The H. J. Heinz Company, better known as Heinz, is an American food processing company based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the company was founded by Henry John Heinz in 1869. Heinz manufactures thousands of food products in plants on six continents, markets these products in more than 200 countries and territories; the company claims to have 150 number-two brands worldwide. Heinz ranked first in ketchup in the US with a market share in excess of 50%. Since 1896, the company has used its "57 Varieties" slogan. In February 2013, Heinz agreed to be purchased by Berkshire Hathaway and the Brazilian 3G Capital for $23 billion. On March 25, 2015, Kraft announced its merger with Heinz, arranged by Berkshire Hathaway and 3G Capital; the resulting Kraft Heinz Company is the fifth largest food company in the world. Berkshire Hathaway became a majority owner of Heinz on June 18, 2015. After exercising a warrant to acquire 46 million shares of common stock for a total price of over $461 million, Berkshire increased its stake to 52.5%.
The companies completed the merger on July 2, 2015. Heinz was founded by and is named for Henry J. Heinz, born in the United States to German immigrants, his father was from Kallstadt, the son of a Heinz and Charlotte Louisa Trump, a great-great-aunt of 45th United States president, Donald Trump. His mother Anna was from Bavaria, they met in Pittsburgh. Henry J. Heinz began packing foodstuffs on a small scale at Sharpsburg, Pennsylvania, in 1869. There he founded Heinz Noble & Company with a friend, L. Clarence Noble, began marketing horseradish; the first product in Heinz and Noble's new Anchor Brand was his mother Anna Heinz's recipe for horseradish. The young Heinz manufactured it in the basement of his father's former house; the company went bankrupt in 1875. The following year Heinz founded another company, F & J Heinz, with his brother John Heinz and a cousin, Frederick Heinz. One of this company's first products was Heinz Tomato Ketchup; the company continued to grow. In 1888, Heinz reorganized the company as the H. J. Heinz Company.
Its slogan, "57 varieties", was introduced by Heinz in 1896. Inspired by an advertisement he saw while riding an elevated train in New York City, Heinz picked the number more or less at random because he liked the sound of it, selecting "7" because, as he put it, of the "psychological influence of that figure and of its enduring significance to people of all ages." In 1905, H. J. Heinz was incorporated, Heinz served as its first president, holding that position for the rest of his life. Under his leadership, the company pioneered processes for sanitary food preparation, led a successful lobbying effort in favor of the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906. In 1908 he established a processing plant in Leamington, Canada for tomatoes and other products. Heinz operated it until 2014. Heinz was a pioneer in both scientific and "technological innovations to solve problems like bacterial contamination." He worked to control the "purity of his products by managing his employees", offering hot showers and weekly manicures for the women handling food.
During World War I, he worked with the Food Administration. In 1914, Heinz Salad Cream was invented in England. In 1930, Howard Heinz, son of Henry Heinz, helped to fight the downturn of the Great Depression by selling ready-to-serve quality soups and baby food, they became top sellers. During World War II, "Jack" Heinz led the company as president and CEO to aid the United Kingdom and offset food shortages, its plant in Pittsburgh was converted for a time to manufacture gliders for the War Department. In the postwar years, Jack Heinz expanded the company to develop plants in several nations overseas expanding its international presence, he acquired Ore-Ida and Starkist Tuna. In 1959, long-time Heinz employee Frank Armour Jr. was elected president and COO of H. J. Heinz Co. succeeding H. J. Heinz II, he was the first non-family member to hold the job since the company started in 1869. He became vice chairman in 1966, became chairman and CEO of Heinz subsidiary, Ore-Ida Foods Inc. In 1969, Tony O'Reilly joined the company's UK subsidiary.
He moved to Pittsburgh in 1971 when he was promoted to Senior Vice President for the North America and Pacific region. By 1973, board members Robert Burt Gookin and Jack Heinz selected him as President, he became CEO in 1979 and chairman in 1987. Between 1981 and 1991, Heinz returned 28% annually, doubling the Standard & Poor's average annual return for those years. By 2000, the consolidation of grocery store chains, the spread of retailers such as Walmart, growth of private-label brands caused competition for shelf space, put price pressure on the company's products; the decline was attributed to an inadequate response to broad demographic changes in the United States the growth in population among Hispanic and increased spending power of African Americans. On April 4, 1991, former U. S. Senator Henry John Heinz III, the third-generation successor to the Heinz fortune, six other people were killed when a Bell 412 helicopter and a Piper Aerostar with Heinz aboard collided in mid-air above Merion Elementary School in Lower Merion Township, Pennsylvania.
