The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Die Another Day
Die Another Day is a 2002 spy film, the twentieth film in the James Bond series produced by Eon Productions, as well as the fourth and final film to star Pierce Brosnan as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond. The film follows Bond as he leads a mission to North Korea, during which he is betrayed and, after killing a rogue North Korean colonel, is captured and imprisoned. Fourteen months Bond is released as part of a prisoner exchange. Surmising that the mole is within the British government, he attempts to earn redemption by tracking down his betrayer and all those involved; the film, produced by Michael G. Wilson and Barbara Broccoli, directed by Lee Tamahori, marked the James Bond franchise's 40th anniversary; the series began in 1962 with Sean Connery starring as Bond in Dr. No. Die Another Day includes references to each of the preceding films; the film received mixed reviews. Some critics praised the work of Tamahori, while others criticised the film's heavy use of computer-generated imagery, which they found unconvincing and a distraction from the film's plot.
Die Another Day was the highest-grossing James Bond film up to that time if inflation is not taken into account. MI6 agent James Bond infiltrates a North Korean military base, where Colonel Tan-Sun Moon is illegally trading weapons for African conflict diamonds. After Moon's assistant Zao discovers that Bond is a British agent via an unknown source, Moon attempts to kill Bond and a hovercraft chase ensues, ending with Moon's death. Bond survives, but is captured by North Korean soldiers and imprisoned by the Colonel's father, General Moon. After fourteen months of captivity and torture, Bond is traded for Zao in a prisoner exchange, he is sedated and taken to meet M, who informs him that his status as a 00 Agent is suspended under suspicion of having leaked information under duress. Bond is convinced that he has been set up by a double agent in the British government and decides to avenge his betrayal. After escaping from the custody of MI6, he discovers that he is in Hong Kong, where he learns from a Chinese agent that Zao is in Cuba.
In Havana, Bond meets NSA agent Giacinta'Jinx' Johnson. Bond follows her to a gene therapy clinic, where patients can have their appearances altered through DNA restructuring. Bond locates Zao inside the clinic and attempts to kill him, but he escapes, leaving behind a pendant which leads Bond to a cache of diamonds, identified as conflict diamonds, but bearing the crest of the company owned by British billionaire businessman Gustav Graves. Bond learns that Graves only appeared a year prior discovering a vein of diamonds in Iceland leading to his current wealth and philanthropy from its assets. At Blades Club in London, Bond meets Graves along with his assistant Miranda Frost, an undercover MI6 agent. After a fencing exercise, Bond is invited by Graves to Iceland for a scientific demonstration. Shortly afterwards, M tells Bond of MI6's doubts about Graves, restores Bond's Double-0 status and offers assistance in the investigation. At his ice palace adjacent to the diamond mine site in Iceland, Graves unveils a new orbital mirror satellite, "Icarus", able to focus solar energy on a small area and provide year-round sunshine for crop development.
During the night, Jinx is captured by Graves and Zao. Bond rescues her and discovers that Colonel Moon is still alive. Moon has used the gene therapy technology to change his appearance, creating the identity of Gustav Graves and amassing his fortune from sale of the conflict diamonds. Bond confronts Graves, but Frost arrives to reveal herself as the traitor who betrayed Bond in North Korea, forcing Bond to escape from Graves' facility. Bond returns in his Aston Martin Vanquish to rescue Jinx, captured once again within the palace; as Graves uses Icarus to melt the ice palace, Zao pursues Bond into the palace using his Jaguar XKR. Bond kills Zao by causing a giant ice chandelier to fall onto him, revives Jinx after she has drowned. Bond and Jinx stow away on Graves' cargo plane. Graves reveals his true identity to his father, the true purpose of the Icarus satellite: to cut a path through the Korean Demilitarized Zone with concentrated sunlight, allowing North Korean troops to invade South Korea and reunite the peninsula by force.
