territories became Northwestel in 1979; the eastern Northwest Territories were among the last areas of North America without telephone service.
When area codes were instituted in 1947, this region was nominally part of western Quebec's area code 514. In 1957, these non-diallable areas were nominally shifted to eastern Quebec's area code 418. Bell Canada introduced telephone service in the eastern NWT in 1958; as direct distance dialing was rolled out in this area in the 1970s, the eastern NWT, along with a large swath of northwestern Quebec, was shifted to western Quebec's 819. Bell Canada sold its northern service territory to Northwestel in 1992. Prior to the creation of 867, 403 and 819 were geographically the largest area codes in the North American Numbering Plan. 403 spanned more than one-ninth of the planet's circumference. Since the creation of 867, all of the former 819 portion of the Northwest Territories, plus that portion of the former 403 portion covering five exchanges, has become part of Nunavut. Area code 403 has since been further split to create 780 for the northern two-thirds of Alberta, including Edmonton. All existing prefixes stayed the same with the change to 867, with one exception: the conflict between 403-979 at Inuvik and 819-979 at Iqaluit was resolved by changing Inuvik from 403-979 to 867-777.
A minor programming glitch temporarily allowed callers in the Inuvik area to dial 403-777 and reach Inuvik when it should have routed to Calgary, what appeared on customer's bills along with the higher rate. Northwestel's proposal for a new regulatory regime was approved for 2007, allowing resale of local telephone service, but no competitors entered the market to avail themselves of the resale option. In 2011, facilities-based local service competition was approved by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, so additional central office codes are now required for competitive carriers wishing to offer local service; the expense of deployment is limiting deployment so far to Whitehorse, Inuvik, Behchoko and Hay River, four of which have multiple prefixes. Communities that now have only one prefix are not to need a second prefix other than for local growth or the entry of a competitor. * Behchoko has two separate exchange areas each with its own prefix, but Iristel's 292 prefix is overlaid on both using independent facilities.
Area code 867 covers all points in the three Canadian territories: Northwest Territories Nunavut YukonExchanges within the territories serve some customers in Fraser and Swan Lake, British Columbia. Fort Fitzgerald, AB is served from Fort Smith, NWT. On a section of the Alaska Highway which crosses the BC-Yukon border six times in six miles, two highway lodges and area residents on the Yukon side are served by Watson Lake numbers, not the nearer Lower Post exchange. Aklavik: 375, 978 Arctic Bay: 439 Arviat: 857 Baker Lake: 793 Beaver Creek: 362 862 Behchoko: 292, 371, 392, 492, 731 Cambridge Bay: 391 983 Cape Dorset: 897 Carcross: 733, 821 Carmacks: 385, 863 Chesterfield Inlet: 898 Clyde River: 924 Colville Lake: 709, 722 Coral Harbour: 925 Dawson City: 730, 991, 992, 993 Deline: 589 744 Destruction Bay: 789, 841 Ekati: 880 Elsa: 995 Enterprise: 984 Faro: 746 994 Fort Good Hope: 496, 598 Fort Liard: 770 Fort McPherson: 377, 952 Fort Providence: 373, 699 Fort Resolution: 376, 394 Fort Simpson: 695 Fort Smith: 621, 870, 872 Gamèti: 365, 997 G
Wrigley, Northwest Territories
Wrigley is a "Designated Authority" in the Dehcho Region of the Northwest Territories, Canada. The Slavey Dene community is located on the east bank of the Mackenzie River, just below its confluence with the Wrigley River and about 466 mi northwest of Yellowknife. Situated at Fort Wrigley, 16 km downstream, the community relocated to its present location in 1965, in part because it was more accessible due to the World War II era Wrigley Airport built for the Canol Project and due to the swampy nature of the land around Fort Wrigley. Today the community can be reached via the Mackenzie Highway; the population continues to maintain a traditional lifestyle, trapping and fishing. The community was named for Joseph Wrigley, the Hudson's Bay Company Chief Commissioner for British North America; the Franklin Mountains, which are on the east bank of the Mackenzie River, overlook the community. Cap Mountain, 1,228 m, is the highest peak in the range and is within walking distance of the community. Although not as well known as the Rabbitkettle Hot Springs the Roche qui trempe a l’eau sulphur springs are located downstream of Wrigley.
Population is 133 according to the 2016 Census, an decrease of 10.5% from the 2011 Census The majority of the population is First Nations and the predominant languages are North and South Slavey and English. In 2017 the Government of the Northwest Territories reported that the population was 135 with an average yearly growth rate of 1.1% from 2007. The Dene of the community are represented by the Pehdzeh Ki First Nation and belong to the Dehcho First Nations; the last of the Numbered Treaties, Treaty 11, was signed here 13 July 1921. At that time the Headman was paid $22 and $12 for everybody else; the community has one store, a health centre and a two-person Royal Canadian Mounted Police detachment. The community has a K-9 school, Chief Julian Yendo School with an enrolment of 24 as of 2018. After completion of grade 9 students go to the Thomas Simpson Secondary School in Fort Simpson. Wrigley has a continental subarctic climate; the area combines mild to warm, short summers with long and cold winters.
