Neanderthals are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived within Eurasia from circa 400,000 until 40,000 years ago. The earliest fossils of Neanderthals in Europe are dated between 450,000 and 430,000 years ago, thereafter Neanderthals expanded into Southwest and Central Asia, they are known from numerous fossils, as well as stone tool assemblages. All assemblages younger than 160,000 years are of the so-called Mousterian techno-complex, characterised by tools made out of stone flakes; the type specimen is Neanderthal 1, found in Neander Valley in the German Rhineland, in 1856. Compared to modern humans, Neanderthals were stockier, with bigger bodies. In conformance with Bergmann's rule, as well as Allen's rule, this was was an adaptation to preserve heat in cold climates. Male and female Neanderthals had cranial capacities averaging 1,600 cm3 and 1,300 cm3 within the range of the values for anatomically modern humans. Average males stood around females 152 to 156 cm tall.
There has been growing evidence for admixture between Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans, reflected in the genomes of all modern non-African populations but not in the genomes of most sub-Saharan Africans. This suggests that interbreeding between Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans took place after the recent "out of Africa" migration, around 70,000 years ago. Recent admixture analyses have added to the complexity, finding that Eastern Neanderthals derived up to 2% of their ancestry from anatomically modern humans who left Africa some 100,000 years ago. Neanderthals are named after one of the first sites where their fossils were discovered in the mid-19th century in the Neander Valley, just east of Düsseldorf, at the time in the Rhine Province of the Kingdom of Prussia; the valley itself was named for Joachim Neander, Neander being the graecicized form of the surname Neumann. The German spelling of Thal "Valley" was current in the 19th century. Neanderthal 1 was known as the "Neanderthal cranium" or "Neanderthal skull" in anthropological literature, the individual reconstructed on the basis of the skull was called "the Neanderthal man".
The binomial name Homo neanderthalensis—extending the name "Neanderthal man" from the individual type specimen to the entire group—was first proposed by the Anglo-Irish geologist William King in a paper read to the British Association in 1863, although in the following year he stated that the specimen was not human and rejected the name. King's name had priority over the proposal put forward in 1866 by Homo stupidus. Popular English usage of "Neanderthal" as shorthand for "Neanderthal man", as in "the Neanderthals" or "a Neanderthal", emerged in the popular literature of the 1920s. Since the historical spelling -th- in German represents the phoneme /t/ or /tʰ/, not the fricative /θ/, standard British pronunciation of "Neanderthal" is with /t/; because of the usual sound represented by digraph ⟨th⟩ in English, "Neanderthal" is pronounced with the voiceless fricative /θ/, at least in "layman's American English". The spelling Neandertal is seen in English in scientific publications. Since "Neanderthal", or "Neandertal", is a common name, there is no authoritative prescription on its spelling, unlike the spelling of the binominal name H. neanderthalensis, predicated by King 1864.
The common name in German is always invariably Neandertaler, not Neandertal, but the spelling of the name of the Neander Valley itself has been affected by the species name, the names of the Neanderthal Museum and of Neanderthal station persisting with pre-1900 orthography. Since the discovery of the Neanderthal fossils, expert opinion has been divided as to whether Neanderthals should be considered a separate species or a subspecies relative to modern humans. Pääbo described such "taxonomic wars" as unresolveable in principle, "since there is no definition of species describing the case." The question depends on the definition of Homo sapiens as a chronospecies, in flux throughout the 20th century. Authorities preferring classification of Neanderthals as subspecies have introduced the subspecies name Homo sapiens sapiens for the anatomically modern Cro-Magnon population which lived in Europe at the same time as Neanderthals, while authorities preferring classification as separate species use Homo sapiens as equivalent to "anatomically modern humans".
During the early 20th century, a prevailing view of Neanderthals as "simian", influenced by Arthur Keith and Marcellin Boule, tended to exaggerate the anatomical differences between Neanderthals and Cro Magnon. Beginning in the 1930s, revised reconstructions of Neanderthals emphasized the similarity rather than differences from modern humans. From the 1940s throughout the 1970s, it was common to use the subspecies classification of Homo sapiens neanderthalensis vs. Homo sapiens sapiens; the hypothesis of "multiregional origin" of modern man was formulated in the 1980s on such grounds, arguing for the presence of an unbroken succession of fossil sites in both Europe and Asia. Hybridization between Neanderthals and Cro Magnon had been suggested on skeletal and craniological grounds since the early 20th century, found increasing support in the 20th century, until Neanderthal admixture was found to be present in modern populations genet
The Düssel is a small right tributary of the river Rhine in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany. Its source is east of Wülfrath, it flows westward through the Neander Valley where the fossils of the first Neanderthal man were found in August 1856. At Düsseldorf it forms a river delta by splitting into four streams, which all join the Rhine after a few kilometres; the Nördliche Düssel passes under the Golden Bridge. Düsseldorf takes its name from the Düssel: Düsseldorf means "the village of Düssel"; the name Düssel itself dates back to the Germanic *thusila and means "roar". List of rivers of North Rhine-Westphalia
Kleine Feldhofer Grotte
Kleine Feldhofer Grotte was a karstic limestone cave and a paleoanthropologic site in the Neandertal Valley in western Germany. In August 1856, the Neanderthal type specimen was unearthed from the cave. Miners uncovered a number of skeletal bones to be labeled Neanderthal; the bones belong to at least three distinct individuals. The cave was situated in a limestone gorge with the interior dimensions of 3 m in width by 5 m in length by 3 m in height, a 1 m opening 20 m above the valley floor in the south wall, 50 m high; the cave got its name from the nearby large farm of the Feldhof. The cave was destroyed during the 19th century as a result of industrial-scale limestone quarrying which widened the gorge; the location of the cave was soon forgotten and by 1900, unknown. In 1997 a successful search for the site of the cave and its deposits yielded 24 fragments of human bone, one of which, identified as NN 13, fit onto the left lateral femoral condyle of the Neanderthal 1 fossil; the 2000 excavation resulted in the recovery of thousands of artifacts.
