Kingdom of Sicily
The Kingdom of Sicily was a state that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time the region of Ifriqiya from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816. It was a successor state of the County of Sicily, founded in 1071 during the Norman conquest of the southern peninsula; the island was divided into three regions: Val Demone and Val di Noto. In 1282, a revolt against Angevin rule, known as the Sicilian Vespers, threw off Charles of Anjou's rule of the island of Sicily; the Angevins managed to maintain control in the mainland part of the kingdom, which became a separate entity styled Kingdom of Sicily, although it is referred to as the Kingdom of Naples, after its capital. The island became a separate kingdom under the Crown of Aragon. After 1302 the island kingdom was sometimes called the Kingdom of Trinacria; the kingship was vested in another monarch such as the King of Aragon, the King of Spain, or the Holy Roman Emperor. In 1816 the island Kingdom of Sicily merged with the Kingdom of Naples to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
In 1861 the Two Sicilies were amalgamated with Sardinia and several northern city-states and duchies to form the Kingdom of Italy. By the 11th century mainland southern Lombard and Byzantine powers were hiring Norman mercenaries, who were descendants of the Vikings. After taking Apulia and Calabria, Roger occupied Messina with an army of 700 knights. In 1068, Roger I of Sicily and his men defeated the Muslims at Misilmeri but the most crucial battle was the siege of Palermo, which led to Sicily being under Norman control by 1091; the Norman Kingdom was created on Christmas Day, 1130, by Roger II of Sicily, with the agreement of Pope Innocent II, who united the lands Roger had inherited from his father count Roger I of Sicily. These areas included the Maltese Archipelago, conquered from the Arabs of the Emirates of Sicily. Roger threw his support behind the Antipope Anacletus II, who enthroned him as King of Sicily on Christmas Day 1130. In 1136, the rival of Anacletus, Pope Innocent II, convinced Lothair III, Holy Roman Emperor to attack the Kingdom of Sicily with help from the Byzantine Emperor John II Comnenus.
Two main armies, one led by Lothair, the other by Duke of Bavaria Henry the Proud, invaded Sicily. On the river Tronto, William of Loritello surrendered to Lothair and opened the gates of Termoli to him; this was followed by Count Hugh II of Molise. The two armies were united from where in 1137 they continued their campaign. Roger offered to give Apulia as a fief to the Empire, which Lothair refused after being pressured by Innocent. At the same period the army of Lothair revolted. Lothair, who had hoped for the complete conquest of Sicily, gave Capua and Apulia from the Kingdom of Sicily to Roger's enemies. Innocent protested. Lothair turned north, but died while crossing the Alps on 4 December 1137. At the Second Council of the Lateran in April 1139, Innocent excommunicated Roger for maintaining a schismatic attitude. On 22 March 1139, at Galluccio, Roger's son Roger III, Duke of Apulia ambushed the papal troops with a thousand knights and captured the pope. On 25 March 1139 Innocent was forced to acknowledge the kingship and possessions of Roger with the Treaty of Mignano.
Roger spent most of the decade, beginning with his coronation and ending with the Assizes of Ariano, enacting a series of laws with which Roger intended to centralise the government, fending off multiple invasions and quelling rebellions by his premier vassals: Grimoald of Bari, Robert II of Capua, Ranulf of Alife, Sergius VII of Naples and others. It was through his admiral George of Antioch that Roger proceeded to conquer the littoral of Ifriqiya from the Zirids, taking the unofficial title "King of Africa" and marking the foundation of the Norman Kingdom of Africa. At the same time Roger's fleet attacked the Byzantine Empire, making Sicily a leading maritime power in the Mediterranean Sea for a century. Roger's son and successor was William I of Sicily, known as "William the Bad", though his nickname derived from his lack of popularity with the chroniclers, who supported the baronial revolts which William suppressed. In the mid-1150s, William lost the majority of his African possessions to a series of revolts from local North African lords.