His fortune passed to Teresa Heinz. In 1998, Tony O'Reilly left Heinz after issues with the company
Antonio Latini was a steward of Cardinal Antonio Barberini, cardinal-nephew of Pope Urban VIII in Rome and subsequently to Don Stefano Carillo Salcedo, first minister to the Spanish viceroy of Naples. Born in Collamato, now a frazione of the town of Fabriano, in the province of Ancona, his cookbook, Lo scalco alla moderna "the Modern Steward", contains in its first volume the earliest surviving recipes for tomato sauce, though he did not suggest serving it over pasta. One of his tomato recipes is for sauce alla spagnuola, "in the Spanish style". In his second volume Latini gives early recipes for sorbetti. Latini had gone to Rome at the age of sixteen, worked his way up in the familia or household of Cardinal Barberini. By turns assistant cook and wardrobe attendant, he learned the theatrical carving skills expected of a maître d'hôtel and swordsmanship as well. Mastering the arts of successively important stewardship positions, he was made a Roman conte, a "Knight of the Golden Spur" for his service.
After working in Rome and at courts in Macerata and Faenza, Latini went to serve as scalco, or household steward, to Carillo Salcedo in 1682. In Naples Latini cast his net for the best products of the Kingdom of Naples for Don Stefano's table. In Lo scalco moderna a brief description of the Regno listed fruits and local specialties in melons and game and olives, vegetables and salads of "rare quality", drawn from Latini's professional experience from 25 locales, none of them as far afield as Sicily, in fact within a days journey of Naples: Poggio Reale, colline di Posillipo, Procida, Capri, Vico, Castell'a mare di Stabbia, Torre del Greco, Monte di Somma, Nola, Cardito, Acerra, Capua, Venafro, Isola di Sora. Latini's manuscript autobiography, not included in Lo scalco moderna, brings his personal career to light by sharing details of a kitchen career that had hitherto been unheard-of when they were first described in print by French gastronomist Marie-Antoine Carême. A transcription, made in 1690 was discovered in the city library of Fabriano and published by Furio Liccichenti
Spatini spaghetti sauce is an American tomato sauce mix with a flavor profile built upon oregano, pepper, onion and other natural flavors. The sauce mix was manufactured and distributed by Spatini Co. subsequently by Unilever and its subsidiary Lipton, at present by Lawry's. Spatini spaghetti sauce mix was developed and marketed by Russell G. Lakoff and Harry Seidman of Overbrook Hills, who registered their business in Philadelphia as Spatini Co. on September 4, 1952, selling the dry powdered mix packaged in boxes of three packets. Early packages of Spatini spaghetti sauce mix state that the Spatini Company was based in Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey; the Spatini Co. manufactured a brown gravy mix, sold under the Spatini brand. In 1962, Spatini spaghetti sauce added a version with tomatoes included. Lipton, a subsidiary of Unilever, purchased Spatini Co. in the early 1970s, took over the manufacture and marketing of Spatini spaghetti sauce mix. Unilever shifted Spatini spaghetti sauce mix from Lipton to its subsidiary Lawry's line in the mid-1980s, Lawry's continued to promote and sell Spatini spaghetti sauce mix for home consumers, as new recipes using the mix were introduced for commercial users.
Retail manufacturing of Spatini spaghetti sauce mix for home consumers ended in January 2007, but it continues to be manufactured and distributed commercially for restaurant and institutional use by Lawry's, sold by Unilever to McCormick & Company in 2008. In 2017, the listed ingredients for Spatini spaghetti sauce include salt, onion, potato starch, corn maltodextrin, beet, yeast extract, guar gum, carrot. In the 1980s, Spatini spaghetti sauce listed ingredients as sugar, dehydrated onion, potato starch, natural flavors, garlic powder, beet powder, autolyzed yeast extract, guar gum; the ingredients in earlier versions of Spatini spaghetti sauce were listed as sugar, dehydrated onions, potato starch and herbs, artificial color, egg white powder, monosodium glutamate, natural flavor, vegetable gum. The commercial version of Spatini spaghetti sauce mix lists a serving size of two teaspoons or six grams, which seasons a half cup when prepared. One serving contains 20 calories, 620 milligrams of sodium, 2 grams of sugars, 4 grams of carbohydrates, with no fat, cholesterol, or fiber.
Spatini spaghetti sauce began to emphasize television advertising in 1964, when the company shifted its advertising agency from Weightman, Inc. to Firestone-Rosen, Inc. Because Firestone-Rosen had conflicting assignments from the Ronzoni company, Spatini moved its account to Ron Bloomberg Advertising in 1969, after which Spatini was advertised on broadcast media by singing the words "Spatini spaghetti sauce" to the tune of "La donna è mobile" from the opera Rigoletto. Lawry's Spaghetti Sauce, product page on manufacturer's website spatini.info, a current source for Spatini sauce
Elizabeth David, CBE was a British cookery writer. In the mid-20th century she influenced the revitalisation of home cookery in her native country and beyond with articles and books about European cuisines and traditional British dishes. Born to an upper-class family, David rebelled against social norms of the day. In the 1930s she studied art in Paris, became an actress, ran off with a married man with whom she sailed in a small boat to Italy, where their boat was confiscated, they reached Greece, where they were nearly trapped by the German invasion in 1941, but escaped to Egypt, where they parted. She worked for the British government, running a library in Cairo. While there she married, but she and her husband subsequently divorced. In 1946 David returned to England, where food rationing imposed during the Second World War remained in force. Dismayed by the contrast between the bad food served in Britain and the simple, excellent food to which she had become accustomed in France and Egypt, she began to write magazine articles about Mediterranean cooking.
