A film called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed in rapid succession; the process of filmmaking is both an industry. A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, other visual effects; the word "cinema", short for cinematography, is used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, to the art of filmmaking itself. The contemporary definition of cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, perceptions, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. Films were recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process and shown through a movie projector onto a large screen.
Contemporary films are now fully digital through the entire process of production and exhibition, while films recorded in a photochemical form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, they reflect those cultures. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens; the visual basis of film gives it a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions through the use of dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into other languages; the individual images that make up a film are called frames. In the projection of traditional celluloid films, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness as each frame, in turn, is moved into position to be projected, but the viewer does not notice the interruptions because of an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after its source disappears.
The perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called the phi phenomenon. The name "film" originates from the fact that photographic film has been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion-picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture and flick; the most common term in the United States is movie. Common terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the movies, cinema. In early years, the word sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, costumes, direction, audiences and scores. Much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images and sounds could not be recorded for replaying as with film; the magic lantern created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, achieved by various types of mechanical slides.
Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. In the mid-19th century, inventions such as Joseph Plateau's phenakistoscope and the zoetrope demonstrated that a designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of the changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show the objects moving if they were displayed one after the other at a sufficiently rapid rate; these devices relied on the phenomenon of persistence of vision to make the display appear continuous though the observer's view was blocked as each drawing rotated into the location where its predecessor had just been glimpsed.
Each sequence was limited to a small number of drawings twelve, so it could only show endlessly repeating cyclical motions. By the late 1880s, the last major device of this type, the praxinoscope, had been elaborated into a form that employed a long coiled band containing hundreds of images painted on glass and used the elements of a magic lantern to project them onto a screen; the use of sequences of photographs in such devices was limited to a few experiments with subjects photographed in a series of poses because the available emulsions were not sensitive enough to allow the short exposures needed to photograph subjects that were moving. The sensitivity was improved and in the late 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge created the first animated image sequences photographed in real-time. A row of cameras was used, each, in turn, capturing one image on a photographic glass plate, so the total number of images in each sequence was limited by the number of cameras, about two dozen at most. Muybridge used his system to analyze the movements of a wi
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Jennifer Ann McCarthy, sometimes credited as Jenny Wahlberg, is an American actress, television host, author and anti-vaccine activist. She began her career in 1993 as a nude model for Playboy magazine and was named their Playmate of the Year. McCarthy had a television and film acting career, starting as a co-host on the MTV game show Singled Out some eponymous sitcoms, as well as films such as BASEketball, Scream 3, Santa Baby, she is a former co-host of the ABC talk show The View. McCarthy has written books about parenting, has promoted research into environmental causes and alternative medical treatments for autism, she has promoted the disproven idea that vaccines cause autism, she believes that chelation therapy helped cure her son of autism. McCarthy has been described as "the nation's most prominent purveyor of anti-vaxxer ideology", her claims to the contrary have been met with strong criticism. McCarthy was born on November 1, 1972 at Little Company of Mary Hospital located in the southwest Chicago suburb of Evergreen Park, Illinois.
She was born to a working-class Catholic family, has Irish and Polish ancestry. She lived in the West Elsdon neighborhood of Chicago, she is the second of four daughters – her sisters are named Lynette and Amy. McCarthy's mother, was a housewife and courtroom custodian, her father, Dan McCarthy, was a steel mill foreman; as a teenager McCarthy attended Mother McAuley Liberal Arts High School, whose school sweater she donned in the pages of Playboy, was a cheerleader at both Brother Rice High School and St. Laurence High School, although she has referred to herself as an "outcast" at her school and has stated she was bullied by classmates, she spent two years at Southern Illinois University. In 1993 Playboy magazine offered McCarthy $20,000 to pose for its October issue. McCarthy became the Playmate of the Month for October 1993. Playboy publisher Hugh Hefner cites McCarthy's "wholesome Catholic girl" persona as the unique quality for which she was selected out of 10,000 applicants, her layout emphasized her Catholic upbringing with a schoolgirl theme.