Horrified at the fact that it would result in a nuclear war with the United States, General Moon tries to turn the plan down, but he is murdered by his own son. Bond attempts to shoot Graves. In their struggle, a gunshot pierces the fuselage. Bond and Graves engage in a fist fight, Jinx attempts to regain control of the plane. Frost attacks Jinx. After the plane passes through the Icarus beam and is further damaged, Jinx kills Frost. Graves attempts to escape by parachute, but Bond opens the parachute, causing Graves to be pulled out of the plane and into one of its engines, killing him and disabling the Icarus beam. Bond and Jinx escape from the disintegrating plane in a helicopter from the cargo hold, carrying away Graves' stash of diamonds in the process. In the end, they are seen to have sex amidst the diamonds on a bed in a South Korean Buddhist temple located in a valley. Pierce Brosnan as James Bond, an MI6 agent. Halle Berry as Jinx Johnson, an NSA agent. Toby Stephens as Gustav Graves, a British entrepreneur, alter ego of Colonel Moon.
Rosamund Pike as Miranda Frost, undercover MI6 agent and double agent. Rick Yune as Tang Ling Zao, a freelancer terrorist of Chinese origin working for Moon and li
Let Him Have It
Let Him Have It is a 1991 British drama film directed by Peter Medak and starring Christopher Eccleston, Paul Reynolds, Tom Courtenay and Tom Bell. The film is based on the true story of Derek Bentley; the true story of the case ended with Bentley hanged for murder under controversial circumstances on 28 January 1953. While Bentley did not directly play a role in the murder of PC Sidney Miles, he received a greater punishment than the gunman. Derek Bentley is an illiterate, epileptic young adult with developmental disabilities who falls into a gang led by a younger teenager named Christopher Craig. During the course of the robbery of a warehouse in Croydon, in which Bentley is encouraged to participate by Craig, the two become trapped by the police. Officers order Craig to put down his gun. Bentley, who by this time has been arrested, shouts "Let him have it, Chris" – whether he means the phrase or figuratively is unclear. Craig begins firing, wounding another; because he is a minor, Craig is given a prison sentence for the crime.
Meanwhile, Bentley is sentenced to death under the English common law principle of joint enterprise, on the basis that his statement to Craig was an instigation to begin shooting. Bentley's family begins an effort for clemency. However, the Home Secretary declines to intervene. Despite his family's efforts and some public support, Bentley is executed in 1953 within a month of being convicted, before Parliament takes any official action. Paul Bergman and Michael Asimow call attention to the cross examination scene, where "the camera closes in on bruised face as the prosecutor and judge bombard him with questions he can comprehend."The film's end titles state that Bentley's sister, was still fighting for his pardon. Seven years after the film was made and after numerous unsuccessful campaigns to get Derek Bentley a full pardon, his conviction was overturned by the Court of Appeal on 30 July 1998, one year after Iris's death; the film gained positive reviews from critics. It holds an 81% approval rating from the review aggregation site Rotten Tomatoes based on 36 reviews, with an average rating of 7.7/10.
The website's critical consensus reads, "Led by a gripping performance from Christopher Eccleston, Let Him Have It sounds a compelling call for justice on behalf of its real-life protagonist."Tom Wiener said that the film displayed the writers Neal Purvis and Robert Wade's "outrage toward a system hell-bent on vengeance" and John Ivan Simon called the script "first rate, no nonsense". Let Him Have It on IMDb Let Him Have It at Box Office Mojo Let Him Have It film review, Channel 4
Casino Royale (2006 film)
Casino Royale is a 2006 spy film, the twenty-first in the Eon Productions James Bond film series, the third screen adaptation of Ian Fleming's 1953 novel of the same name. Directed by Martin Campbell and written by Neal Purvis & Robert Wade and Paul Haggis, it is the first film to star Daniel Craig as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond, was produced by Eon Productions for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Columbia Pictures, making it the first Eon-produced Bond film to be co-produced by the latter studio. Following Die Another Day, Eon Productions decided to reboot the series, allowing them to show a less experienced and more vulnerable Bond. Casino Royale takes place at the beginning of Bond's career as Agent 007, as he is earning his licence to kill; the plot sees Bond on an assignment to bankrupt terrorist financier Le Chiffre in a high-stakes poker game. The film begins a story arc that continues in Quantum of Solace. Casting involved a widespread search for a new actor to succeed Pierce Brosnan as James Bond.