They attracted favourable attention, in 1950, at the age of 36, she published A Book of Mediterranean Food. Her recipes called for ingredients such as aubergines, figs, olive oil and saffron, which at the time were scarcely available in Britain. Books on French and English cuisine followed. By the 1960s David was a major influence on British cooking, she was hostile to anything second-rate, to over-elaborate cooking and bogus substitutes for classic dishes and ingredients. In 1965 she opened a shop selling kitchen equipment, which continued to trade under her name after she left it in 1973. David's reputation rests on her books, which have been continually reprinted. Between 1950 and 1984 she published eight books. David's influence on British cooking extended to professional as well as domestic cooks, chefs and restaurateurs of generations such as Terence Conran, Simon Hopkinson, Prue Leith, Jamie Oliver, Tom Parker Bowles and Rick Stein have acknowledged her importance to them. In the US, cooks and writers including Julia Child, Richard Olney and Alice Waters have written of her influence.
David was born Elizabeth Gwynne, the second of four children, all daughters, of Rupert Sackville Gwynne and his wife, the Hon Stella Gwynne, daughter of the 1st Viscount Ridley. Both parents' families had considerable fortunes, the Gwynnes from engineering and land speculation and the Ridleys from coal mining. Through the two families, David was of English and Welsh or Irish descent and, through an ancestor on her father's side Dutch and Sumatran, she and her sisters grew up at Wootton Manor in Sussex, a seventeenth-century manor house with extensive, early twentieth-century additions by Detmar Blow. Her father, despite having a weak heart, insisted on pursuing a demanding political career, becoming Conservative MP for Eastbourne, a junior minister in Bonar Law's government. Overwork, combined with his vigorous recreational pastimes, chiefly racing and womanising, brought about his death in 1924, aged 51; the widowed Stella Gwynne was a dutiful mother, but her relations with her daughters were distant rather than affectionate.
Elizabeth and her sisters, Priscilla and Felicité were sent away to boarding schools. Having been a pupil at Godstowe preparatory school in High Wycombe, Elizabeth was sent to St Clare's Private School for Ladies, Tunbridge Wells, which she left at the age of sixteen; the girls grew up knowing nothing of cooking, which in upper-class households of the time was the exclusive province of the family's cook and her kitchen staff. As a teenager David enjoyed painting, her mother thought her talent worth developing. In 1930 she was sent to Paris, where she studied painting and enrolled at the Sorbonne for a course in French civilisation which covered history and architecture, she found her Sorbonne studies arduous and in many ways uninspiring, but they left her with a love of French literature and a fluency in the language that remained with her throughout her life. She lodged with a Parisian family, whose fanatical devotion to the pleasures of the table she portrayed to comic effect in her French Provincial Cooking.
She acknowledged in retrospect that the experience had been the most valuable part of her time in Paris: "I realized in what way the family had fulfilled their task of instilling French culture into at least one of their British charges. Forgotten were the Sorbonne professors.... What had stuck was the taste for a kind of food quite ideally unlike anything I had known before." Stella Gwynne was not eager for her daughter's early return to England after qualifying for her Sorbonne diploma, sent her from Paris to Munich in 1931 to study German. After returning to England in 1932 David unenthusiastically went through the social rituals for upper-class young women of presentation at court as a débutante and the associated balls; the respectable young Englishmen she met at the latter did not appeal to her. David's biographer Lisa Chaney comments that with her "delicately smouldering looks and her shyness shielded by a steely coolness and barbed tongue" she would have been a daunting prospect for the young upper-class men she encountered.