In 1160, the final Norman African stronghold of Mahdia was taken by Almohads. His reign ended in peace, but with his elder son Roger killed in previous revolts, his son, William II, was a minor; until the end of the boy's regency in 1172, the kingdom saw turmoil which brought the ruling family down. The reign of William II is remembered as two decades of continual peace and prosperity. For this more than anything, he is nicknamed "the Good", he died in 1189 without having heirs. William II had named his aunt Constance, the daughter of Roger II who married future Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor his heiress; as the noblemen did not want to be ruled by a German, Tancred of Lecce seized the throne under their support, but he had to contend with the revolt of his distant cousin Roger of Andria, a former contender, the invasion of King Henry of Germany on behalf of his wife. Roger was tricked into execution and Henry had to retreat after
Johann Maria Philipp Frimont
Johann Maria Philipp Frimont, Count of Palota, Prince of Antrodoco was an Austrian general. Frimont was born in what is now French Lorraine, he entered the Austrian cavalry as a trooper in 1776, won his commission in the War of the Bavarian Succession, took part in the Turkish wars and in the early campaigns against the French Revolutionary armies, in which he earned distinction. At Frankenthal in 1796 he won the Military Order of Maria Theresa. In the campaign of 1800 he distinguished himself as a cavalry leader at Marengo, in the next year became major-general. In the war of 1805 he was again employed in Italy and won further renown by his gallantry at the battle of Caldiero. In 1809 he again saw active service in Italy under the Archduke John in the rank of lieutenant field marshal, serving in Chasteler's Corps at 1st Sacile 15–16 April, Caldiero, he was defeated at 2nd Sacile and at Saint Daniel 11 May. He commanded the Reserve Corps at the Battle of Raab 14 June. In 1812 Frimont led the cavalry of Schwarzenberg's corps in the Russian campaign, serving at the action at Gorodetschna 12 August.
He replaced Schwarzenberg as commander in January 1813. In 1813 he commanded V Armeekorps under Hiller in Italy. After the Treaty of Paris he became military governor in Mainz. In 1815 he was commander-in-chief of the Austrian campaign in Italy, his army penetrated France as far as Lyon, entered on 11 July. With the army of occupation he remained in France for some years, in 1819 he commanded at Venice. In 1821 he led the Austrian army, employed against the Neapolitan rebels, by 24 March he had victoriously entered Naples, his reward from King Ferdinand of Naples was the title of prince of Antrodoco and a handsome sum of money, from his own master the rank of general of cavalry. After this he commanded in North Italy, was called upon to deal with many outbreaks of the Italian patriots, he became president of the Aulic council in 1831, but died a few months at Vienna. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Frimont, Johann Maria Philipp". Encyclopædia Britannica.
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Italian War of 1494–1498
The First Italian War, sometimes referred to as the Italian War of 1494 or Charles VIII's Italian War, was the opening phase of the Italian Wars. The war pitted Charles VIII of France, who had initial Milanese aid, against the Holy Roman Empire, an alliance of Italian powers led by Pope Alexander VI. Pope Innocent VIII, in conflict with King Ferdinand I of Naples over Ferdinand's refusal to pay feudal dues to the papacy and deposed Ferdinand by a bull of 11 September 1489. Innocent offered the Kingdom of Naples to Charles VIII of France, who had a remote claim to its throne because his grandfather, Charles VII, King of France, had married Marie of Anjou of the Angevin dynasty, the ruling family of Naples until 1442. Innocent settled his quarrel with Ferdinand and revoked the bans before dying in 1492, but the offer to Charles remained an apple of discord in Italian politics. Ferdinand died on 25 January 1494 and was succeeded by his son Alfonso II. In October 1494, Ludovico Sforza, who had long controlled the Duchy of Milan procured the ducal title after providing a hitherto unheard-of dowry to his niece, marrying the Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian.
He was challenged by Alfonso II, who had a claim on Milan. Ludovico decided to remove this threat by inciting Charles to take up Innocent's offer. Charles was being encouraged by his favorite, Étienne de Vesc, as well as by Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, the future Pope Julius II, who hoped to settle a score with the incumbent Pope, Alexander VI. Charles VIII gathered a large army of 25,000 men, including 8,000 Swiss mercenaries and the first siege train to include artillery, invaded the Italian peninsula, he was aided by Louis d'Orleans' victory over Neapolitan forces at the Battle of Rapallo which allowed Charles to march his army through the Republic of Genoa. On 19 October, a contingent of Charles' army besieged the fortress of Mordano. After refusing to surrender, the fortress was bombarded, taken by French-Milanese forces, the surviving inhabitants massacred; the arrival of Charles's army outside Florence in mid-November 1494 created fears of rape and pillage. The Florentines were led to establish a republican government.