Location filming took place in the Czech Republic, The Bahamas and the United Kingdom with interior sets built at Barrandov Studios and Pinewood Studios. Casino Royale premiered at the Odeon Leicester Square on 14 November 2006, it received an overwhelmingly positive critical response, with reviewers highlighting Craig's reinvention of the character and the film's departure from the tropes of previous Bond films. It earned $600 million worldwide, becoming the highest-grossing James Bond film until the release of Skyfall in 2012. MI6 agent James Bond gains his licence to kill and status as a 00 agent by assassinating the traitorous MI6 section chief Dryden and his contact. In Uganda, the mysterious Mr. White introduces Steven Obanno, high-ranking member of the Lord's Resistance Army, to Le Chiffre, a private banker to terrorist groups around the globe. Obanno entrusts Le Chiffre with a large sum of money to invest safely for him. In Madagascar, Bond pursues bomb maker Mollaka to an African embassy, shooting him dead and blowing up the building.
In London, MI6 chief M admonishes Bond for both violating international law, ignoring her orders to capture Mollaka alive for questioning. She sternly advises him to be dispassionate in his new role, to keep his ego in check. Clues from Mollaka point to corrupt Greek official Alex Dimitrios. Bond finds Dimitrios in the Bahamas and, after seducing his wife Solange, pursues him to Miami. Bond follows his henchman to the airport, he thwarts the destruction of Skyfleet's airliner, costing Le Chiffre his entire investment, totaling $101,206,000. To recoup the money, Le Chiffre sets up a high-stakes Texas hold'em tournament at the Casino Royale in Montenegro. MI6 enters Bond in the tournament, believing a defeat will force Le Chiffre to seek asylum with the British government, which they will grant in exchange for information on his clients. On the train to Montenegro, Bond meets Vesper Lynd, a British Treasury agent there to protect the government's $10 million buy-in. In Montenegro, they meet René Mathis.
At the start of the game, Bond gains the upper hand by deducing Le Chiffre's tell. During a break, enraged by the loss of his funds, ambushes Le Chiffre in his suite. Strangling the banker with a cord and threatening to amputate his girlfriend Valenka's arm with a machete, the warlord allows Le Chiffre to continue with his plan win back the money; as Obanno leaves, his bodyguard spots Bond and shoots at him. Bond throws the minion over a stair railing. Vesper is traumatised by the encounter; when the tournament resumes, Bond loses his initial stake due to Le Chiffre being tipped off to the tell, Vesper refuses to fund further playing. Frustrated, Bond is about to kill Le Chiffre when he meets Felix Leiter, a fellow player and CIA agent who agrees to stake Bond to continue playing in exchange for allowing Le Chiffre to be taken into American custody. Bond rebuilds his position until Valenka poisons Bond's martini with digitalis. Bond escapes to his Aston Martin DBS V12 to save himself with an antidote and a defibrillator, but passes out until Vesper arrives to rescue him.
Bond returns to the game as Leiter is eliminated, continuing the tournament until it culminates in a $115 million hand in which the remaining players, including Bond and Le Chiffre, go all in. Le Chiffre trumps the other players. Bond and Vesper share a celebratory dinner. Bond pursues them in his Aston Martin but sees Vesper tied up and lying in the middle of the road, swerves violently to avoid her, is taken captive. Le Chiffre brings Bond and Vesper to an abandoned ship, separates them, tortures Bond by whipping his genitals with a knotted rope, demanding the password to the account containing the winnings. Bond refuses to give in; as Le Chiffre prepares to castrate Bond, Mr. White enters and shoots Le Chiffre in the head, killing him. Bond awakens in an MI6 hospital. Bond decides to resign from MI6, he and Vesper run away together to Venice, engaging in a passionate love affair; when M calls Bond to tell him the money was never deposited, Bond realizes it was Vesper who betrayed him. He follows her to a handoff of the money, where a fir
Derek Bentley case
Derek Bentley was an English man, hanged for the murder of a policeman, committed in the course of a burglary attempt. The murder was said at the time to have been committed by a friend and accomplice of Bentley's, Christopher Craig aged 16, but whether he had fired the fatal shot was called into question. Bentley was convicted as a party to murder, by the English law principle of common purpose, "joint enterprise"; the jury at the trial found Bentley guilty based on the prosecution's interpretation of the ambiguous phrase "Let him have it", after the judge, Lord Chief Justice Goddard, had described Bentley as "mentally aiding the murder of Police Constable Sidney Miles". Goddard sentenced Bentley to be hanged: at the time, no other sentence was possible; the Bentley case became a cause célèbre and led to a 45-year-long campaign to win Derek Bentley a posthumous pardon, granted in 1993, a further campaign for the quashing of his murder conviction, which occurred in 1998. Derek Bentley entered Norbury Manor Secondary Modern School in 1944, after failing the eleven-plus examination.