The differences between the coldest and warmest month are rather extreme by continental standards, with the January high being −21 °C and the July high being 23 °C according to Environment Canada. Transitional seasons are rather short
Tuktoyaktuk English:, or Tuktuyaaqtuuq IPA:, is an Inuvialuit hamlet located in the Inuvik Region of the Northwest Territories, Canada, at the northern terminus of the Inuvik–Tuktoyaktuk Highway. Tuktoyaktuk is one of six Inuvialuit communities in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region. Tuktoyaktuk is referred to by its first syllable, the settlement lies north of the Arctic Circle on the shores of the Arctic Ocean, is the only community in Canada on the Arctic Ocean, connected to the rest of Canada by road. Known as Port Brabant, the community was renamed in 1950 and was the first place in Canada to revert to the traditional Indigenous name. Tuktoyaktuk is the anglicized form of the native Inuvialuit place-name, meaning "resembling a caribou". According to legend, a woman looked on as some caribou, common at the site, waded into the water and turned into stone, or became petrified. Today, reefs resembling these petrified caribou are said to be visible at low tide along the shore of the town. No formal archaeological sites exist today, but the settlement has been used by the native Inuvialuit for centuries as a place to harvest caribou and beluga whales.
In addition, Tuktoyaktuk's natural harbour was used as a means to transport supplies to other Inuvialuit settlements. Between 1890 and 1910, a sizeable number of Tuktoyaktuk's native families were wiped out in flu epidemics brought in by American whalers. In subsequent years, the Dene people, as well as residents of Herschel Island, settled here. By 1937, the Hudson's Bay Company had established a trading post. Radar domes were installed beginning in the 1950s as part of the Distant Early Warning Line, to monitor air traffic and detect possible Soviet intrusions during the Cold War; the settlement's location made Tuk important in resupplying the civilian contractors and Air Force personnel along the DEW Line. In 1947, Tuktoyaktuk became the site of one of the first government day schools designed to integrate Inuit youth into mainstream Canadian culture; the community of Tuktoyaktuk became a base for the oil and natural gas exploration of the Beaufort Sea. Large industrial buildings remain from the busy period following the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries 1973 oil embargo and 1979 summertime fuel shortage.
This brought many more outsiders into the region. On 3 September 1995, the Molson Brewing Company arranged for several popular rock bands to give a concert in Tuktoyaktuk as a publicity stunt promoting their new ice-brewed beer. During the months leading up to concert, radio stations across North America ran contests in which they gave away free tickets. Dubbed The Molson Ice Polar Beach Party, it featured Hole, Moist and Veruca Salt. Canadian film-maker Albert Nerenberg made a documentary about this concert entitled Invasion of the Beer People. In late 2010, the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency announced that an environmental study would be undertaken on a proposed all-weather road between Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk. Work on the Inuvik–Tuktoyaktuk Highway started on 8 January 2014, the highway was opened on 15 November 2017. Tuktoyaktuk is set on Kugmallit Bay, near the Mackenzie River Delta, is located on the Arctic tree line. Tuktoyaktuk is the gateway for exploring Pingo National Landmark, an area protecting eight nearby pingos in a region which contains 1,350 of these Arctic ice-dome hills.
The landmark comprises an area 16 km2, just a few miles west of the community, includes Canada's highest pingo, at 49 m. Many locals still hunt and trap. Locals rely on caribou in the autumn and geese in both spring and autumn, fishing year-round. Other activities include collecting driftwood and reindeer herding. Most wages today, come from tourism and transportation. Northern Transportation Company Limited is a major employer in this region. In addition, the oil and gas industry continues to employ other workers. At the 2016 Census, the Hamlet of Tuktoyaktuk had a population of 898, up 5.2% from the 2011 census total of 854. There are 283 private dwellings, a population density of 64.1 inhabitants per square kilometre. The average annual personal income in 2015 was $21,984 Canadian and the average family income was $55,424. Local languages are English with a few North Slavey and Tłı̨chǫ speakers. Tuktoyaktuk is predominately Indigenous with Inuit making up 88.0%, 9.2% non-Aboriginal, 1.7% First Nations and 1.1% giving multiple Indigenous backgrounds.
In 2017 the Government of the Northwest Territories reported that the population was 1,026 with an average yearly growth rate of 1.3 from 2007. Tuktoyaktuk displays a subarctic climate, just short of a polar climate, as the July mean temperature is above 10 °C. Since the Arctic Ocean freezes over for much of the year, the maritime influence is minimized, resulting in cold winters and a strong seasonal lag in spring; this results in April being much colder than May much colder than September. March is colder than December, is the only month yet to record a temperature above freezing at any point. Due to the dominance of cold air, Tuktoyaktuk has a lower precipitation rate than many desert climates. In spite of this, the cold temperatures render it receiving more than an annual metre of snow on average. Thanks to its landmass link many thousands of kilometres to the south, temperatures way above average can occur in summer in spite of the cold surrounding waters; as of 2018, this is still yet to result in any high above 29.4 °C.