Bernardo Rucellai and other members of the Florentine oligarchy acted as ambassadors to negotiate a peaceful accord with Charles. The French reached the city of Naples in February 1495, capturing it without a siege or a pitched battle. Charles stayed in Naples for a number of weeks, but on 20 May 1495, with the newly formed anti-French League of Venice threatening to cut off his return through northern Italy, Charles left Naples to return to France. Charles left Gilbert, Count of Montpensier, in Naples as his viceroy, with a substantial garrison of armed men; the Italian states, however realized the danger of foreign monarchy to the autonomy of each of them, in March 1495 they had agreed to create an alliance known as the League of Venice. After Ferdinand of Aragon had recovered Naples, with the help of his Spanish relatives with whom he had sought asylum in Sicily, the army of the League followed Charles's retreat northwards through Rome, abandoned to the French by Pope Alexander VI on 27 May 1495.
The speed of the French advance, together with the brutality of their sack of Mordano, left the other states of Italy in shock. Ludovico Sforza, realizing that Charles had a claim to Milan as well as Naples, would not be satisfied by the annexation of Naples alone, turned to Pope Alexander VI, embroiled in a power game of his own with France and various Italian states over his attempts to secure secular fiefdoms for his children; the Pope formed an alliance of several opponents of French hegemony in Italy: himself. This alliance was known as the Holy League of 1495, or as the League of Venice, was proclaimed on 31 March 1495. England joined the League of Venice in 1496; the League was the first of its kind. The League gathered an army under Marquess of Mantua. Including most of the city-states of northern Italy, the League of Venice threatened to shut off King Charles's land route by which to return to France. Charles VIII, not wanting to be trapped in Naples, marched north to Lombardy on 20 May 1495.
There he met the League in the Battle of Fornovo, 6 July 1495. When the battle was over both sides claimed victory. Yet, despite their numerical superiority in the battle, the League army took twice as many casualties as the French. However, Charles did march his army across the territories of his enemies on his way to France and the army of the League could not stop him, but he lost nearly all of the spoils from his campaign in Italy. Thus, the battle of Fornovo was a French pyrrhic victory. Charles VIII died in April 1498, before he could return to Italy. During this war an outbreak of syphilis occurred among the French troops; this outbreak was the first documented outbreak of the disease in human history, led to the Columbian theory of the origin of syphilis. Pastor, Ludwig von; the History of the Popes, from the close of the Middle Ages, third edition, Volume V Saint Louis: B. Herder 1902. Chartles VIII's Italian War
German Campaign of 1813
The German Campaign was fought in 1813. Members of the Sixth Coalition fought a series of battles in Germany against the French Emperor Napoleon and his Marshals, which liberated the German states from the domination of the First French Empire. After the devastating defeat of Napoleon's Grande Armée in the Russian Campaign of 1812, Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg – the general in command of the Grande Armée's German auxiliaries – declared a ceasefire with the Russians on 30 December 1812 via the Convention of Tauroggen; this was the decisive factor in the outbreak of the German Campaign the following year. The Spring Campaign between members of the Sixth Coalition and the First French Empire ended inconclusively with a summer truce. Via the Trachenberg Plan, developed during a period of ceasefire in the summer of 1813, the ministers of Prussia and Sweden agreed to pursue a single allied strategy against Napoleon. In the following Autumn Campaign, Austria sided with the coalition, thwarting Napoleon's hopes of reaching a separate agreement with the major powers Austria and Russia.
The Coalition allies now had a clear numerical superiority, which they brought to bear on Napoleon's main forces, despite earlier setbacks as in the Battle of Dresden. The high point of allied strategy was the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, which ended in Napoleon's decisive defeat; the Confederation of the Rhine, an alliance of west German rulers allied to France, had lost battles against the Coalition allies in Bavaria and Saxony and after the defeat at Leipzig dissolved. This broke Napoleon's power to the east of the river Rhine. After a delay—while a new strategy was agreed among the Sixth Coalition powers—in early 1814 the eastern Coalition invaded France, coinciding with the Duke of Wellington's march up through southern France. Napoleon was forced to abdicate and Louis XVIII regained the French Throne; the war came to a formal end with the Treaty of Paris in May 1814. Since 1806 writers and intellectuals such as Johann Philipp Palm, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Ernst Moritz Arndt, Friedrich Ludwig Jahn and Theodor Körner had been criticising the Napoleonic occupation of Germany.