In March 1948 Bentley and another boy were arrested for theft. In September 1948, he was sentenced to serve three years at Kingswood Approved School, near Bristol. Christopher Craig attended the same school. Bentley was released from Kingswood school on 28 July 1950, a year early, though he remained under the care of Kingswood until 29 September 1954, by which time he was dead, he was a recluse for the rest of the year. In March 1951, he was employed by a furniture removal firm but was forced to leave the job after injuring his back in March 1952. In May 1952, Bentley was taken on by the Croydon Corporation as a dustbin man, one month in June 1952 he was demoted to street sweeping for unsatisfactory performance. One month after that, he was sacked by the Corporation, he was unemployed for the rest of his life. Derek Bentley had a series of health and developmental problems, his parents reported that in a childhood accident he had broken his nose and since he had three fits, including one in which they said he nearly died of choking.
The family said they were bombed out three times during World War II, in one of these incidents, the house in which he lived collapsed around him, but a court did not find any indication that he was physically injured in the incident. Kingswood Training School administered diagnostic tests to Bentley during the time of his detention there. In December 1948, his mental age was estimated at 10 years, 4 months, when he scored 66 on an IQ test. Kingswood staff reported him to be "lazy, voluble and of the'wise guy' type", whilst a court described as "indifferent, self-satisfied and ready to tell tales". After his arrest in November 1952, further IQ tests were administered to him at Brixton Prison, he was described there as "borderline feeble-minded", with a verbal score of 71, a performance IQ of 87 and a full scale IQ of 77. In December 1948, Bentley had an estimated "reading age" of 6 months, he was discovered to still be "quite illiterate" at the time of his arrest in November 1952. The prison medical officer said he "cannot recognise or write down all the letters of the alphabet".
Bentley was examined twice by EEG: a reading on 16 November 1949 indicated he was an epileptic and a reading on 9 February 1950 was "abnormal". Both were taken at the Burden Neurological Institute in Bristol. On 2 November 1952, Bentley and a sixteen-year-old companion, Christopher Craig, attempted to burgle the warehouse of the Barlow & Parker confectionery company at 27–29 Tamworth Road, Croydon. Craig armed himself with a Colt New Service.455 Webley calibre revolver, of which he had shortened the barrel so that it could be carried in his pocket. He carried a number of undersized rounds for the revolver, some of which he had modified by hand to fit the gun. Bentley carried a knuckle-duster, which he had been given by Craig, who on 21 November the previous year had been fined for possessing a firearm without a certificate. At around 9.15pm, a nine-year-old girl in a house across the road spotted Craig and Bentley climbing over the gate and up a drainpipe to the roof of the warehouse. She alerted her mother.
When the police arrived, the two youths hid behind the lift-housing. Craig taunted the police. One of the police officers, Detective Sergeant Frederick Fairfax, climbed the drainpipe onto the roof and grabbed hold of Bentley. Bentley broke free of Fairfax's grasp. What happened is a matter of controversy: police witnesses claimed that the police officer asked Craig to "Hand over the gun, lad" and Bentley shouted the ambiguous phrase, "Let him have it, Chris" to Craig. Craig fired his revolver at Fairfax. Despite his injury, Fairfax was again able to restrain Bentley. Bentley had further ammunition for the gun. Bentley had not used either of the weapons. A group of uniformed police officers were sent onto the roof; the first to reach the roof was Police Constable Sidney Miles, killed by a shot to the head. After exhausting his ammunition and being cornered, Craig jumped around 30 feet from the roof onto a greenhouse, fracturing his spine and left wrist. Various medals were awarded to the several participating police officers, including one – posthumously – to Miles and the George Cross to Fairfax, in January 1953.