According to McCarthy, the pictorial caused an uproar in her Catholic neighborhood, resulted in her house being pelted with eggs, her sisters being taunted at school, McCarthy, who counted Catholic nuns among her aunts, being lectured about her future damnation by those close to her. McCarthy was made the Playmate of the Year, was paid a $100,000 salary. In 1994, because of her newfound public attention, McCarthy moved to Los Angeles and, for a time, hosted Hot Rocks, a Playboy TV show featuring uncensored music videos. In 1995, when MTV chose McCarthy to cohost a new dating show called Singled Out, she left Hot Rocks, her job as a host was a success, Playboy wanted her to do more modeling. That same year she appeared at World Wrestling Federation pay-per-view event WrestleMania XI as a guest valet for villain Shawn Michaels, who faced heroic WWF Champion, Diesel, she left after the match with Diesel. McCarthy returned to World Wrestling Entertainment on the edition of August 2, 2008, of Saturday Night's Main Event to thank the fans for supporting Generation Rescue, an autism advocacy organization.
In 1996 she landed a small part in the comedy The Stupids. In 1997 McCarthy launched two shows; the first one was an MTV sketch comedy show The Jenny McCarthy Show, sufficiently popular for NBC to sign her for an eponymous sitcom that year, Jenny. In 1997 she appeared on one of two covers for the September issue of Playboy. McCarthy released an autobiography: Jen-X: Jenny McCarthy's Open Book. In 1998 McCarthy's first major movie role was alongside Trey Parker and Matt Stone in the comedy BASEketball; the following year, she starred in Diamonds. In 2000 she had a role in the horror movie Scream 3, three years she parodied that role in horror film spoof Scary Movie 3 along with fellow Playmate and actress Anderson. In 2005, McCarthy produced and starred in the movie Dirty Love, directed by her husband at the time, John Asher. In March 2006 she was given Razzie Awards for "Worst Actress", "Worst Screenplay", "Worst Picture" for her work on Dirty Love, which earned Asher a Razzie for "Worst Director."In addition to her early TV fame on MTV and her short-lived, self-titled NBC sitcom, McCarthy has guest-starred in a variety of other television shows, including Stacked, The Drew Carey Show, Fastlane, Two and a Half Men and Just Shoot Me!.
She was the voice of Six in the third season of Canadian computer-animated science fiction cartoon Tripping the Rift. In 2005 McCarthy hosted; the reality show, filmed at The Palms Hotel in Las Vegas, featured hotel guests, party goers, celebrities. McCarthy has continued her work with Playboy over the years, both as a model and in other capacities, she appeared on the cover of the magazine's January 2005 issue wearing a leopard skin version of the company's iconic "bunny suit" and was featured in a pictorial shot at Elvis Presley's Graceland mansion in that same issue. She was the second woman and first former Playmate to become a celebrity photographer for the Playboy Cyber Club, where she photographed model Jennifer Madden, her younger sister, Amy McCarthy has posed for Playboy. She was Cyber Girl of the Week for September 27, 2004, Cyber Girl of the Month for January 2005. In 2007 McCarthy starred in a five-episode online series, called In the Motherhood, along with Chelsea Handler and Leah Remini.
The show aired on MSN and was based on
David Attell is an American stand-up comedian and writer. He is best known as the host of Comedy Central's Insomniac with Dave Attell, which earned him a cult following. Fellow comics Patton Oswalt and Bill Burr have hailed him as the greatest off-color comedian alive. Attell was born in New York to a Jewish family, he was raised in Rockville Centre on Long Island. He graduated from South Side High School. After graduating from New York University in 1987 with a degree in communications, Attell worked menial jobs during the day and put in his time at comedy clubs at night, he worked his first gig at Governor's in Levittown and, according to Attell, "totally bombed". Attell's first appearance on television was in 1988 on VH1's Stand-Up Spotlight, which featured early appearances by Lewis Black, Margaret Cho, Jeff Garlin, Jay Mohr and Wanda Sykes; the show was hosted by Rosie O'Donnell. His biggest break was achieved on November 23, 1993, when he made his first appearance on The Late Show with David Letterman.