They advocated limitations to the dynastic princes of Germany and a joint effort by all Germans to eject the French. From 1810 Arndt and Jahn asked high-ranking figures in Prussian society again and again to prepare such an uprising. Jahn himself organised the German League and made a major contribution to the founding of the Lützow Free Corps; these forerunners took part in the outbreak of hostilities in Germany, both by serving in the armed forces and by backing the Coalition forces through their writings. Before the German Campaign, there had been uprisings against the French troops occupying Germany – these had broken out from 1806 onwards in Hesse and in 1809 in the Tyrolean Rebellion; these uprisings intensified in the same year under Wilhelm von Dörnberg, the initiator and commander-in-chief of the Hessian uprising, Major Ferdinand von Schill. After the devastating defeat of Napoleon's Grande Armée in Russia in 1812, Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg – the general in command of the Grande Armée's German auxiliaries – declared a ceasefire with the Russians on 30 December 1812 via the Convention of Tauroggen.
This was the decisive factor in the outbreak of the German Campaign the following year. On 17 March 1813 – the day Alexander I of Russia arrived in the Hoflager of Frederick William III of Prussia – Prussia declared war on France. On 20 March 1813 the Schlesische privilegierte Zeitung newspaper published Frederick's speech entitled An Mein Volk, delivered on 17 March and calling for a war of liberation. In addition to newly formed Prussian units such as the Landwehr and Landsturm, the initial fighting was undertaken by volunteers such as German volunteer troops and Jäger and Free Corps and the soldiers of Russia and Sweden under Crown Prince Charles John and Austria under field marshal Schwarzenberg. Busy with maintaining naval supremacy and fighting the Peninsular War, Great Britain did not take any direct part in the German campaign, though it sent subsidies to support it; the Convention of Tauroggen became the starting-point of Prussia's regeneration. As the news of the destruction of the Grande Armée spread, the appearance of countless stragglers convinced the Prussian people of the reality of the disaster, the spirit generated by years of French domination burst out.
For the moment the king and his ministers were placed in a position of the greatest anxiety, for they knew the resources of France and the boundless versatility of their arch-enemy far too well to imagine that the end of their sufferings was yet in sight. To disavow the acts and desires of the army and of the secret societies for defence with which all north Germany was honeycombed would be to imperil the existence of the monarchy, whilst an attack on the wreck of the Grand Army meant the certainty of a terrible retribution from the new armies now forming on the Rhine, but the Russians and the soldiers were resolved to continue the campaign, working in collusion they put pressure on the not unwilling representatives of the civil power to facilitate the supply and equipment of such troops as were still in the field. Thus it happened that the viceroy of Italy felt himself compelled to depart from the positive injunctions of Napoleon to hold on at all costs to
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Laval Nugent von Westmeath
Laval Graf Nugent von Westmeath was a soldier of Irish birth, who fought in the armies of Austria and the Two Sicilies. Born at Ballynacor, Nugent was the son of Count Michael Anton Nugent von Westmeath, Governor of Prague. In 1793, he joined the Austrian Army, becoming Colonel in 1807, Chief of Staff of the Army corps of Archduke Johann of Austria in 1809. In 1813, he led the campaign against Viceroy Eugène de Beauharnais, separating French units in Dalmatia and joining the English fleet, thus liberating Croatia and the Po valley. In 1815, during the Neapolitan War, he commanded the right wing of the Austrian Army in Italy, liberated Rome, defeated Joachim Murat at the Battle of Ceprano and the Battle of San Germano. In 1816, Nugent was given the title of prince by Pope Pius VII. In 1817, he entered the service of King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, he married Countess Giovannina Riario-Sforza who owned property in the small town of Montepeloso, in Basilicata. After the outbreak of the Carbonari rebellion in 1820, he returned to serve in the Austrian Army.