The mitochondrial DNA of two bone samples were sequenced, completed in 2009
Neanderthal station is a Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn station in the town of Mettmann in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It was opened on 15 September 1879, it is located in the Neandertal, which prior to the German spelling reform of 1901 was spelled as Neanderthal. As Neanderthal man, found in the area, the nearby Neanderthal Museum have continued to be spelled in the old way, the spelling of the station is unchanged. On 15 September 1879 the Rhenish Railway Company opened the last section of its Düsseldorf-Derendorf–Dortmund Süd railway, locally known as the Wuppertaler Nordbahn, from Mettmann station to the Rhenish Railway’s Düsseldorf station. Along with this line Neanderthal station was put into operation and the station building was inaugurated; this still is no longer used for its original purpose. In the 1980s the whole station area and the station building were purchased by the landscape gardener Richard Bödeker and rebuilt as a residence; the history of the railway was considered in the design of the gardens and parks around the station and the grounds are filled with old artifacts of the railway history along the course of old Nordbahn as well as hundreds of species of bamboo and elaborately designed wall coatings and ground coverings.
The station had local importance. In addition to the two rail tracks, each with a platform, it had a fast reversible bypass track, three marshalling and stabling tracks, as well as a siding for freight trains to the nearby Mannesmann lime plant; the line was used only by railcars and local freight trains. On 2 January 1999, Deutsche Bahn closed passenger services over the whole line and sold Neanderthal station with a section of the line to Regionale Bahngesellschaft Kaarst-Neuss-Düsseldorf-Erkrath-Mettmann-Wuppertal mbH on 1 January 1998. Following the acquisition of the line by Regiobahn it was upgraded for S-Bahn operations and all stations were extensively reconstructed and modernised. Neanderthal station was reduced to being just a halt, all tracks except tracks 1 and 2 were dismantled; the platform next to the station building, used for the stopping of trains towards Mettmann, was demolished. Trains have since stopped at the island platform between the tracks 1 and 2. Since this platform is narrow, a new platform was built for the trains towards Düsseldorf on the site of the former bypass track, which can be entered directly from the bus station.
Since 26 September 1999, the Rheinisch-Bergische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft has operated line S 28 of the Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn—initially every hour, but from 28 May 2000 at 20-minute intervals—from Kaarster See via Neuss Hbf, Düsseldorf Hbf and Neanderthal to Mettmann Stadtwald. An extension to Wuppertal-Vohwinkel station is planned; the station is served by Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn line S 28 at 20 minute intervals The station is served by bus route O12 operated by Rheinbahn at 20 to 60 minute intervals
A quarry is a type of open-pit mine in which dimension stone, construction aggregate, sand, gravel, or slate is excavated from the ground. The word quarry can include the underground quarrying for stone, such as Bath stone. Types of rock extracted from quarries include: Chalk China clay Cinder Clay Coal Construction aggregate Coquina Diabase Gabbro Granite Gritstone Gypsum Limestone Marble Ores Phosphate rock Quartz Sandstone Slate Many quarry stones such as marble, granite and sandstone are cut into larger slabs and removed from the quarry; the surfaces finished with varying degrees of sheen or luster. Polished slabs are cut into tiles or countertops and installed in many kinds of residential and commercial properties. Natural stone quarried from the earth is considered a luxury and tends to be a durable surface, thus desirable. Quarries in level areas with shallow groundwater or which are located close to surface water have engineering problems with drainage; the water is removed by pumping while the quarry is operational, but for high inflows more complex approaches may be required.
For example, the Coquina quarry is excavated to more than 60 feet below sea level. To reduce surface leakage, a moat lined with clay was constructed around the entire quarry. Ground water entering the pit is pumped up into the moat; as a quarry becomes deeper, water inflows increase and it becomes more expensive to lift the water higher during removal. Some water-filled quarries are worked by dredging. Many people and municipalities consider quarries to be eyesores and require various abatement methods to address problems with noise and appearance. One of the more effective and famous examples of successful quarry restoration is Butchart Gardens in Victoria, BC, Canada. A further problem is pollution of roads from trucks leaving the quarries. To control and restrain the pollution of public roads, wheel washing systems are becoming more common. Many quarries fill with water after abandonment and become lakes. Others are made into landfills. Water-filled quarries can be deep 50 ft or more, cold, so swimming in quarry lakes is not recommended.