The appearance was seen by Saturday Night Live creator Lorne Michaels, who recruited Attell to be a writer, occasional performer, on SNL. Attell can be seen behind Chris Farley during the famous "Rudy Giuliani Inauguration" sketch. Attell worked on the show for the 1993–94 season. In 1995, Attell was featured on two HBO specials: alongside up-and-comers Louis C. K. Anthony Clark, Eric Tunney and Dave Chappelle, he was a featured performer on the 1995 Young Comedians Special hosted by Garry Shandling. He was given his own 60-minute special on the channel's HBO Comedy Showcase. Subsequently, Attell was given an episode of HBO Comedy Half-Hour in 1997, he is regarded as the ultimate "comedian's comedian" and a pioneer in the genre of blue comedy and black humor. Attell's first one-hour special, Captain Miserable aired December 8, 2007 on HBO, his latest special Road Work aired 2014 on Comedy Central. He was labelled as one of the most brilliant comedians with phenomenal joke-writing prowess. Dave Chappelle and Louis C.
K. have hailed him as one of the most prolific geniuses of stand-up comedy. Colin Quinn described him as the Fellini of stand-up. On the 39th episode of the Comedy Cellar podcast, the owner of the Comedy Cellar Noam Dworman referred to him as the greatest comedian after Richard Pryor and George Carlin, he performs at the Comedy Cellar which boasts the likes of comedians such as Louis C. K. Chris Rock, Jerry Seinfeld, Dave Chappelle, Jim Norton as some of its regular performers. In 2018 he toured with Jeff Ross on the Bumping Mics Tour. At the end of the tour they taped a three part docu series for Netflix at the Comedy Cellar, it was critically acclaimed and showcased Attell's skill of blue offensive joke writing. In 1995, Attell appeared as Squiggly Dave on Professional Therapist. In 1999, the network issued Attell an installment in their Comedy Central Presents series; the same year the network signed him on as a regular commentator on their satirical news show The Daily Show. When he arrived in 1999, the show was just finding its audience after the departure of host Craig Kilborn and the arrival of Jon Stewart, an old friend of Attell's from the New York comedy circuit.
The three-year stint gave Attell access to a mass audience on a regular basis. Attell's series of commentary on the show was called "The Ugly American", he appeared in the finale for The Daily Show with Jon Stewart. In 2003, Attell began appearing semi-regularly on Tough Crowd with Colin Quinn; the show featured many of the performers he works with every day at the underground comedy club the Comedy Cellar and is based on the conversations they would have off-stage at the Olive Tree Cafe, the restaurant above the club. The unscripted show was canceled in November 2004. In 2007, Attell appeared in Heckler. Attell appeared on Comedy Central's Last Laugh in 2007. In July 2008, Attell began hosting The Gong Show with Dave Attell for Comedy Central. Like the 1970s version, the show had a rotating panel of celebrity judges grading unusual acts. Other notable television roles featuring Attell: "Dave" in a couple of the early episodes of Everybody Loves Raymond The voice of "Frank Demore" on Crank Yankers "Brad Campbell" on Ed Himself on Arrested DevelopmentIn January 2010, he co-hosted the AVN Awards show, along with porn actresses Kirsten Price and Kayden Kross.
In May 2008, Attell announced a casting call on his MySpace page for Comedy Central's relaunch of The Gong Show. Attell was host, along with Greg Fitzsimmons serving as head writer on the series. However, The Gong Show with Dave Attell aired only from July to September 2008. Attell returned to television on Showtime beginning October 20, 2011 in Dave's Old Porn, a TV series in which Attell views and jokes about retro 1970s and 1980s pornographic movies with different guest comedians. During a given show and his guest view clips that give an overview of a particular retro porn star's career. Near the end of that show, that particular porn actor appears and comments on clips from some of his or her movies. Insomniac with Dave Attell is a television series described by Attell as "Wild on E! for Ugly People". It featured Attell walking the streets of America's cities late at night, meeting the people in a haze of ecstatic inebriation; the show went overseas. The American cities featured on the show were Albuquerque, Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Charlotte, Cleveland, Honolulu, Kansas City, Key West, Las Vegas, Little Rock, Long Island, Miami
David Khari Webber Chappelle is an American stand-up comedian, actor and producer. Chappelle is the recipient including two Emmy Awards and two Grammy Awards, he is most known for his acclaimed satirical comedy sketch series Chappelle's Show. The series was co-written by Neal Brennan, which ran until Chappelle's retirement from the show two years later. After leaving the show, Chappelle returned to performing stand-up comedy across the U. S. By 2006, Chappelle was called the "comic genius of America" by Esquire and, in 2013, "the best" by a Billboard writer. In 2017, Rolling Stone ranked him No. 9 in their "50 Best Stand Up Comics of All Time."Chappelle has appeared in several films including Mel Brooks's Robin Hood: Men in Tights, The Nutty Professor, Con Air, You've Got Mail, Blue Streak and Undercover Brother. His first lead role was in the 1998 comedy film Half Baked. Chappelle starred in the ABC TV series Buddies. In 2016, he signed a $20 million-per-release comedy-special deal with Netflix and in 2017, he has released four standup specials so far.