In 1848, he led an Army Corps under Joseph Radetzky von Radetz against the Piedmontese, in the course of the First Italian War of Independence, against the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. He received the title of Field Marshal in 1849. Nugent died on 22 August 1862 in the Bosiljevo Castle, near Karlovac, his body was transferred to a sarcophagus in the Doric temple "Peace for the Hero", in Trsat above Rijeka, next to the sarcophagus of his wife. Irish military diaspora Irish regiments Laval, Graf Nugent von Westmeath. In Meyers Konversations-Lexikon. 5. Auflage, 1896. Nugent, Laval Graf von. In ADB. Band 24. Duncker & Humblodt, Leipzig 1875-1912. Online: Nugent-Westmeath, Laval Graf. In Constantin von Wurzbach, Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich. 20. Band. Wien 1869. Online
The Austrian Empire was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1867, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs. During its existence, it was the third most populous empire after the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom in Europe. Along with Prussia, it was one of the two major powers of the German Confederation. Geographically, it was the third largest empire in Europe after the Russian Empire and the First French Empire. Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire until the latter's dissolution in 1806; the Kingdom of Hungary – as Regnum Independens – was administered by its own institutions separately from the rest of the empire. After Austria was defeated in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 was adopted, joining together the Kingdom of Hungary and the Empire of Austria to form Austria-Hungary; the power of nationalism to create new states was irresistible in the 19th century, the process could lead to collapse in the absence of a strong nationalism.
The Austrian Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities and languages that served as the bases for separatist nationalism, it had a large army with good forts. Its naval resources were so minimal, it typified by Metternich. They employed a grand strategy for survival that balanced out different forces, set up buffer zones, kept the Habsburg empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War; the Empire overnight disintegrated into multiple states based on nationalism. Changes shaping the nature of the Holy Roman Empire took place during conferences in Rastatt and Regensburg. On 24 March 1803, the Imperial Recess was declared, which reduced the number of ecclesiastical states from 81 to only 3 and the free imperial cities from 51 to 6; this measure was aimed at replacing the old constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, but the actual consequence of the Imperial Recess was the end of the empire.
Taking this significant change into consideration, the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II created the title Emperor of Austria, for himself and his successors. In 1804, the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, ruler of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, founded the Empire of Austria, in which all his lands were included. In doing so he created a formal overarching structure for the Habsburg Monarchy, which had functioned as a composite monarchy for about three hundred years, he did so because he foresaw either the end of the Holy Roman Empire, or the eventual accession as Holy Roman Emperor of Napoleon, who had earlier that year adopted the title of an Emperor of the French. To safeguard his dynasty's imperial status he adopted the additional hereditary title of Emperor of Austria. Apart from now being included in a new "Kaiserthum", the workings of the overarching structure and the status of its component lands at first stayed much the same as they had been under the composite monarchy that existed before 1804.
This was demonstrated by the status of the Kingdom of Hungary, a country that had never been a part of the Holy Roman Empire and which had always been considered a separate realm—a status, affirmed by Article X, added to Hungary's constitution in 1790 during the phase of the composite monarchy and described the state as a Regnum Independens. Hungary's affairs remained administered by its own institutions, thus no Imperial institutions were involved in its government. The fall and dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire was accelerated by French intervention in the Empire in September 1805. On 20 October 1805, an Austrian army led by General Karl Mack von Leiberich was defeated by French armies near the town of Ulm; the French victory resulted in the capture of many cannons. Napoleon's army won another victory at Austerlitz on 2 December 1805. Francis was forced into negotiations with the French from 4 to 6 December 1805, which concluded with an armistice on 6 December 1805; the French victories encouraged rulers of certain imperial territories to ally themselves with the French and assert their formal independence from the Empire.
On 10 December 1805, Maximilian IV Joseph, the prince-elector and Duke of Bavaria, proclaimed himself King, followed by the Duke of Württemberg Frederick III on 11 December. Charles Frederick, Margrave of Baden, was given the title of Grand Duke on 12 December; each of these new states became French allies. The Treaty of Pressburg between France and Austria, signed in Pressburg on 26 December, enlarged the territory of Napoleon's German allies at the expense of defeated Austria. Francis II agreed to the humiliating Treaty of Pressburg, which in practice meant the dissolution of the long-lived Holy Roman Empire and a reorganization under a Napoleonic imprint of the German territories lost in the process into a precursor state of what became modern Germany, those possessions nominally having been part of the Holy Roman Empire within the present boundaries of Germany, as well as other measures weakening Austria and the Habsburgs in other ways. Certain Austrian holdings in