Unexpectedly cold water can cause a swimmer's muscles to weaken. Though quarry water is very clear, submerged quarry stones and abandoned equipment make diving into these quarries dangerous. Several people drown in quarries each year. However, many inactive quarries are converted into safe swimming sites; such lakes lakes within active quarries, can provide important habitat for animals. Clay pit Coal mining Collecting fossils Gravel pit List of minerals List of rock types List of stones Miner Mountaintop removal mining Opencast mining Quarry lake Quarries
Neanderthal Museum is a museum in Mettmann, Germany. Located at the site of the first Neanderthal man discovery in the Neandertal, it features an exhibit centered on human evolution; the museum was constructed in 1996 to a design by the architects Zamp Kelp, Julius Krauss and Arno Brandlhuber and draws about 170,000 visitors per year. The museum includes an archaeological park on the original discovery site, a Stone Age workshop, as well as an art trail named "human traces". All signs in the museum as well as the audio guide offered by the museum are available in German and English; the architectural plan for the museum was chosen through a competition held in the spring of 1993 in which 130 participants from Germany and other countries participated. The design submitted by Professor Günter Zamp Kelp, Julius Krauss and Arno Brandlhuber was chosen as it represented the importance of the location; the museum was established on 10 October 1996 near the site where the renowned Neanderthal fossil was found.
Its multimedia exhibition was upgraded in 2006. Continuing donations, endowment or testamentary of funding are helpful for further development of the museum and for acquisition of many more exhibits; the former hotel Neanderthaler Hof was demolished to make room for the museum's extension. The museum gives a background of the migration of people from the savannas to the modern cities with emphasis of Neanderthals, their life size models are cast and exhibited on the basis of fossils excavated from archaeological sites. The exhibits are displayed in the four floors of the building which are interconnected through a spiraling ramp. At the beginning of the ramp, in the first section, there are exhibits on the history of the Neanderthal named "A valley and its Secret", which provides information on relics of the skeleton of the Neanderthal; the next exhibit, “A journey through time”, is about crucial stages of human history. Based on the main subject "Evolution of Humankind", the thematic areas spread over five sections exhibit sequentially the "Life and Survival", "Tools and Knowledge", "Myth and Religion", Environment and Nourishment" and "Communication and Society".
The museum has a unique collection of casts of the original human fossils which represent the evolution of the hominids in general and that of the Neanderthals in particular. This cast collection, prepared on the basis of finds from various excavated sites in the world, was facilitated by the donations given by Alfred Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Foundation; the museum houses the NESPOS Society e. V. which provides an interactive database on all anthropological and archaeological data connected with the Neanderthals in the form of "3D–images of CT-Scans and surface scans, as well as high-resolution photographs of human fossils and artifacts”. Software, developed digitally by NESPOS on the basis of all fossil collections, is distributed which includes scans of 600 fossils and artifacts from Belgium, Croatia and Germany; the museum houses special exhibitions. The last exhibition on monkeys finished in October 2012 was developed by the museum at a cost of €120,000. A total of 43,000 visitors saw this exhibition, which makes it one of the more popular ones, it will next be able to be seen at the Naturhistorisches Museum in Braunschweig.
The next special exhibition at the Neanderthal Museum will feature wolves and was created by the Görlitz branch of the Naturmuseum Senckenberg. Over the course of this exhibition, dog owners are allowed to take their dogs into the museum on four days; the Neanderthal Museum Foundation apart from its present museographic exhibits supports research with an interdisciplinary academic approach with particular emphasis on research of the early history of humanity. International excavations and research projects are actively pursued programmes; the museum encourages lay people to facilitate investigations on local prehistory. The Museum has the world’s largest database on glacial archaeology, under the title "NESPOS", its activities include holding International conferences and symposiums on a regular basis, which "generate interdisciplinary contacts and spark new ideas and perspectives" and the proceedings of which are published in scientific series published by the museum. The museum’s work in archaeological and palaeo-anthropological research is succinctly displayed through the audio visuals screened with the aid of several types of multimedia equipment.
The museum has an exhaustive collection of scientific publications and movies related to the prehistory of Europe and western Asia and many scientific journals and monographs which can referred at the media centre. The museum operates a programme to disseminate knowledge to teachers through its Permanent Exhibition and Stone Age Workshop. Children are encouraged to learn from the exhibits which are not part of the school curriculum. In this regard the display areas in the garden such as the Discovery Site, the “Human Traces” art trail and the Ice Age Game Reserve are topical for children in particular; the Neanderthal Museum conducts a workshop on the Stone Age, educative not only to children but to the youth and older people. In this workshop, access is provided to prehistoric fossils like bone, leather or sinew, prehistoric tools and techniques used in the daily life of our ancestors. In the garden area, developed in the precincts of the museum to represent the Neander Valley, there are many attractions along the labelled paths labelled such as Art trail "Human Traces”.
Further, towards the Game reserve, the
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well