Chappelle received his first Emmy Award in 2017 for his guest appearance on Saturday Night Live. In 2018, he received a Grammy Award for his Netflix specials The Age of Spin & Deep in the Heart of Texas. Equanimity, his Netflix special, was nominated in 2018 for three Emmys and received the award for Outstanding Variety Special. Dave Chappelle's father, William David Chappelle III, worked as a statistician before becoming a professor at Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio, his mother, Yvonne K. Chappelle Seon, was a professor at Howard University, Prince George's Community College, the University of Maryland. Seon worked for Congo Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba, she is a Unitarian Universalist minister. Chappelle has a stepbrother, his great-grandfather, Bishop William D. Chappelle, served as a president of Allen University. Chappelle grew up in Silver Spring and attended Woodlin Elementary School, his parents were politically active, family house visitors included Pete Seeger and Johnny Hartman.
Hartman predicted Chappelle would be a comedian and, around this time, Chappelle's comic inspiration came from Eddie Murphy and Richard Pryor. After his parents separated, Chappelle stayed in Washington with his mother while spending summers with his father in Ohio. In 1991, he graduated from Washington's Duke Ellington School of the Arts, where he studied theatre arts. Dave Chappelle was featured in a montage of random people telling a joke in the first episode of ABC's America's Funniest People, airing on September 13 of 1990. Chappelle moved to New York City to pursue a career as a comedian, he performed at Harlem's famed Apollo Theater in front of the infamous "Amateur Night" audience, but he was booed off stage. Chappelle described the experience as the moment that gave him the courage to continue his show business aspirations, he made a name for himself on the New York comedy circuit performing in the city's parks. In 1992, he won critical and popular acclaim for his television appearance in Russell Simmons' Def Comedy Jam on HBO.
It was his appearance on this show that allowed his popularity to begin rising allowing him to become a regular guest on late-night television shows such as Politically Incorrect, The Late Show With David Letterman, The Howard Stern Show, Late Night With Conan O'Brien. Whoopi Goldberg nicknamed him "The Kid". At 19, he made his film debut as "Ahchoo" in Mel Brooks' Robin Hood: Men in Tights, he appeared on Star Search three times but lost over competing comedian Lester Barrie. The same year, Chappelle was offered the role of Benjamin Buford "Bubba" Blue in Forrest Gump. Concerned the character was demeaning and the movie would bomb, he turned down the part, he parodied the film in the 1997 short Bowl of Pork, where a dim-witted black man is responsible for the Rodney King beating, the LA riots and OJ Simpson being accused of murder. Chappelle played another supporting role in an early Doug Liman film, Getting In in 1994. At age 19, he was the opening act for R&B soul singer Aretha Franklin. Early in his career, Chappelle was called to perform after comedy vet Chris Thomas, so good that Dave, though he had been warned bombed.
He attracted the attention of TV network executives and developed numerous pilots but none were picked up for development into a series. In 1995, he made a guest appearance on an episode of ABC's popular sitcom Home Improvement; the storyline had Chappelle and real-life friend and comedian Jim Breuer ask Tim Taylor for advice on their girlfriends. The characters' single outing in the episode proved so popular that ABC decided to give them their own spin-off sitcom titled Buddies. However, after taping a pilot episode, Jim Breuer was fired and replaced with actor Christopher Gartin. Buddies premiered in March 1996 to disappointing ratings and the show was canceled after only five episodes out of 13, produced. After the failure of Buddies, Chappelle starred in another pilot. According to Chappelle, the network was uncomfortable with the African-American cast and wanted white actors added. Chappelle subsequently accused the network of racism. Shortly afterwards, Chappelle's father died and returning to Ohio, he considered leaving the entertainment business.