Bentley and Craig were charged with murder. They were tried by jury before the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, Lord Goddard, at the Old Bailey in London between 9 December and
Return to Sender (2004 film)
Return to Sender is a 2004 film written by Neal Purvis and Robert Wade and directed by Bille August. It was released on video under the title Convicted; the film stars Connie Nielsen and Mark Holton. Aidan Quinn was nominated for a 2005 IFTA Best Actor in a Feature Film award for his performance. Quinn plays an unscrupulous attorney, challenged by Nielsen, his latest client. Quinn's character, a jaded ex-lawyer, has been befriending and exploiting death row convicts and selling their final letters to the media. While attempting to foster his relationship with Nielsen's character, he becomes convinced that she is innocent. On the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film has a 33% rating under the title Convicted and a 39% rating under the title Return to Sender Return to Sender at BFI Return to Sender at LUMIERE Return to Sender on IMDb
A ghostwriter is hired to write literary or journalistic works, speeches, or other texts that are credited to another person as the author. Celebrities, participants in timely news stories, political leaders hire ghostwriters to draft or edit autobiographies, magazine articles, or other written material. In music, ghostwriters are used to write songs and instrumental pieces. Screenplay authors can use ghostwriters to either edit or rewrite their scripts to improve them. There is a confidentiality clause in the contract between the ghostwriter and the credited author that obligates the former to remain anonymous. Sometimes the ghostwriter is acknowledged by the author or publisher for his or her writing services, euphemistically called a "researcher" or "research assistant", but the ghostwriter is not credited. Ghostwriting occurs in other creative fields. Composers have long hired ghostwriters to help them to write musical songs. Ghosting occurs in popular music. A pop music ghostwriter writes a melody in the style of the credited musician.
In hip hop music, the increasing use of ghostwriters by high-profile hip-hop stars has led to controversy. In the visual arts, it is not uncommon in either fine art or commercial art such as comics for a number of assistants to do work on a piece, credited to a single artist. However, when credit is established for the writer, the acknowledgement of their contribution is public domain and the writer in question would not be considered a ghostwriter. A consultant or career-switcher may pay a ghostwriter to write a book on a topic in their professional area, to establish or enhance credibility as an'expert' in their field. Public officials and politicians employ "correspondence officers" to respond to the large volume of official correspondence. A number of papal encyclicals have been written by ghostwriters. A controversial and scientifically unethical practice is medical ghostwriting, where biotech or pharmaceutical companies pay professional writers to produce papers and recruit other scientists or physicians to attach their names to these articles before they are published in medical or scientific journals.
Some university and college students hire ghostwriters from essay mills to write entrance essays, term papers and dissertations. This is considered unethical unless the actual ghostwriting work is just light editing. Ghostwriters are hired for numerous reasons. In many cases, celebrities or public figures do not have the time, discipline, or writing skills to write and research a several hundred page autobiography or "how-to" book. If a celebrity or public figure has the writing skills to pen a short article, they may not know how to structure and edit a several hundred page book so that it is captivating and well-paced. In other cases, publishers use ghostwriters to increase the number of books that can be published each year under the name of well-known marketable authors, or to release a topical book that ties in with a recent or upcoming newsworthy event. Ghostwriters will spend from several months to a full year researching and editing nonfiction and fiction works for a client, they are paid based on a price per hour, per word or per page, with a flat fee, a percentage of the royalties of the sales, or some combination thereof.
Some ghostwriters charge for articles "$4 per word and more depending on the complexity" of the article. Literary agent Madeleine Morel states that the average ghostwriter's advance for work for major book publishers is "between $15,000 and $75,000"; these benchmark prices are mirrored in the film industry by the Writer's Guild, where a Minimum Basic Agreement gives a starting price for the screenplay writer of $37,073. However, the recent shift into the digital age has brought some changes, by opening newer markets that bring their own opportunities for authors and writers—especially on the more affordable side of the ghostwriting business. One such market is the shorter book, best represented at the moment by Amazon's Kindle Singles imprint: texts of 30,000 words and under; such a length would have been much harder to sell before digital reader-technologies became available, but is now quite acceptable. Writers on the level of Ian McEwan have celebrated this recent change for artistic reasons.
As a consequence, the shorter format makes a project more affordable for the client/author. Manhattan Literary, a ghostwriting company, states that "book projects on the shorter side, tailored to new markets like the Kindle Singles imprint and others start at a cost of $15,000", and this shorter book appears to be here to stay. It was once financially impractical for publishers to produce such novella-length texts. So, with its appearance the starting price for the professional book writer has come down by about half, but only if this shorter format makes sense for the client. On the upper end of the spectrum, with celebrities that can all but guarantee a publisher large sales, the fees can be much higher. In 2001, the New York Times stated that the fee that the ghostwriter for Hillary Clinton's memoirs would receive was about $500,000 of her book's $8 million advance, which "is near the top of flat fees paid to collaborators". There is the consideration of differen