He appeared as a nightclub comedian in the 1996 comedy The Nutty Professor starring Eddie Murphy, one of his major comedic influences. The movie grossed nearly $129 million on a budget of $54 million, he had a minor role in 1997's Con Air which m
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity. The use of the term "racism" does not fall under a single definition; the ideology underlying racism includes the idea that humans can be subdivided into distinct groups that are different due to their social behavior and their innate capacities, as well as the idea that they can be ranked as inferior or superior. Historical examples of institutional racism include the Holocaust, the apartheid regime in South Africa and segregation in the United States, slavery in Latin America. Racism was an aspect of the social organization of many colonial states and empires. While the concepts of race and ethnicity are considered to be separate in contemporary social science, the two terms have a long history of equivalence in both popular usage and older social science literature. "Ethnicity" is used in a sense close to one traditionally attributed to "race": the division of human groups based on qualities assumed to be essential or innate to the group.
Therefore and racial discrimination are used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis, independent of whether these differences are described as racial. According to a United Nations convention on racial discrimination, there is no distinction between the terms "racial" and "ethnic" discrimination; the UN convention further concludes that superiority based on racial differentiation is scientifically false, morally condemnable unjust and dangerous. It declared that there is no justification for racial discrimination, anywhere, in theory or in practice. Racist ideology can manifest in many aspects of social life. Racism can be present in social actions, practices, or political systems that support the expression of prejudice or aversion in discriminatory practices or laws. Associated social actions may include nativism, otherness, hierarchical ranking and related social phenomena. In the 19th century, many scientists subscribed to the belief that the human population can be divided into races.
The term racism is a noun describing the state of being racist, i.e. subscribing to the belief that the human population can or should be classified into races with differential abilities and dispositions, which in turn may motivate a political ideology in which rights and privileges are differentially distributed based on racial categories. The origin of the root word "race" is not clear. Linguists agree that it came to the English language from Middle French, but there is no such agreement on how it came into Latin-based languages. A recent proposal is that it derives from the Arabic ra's, which means "head, origin" or the Hebrew rosh, which has a similar meaning. Early race theorists held the view that some races were inferior to others and they believed that the differential treatment of races was justified; these early theories guided pseudo-scientific research assumptions. Today, most biologists and sociologists reject a taxonomy of races in favor of more specific and/or empirically verifiable criteria, such as geography, ethnicity, or a history of endogamy.
To date, there is little evidence in human genome research which indicates that race can be defined in such a way as to be useful in determining a genetic classification of humans. An entry in the Oxford English Dictionary defines racialism as "n earlier term than racism, but now superseded by it", cites it in a 1902 quote; the revised Oxford English Dictionary cites the shortened term "racism" in a quote from the following year, 1903. It was first defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "he theory that distinctive human characteristics and abilities are determined by race". By the end of World War II, racism had acquired the same supremacist connotations associated with racialism: racism now implied racial discrimination, racial supremacism, a harmful intent; as its history indicates, the popular use of the word racism is recent. The word came into widespread usage in the Western world in the 1930s, when it was used to describe the social and political ideology of Nazism, which saw "race" as a given political unit.
It is agreed that racism existed before the coinage of the word, but there is not a wide agreement on a single definition of what racism is and what it is not. Today, some scholars of racism prefer to use the concept in the plural racisms, in order to emphasize its many different forms that do not fall under a single definition, they argue that different forms of racism have characterized different historical periods and geographical areas. Garner summarizes different existing definitions of racism and identifies three common elements contained in those definitions of racism. First, a historical, hierarchical power relationship between groups. Though many countries around the globe have passed laws related to race and discrimination, the first significant international human rights instrument developed by the United Nations
Jerome Allen Seinfeld is an American stand-up comedian, writer and director. He is known for playing himself in the sitcom Seinfeld, which he wrote with Larry David; as a stand-up comedian, Seinfeld specializes in observational comedy. In 2010, he premiered a reality series called The Marriage Ref, which aired for two seasons on NBC, he is the host of the web series Comedians in Cars Getting Coffee. Seinfeld was born in New York City, his father, Kálmán Seinfeld was of Hungarian Jewish descent, collected jokes that he heard while serving in World War II. His mother, was of Mizrahi Jewish descent, his second cousin is actor Evan Seinfeld. Seinfeld grew up in Massapequa, New York, attended Massapequa High School on Long Island. At the age of 16, he spent time volunteering in Kibbutz Sa'ar in Israel, he attended State University of New York at Oswego, transferring after his second year to Queens College, City University of New York, graduating with a degree in communications and theater. Seinfeld developed an interest in stand-up comedy after brief stints in college productions.
He appeared on open-mic nights at Budd Friedman's Sex Club while attending Queens College. After graduation in 1976, he tried out at an open-mic night at New York City's Catch a Rising Star, which led to an appearance in a Rodney Dangerfield HBO special. In 1980, he had a small recurring role on the sitcom Benson, playing Frankie, a mail-delivery boy who had comedy routines that no one wanted to hear. Seinfeld was abruptly fired from the show due to creative differences. Seinfeld has said that he was not told he had been fired until he turned up for the read-through session for an episode and found that there was no script for him. In May 1981, Seinfeld made a successful appearance on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, impressing Carson and the audience and leading to frequent appearances on that show and others, including Late Night with David Letterman. On September 5, 1987 his first one-hour special Stand-Up Confidential aired live on HBO. Seinfeld created The Seinfeld Chronicles with Larry David in 1988 for NBC.
The show was renamed Seinfeld to avoid confusion with the short-lived teen sitcom The Marshall Chronicles. By its fourth season, it had become the most successful sitcom on American television; the final episode aired in 1998, the show has been a popular syndicated re-run. Along with Seinfeld, the show starred Saturday Night Live veteran Julia Louis-Dreyfus and experienced actors Michael Richards and Jason Alexander. Alexander played a caricature of Larry David. Seinfeld is the only actor to appear in every episode of the show. Seinfeld has said that his show was influenced by the 1950s sitcom The Costello Show. In the "Seinfeld Season 6" DVD set, commenting on the episode "The Gymnast", Seinfeld cited Jean Shepherd as an influence, saying, "He formed my entire comedic sensibility—I learned how to do comedy from Jean Shepherd." From 2004 to 2007, the former Seinfeld cast and crew recorded audio commentaries for episodes of the DVD releases of the show. Seinfeld provided commentary for multiple episodes.
After he ended his sitcom, Seinfeld returned to New York City to make a comeback with his stand-up comedy rather than stay in Los Angeles and continue his acting career. In 1998 he recorded a comedy special, titled I'm Telling You for the Last Time; the process of developing and performing new material at clubs around the world was chronicled in a 2002 documentary, which featured fellow comic Orny Adams and was directed by Christian Charles. Seinfeld has written several books archives of past routines. In the late 1990s, Apple Computer came up with the advertising slogan "Think different" and produced a 60-second commercial to promote the slogan; this commercial showed people who were able to "think differently", such as Albert Einstein, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr. and many others. It was cut short to 30 seconds and altered such that Seinfeld was included at the end, whereas he had not been in the original cut; this shorter version of the commercial aired only once, during the series finale of Seinfeld.
In 2004 Seinfeld appeared in two commercial webisodes promoting American Express, titled The Adventures of Seinfeld & Superman. In these, Seinfeld appeared with a cartoon rendering of Superman, referenced in numerous episodes of Seinfeld as Seinfeld's hero, voiced by Patrick Warburton; the webisodes were directed by Barry Levinson and aired on television. Seinfeld and "Superman" were interviewed by Matt Lauer in a specially recorded interview for the Today show. On November 18, 2004, Seinfeld appeared at the National Museum of American History to donate the "puffy shirt" he wore in the Seinfeld episode of the same name, he gave a speech when presenting the "puffy shirt", saying humorously that "This is the most embarrassing moment of my life."On May 13, 2006, Seinfeld had a cameo appearance on Saturday Night Live as host Julia Louis-Dreyfus' assassin. Louis-Dreyfus in her opening monologue mentioned the "Seinfeld curse." While talking about how ridiculous the "curse" was, a stage light fell next to her.
The camera moved to a catwalk above the stage where Seinfeld was standing, holding a large pair of bolt cutters. He angrily muttered, "Damn it!" Upset that it did not hit her. Louis-Dreyfus continued to say. On February 25, 2007, Seinfel