David decided that she was not good enough as a painter and, to her mother's displeasure, became an actress. She joined J. B. Fagan's company at the Oxford Playhouse in 1933, her fellow performers included Joan Hickson, who decades recalled having to show her new colleague how to make a cup of tea, so unaware of the kitche
In cooking, a sauce is a liquid, cream, or semi-solid food, served on or used in preparing other foods. Most sauces are not consumed by themselves. Sauce is a French word taken from the Latin salsa, meaning salted; the oldest recorded European sauce is garum, the fish sauce used by the Ancient Greeks. Sauces need a liquid component. Sauces are an essential element in cuisines all over the world. Sauces may be used for savory dishes, they may be prepared and served cold, like mayonnaise, prepared cold but served lukewarm like pesto and served warm like bechamel or cooked and served cold like apple sauce. They may be freshly prepared by the cook in restaurants, but today many sauces are sold premade and packaged like Worcestershire sauce, HP Sauce, soy sauce or ketchup. Sauces for salad are called salad dressing. Sauces made by deglazing a pan are called pan sauces. A chef who specializes in making sauces is called a saucier. Sauces used in traditional Japanese cuisine are based on shōyu, miso or dashi.
Ponzu, citrus-flavored soy sauce, yakitori no tare, sweetened rich soy sauce, are examples of shōyu-based sauces. Miso-based sauces include gomamiso, miso with ground sesame, amamiso, sweetened miso. In modern Japanese cuisine, the word "sauce" refers to Worcestershire sauce, introduced in the 19th century and modified to suit Japanese tastes. Tonkatsu and yakisoba sauces are based on this sauce. Japanese sauce or wasabi sauce is used on sushi and sashimi or mixed with soy sauce to make wasabi-joyu; some sauces in Chinese cuisine are soy sauce, hoisin sauce, sweet bean sauce, chili sauces, oyster sauce, sweet and sour sauce. Korean cuisine uses sauces such as doenjang, samjang and soy sauce. Southeast Asian cuisines, such as Thai and Vietnamese cuisine use fish sauce, made from fermented fish. Indian cuisines use sauces such as tomato-based sauces with varying spice combinations, tamarind sauce, coconut milk-/paste-based sauces, chutneys. There are substantial regional variations in Indian cuisine, but many sauces use a seasoned mix of onion and garlic paste as the base of various gravies and sauces.
Various cooking oils, ghee and/or cream are regular ingredients in Indian sauces. Filipino cuisine uses "toyomansi" as well as different varieties of suka, patis and banana ketchup, among others. Indonesian cuisine uses typical sauces such as kecap manis, bumbu kacang and tauco, while popular hot and spicy sauces are sambal, dabu-dabu and rica-rica. In traditional British cuisine, gravy is a sauce used on roast dinner; the sole survivor of the medieval bread-thickened sauces, bread sauce is one of the oldest sauces in British cooking. Apple sauce, mint sauce and horseradish sauce are used on meat. Redcurrant jelly, mint jelly, white sauce may be used. Salad cream is sometimes used on salads. Ketchup and brown sauce are used on fast-food type dishes. Strong English mustard is used on various foods, as is Worcestershire sauce. Custard is a popular dessert sauce. Other popular sauces include mushroom sauce, marie rose sauce, whisky sauce, Albert sauce and cheddar sauce. In contemporary British cuisine, owing to the wide diversity of British society today, there are many sauces that are of British origin but based upon the cuisine of other countries former colonies such as India.
Sauces in French cuisine date back to the Middle Ages. There were many hundreds of sauces in the culinary repertoire. In cuisine classique, sauces were a major defining characteristic of French cuisine. In the early 19th century, the chef Marie-Antoine Carême created an extensive list of sauces, many of which were original recipes, it is unknown how many sauces Carême is responsible for. The cream sauce, in its most popular form around the world, was concurrently created by another chef, Dennis Leblanc, working in the same kitchen as Carême. Carême considered the four grandes sauces to be espagnole, velouté, béchamel, from which a large variety of petites sauces could be composed. In the early 20th century, the chef Auguste Escoffier refined Carême's list of basic sauces in the four editions of his classic Le Guide Culinaire and its abridged English translation A Guide to Modern Cookery, he dropped allemande as he considered it a variation of velouté, added hollandaise and sauce tomate, defining the five fundamental "mother sauces" still used today: Sauce béchamel, milk-based sauce, thickened with a white roux Sauce espagnole, a fortified brown veal stock sauce, thickened with a brown roux Sauce velouté, light stock-based sauce, thickened with a roux or a liaison, a mixture of egg yolks and cream Sauce hollandaise, an emulsion of egg yolk and lemon Sauce tomate, tomato-basedA sauce, derived from one of the mother sauces by augmenting with additional ingredients is sometimes called a "daughter sauce" or "secondary sauce".
Most sauces used in classical cuisine are daughter sauces. For example, béchamel can be made into Mornay by the addition of grated cheese, espag
Tomato sauce can refer to a large number of different sauces made from tomatoes to be served as part of a dish, rather than as a condiment. Tomato sauces are common for meat and vegetables, but they are best known as bases for Mexican salsas or sauces for pasta dishes. Tomatoes have a rich flavor, high water content, soft flesh which breaks down and the right composition to thicken into a sauce when they are cooked. All of these qualities make them ideal for appealing sauces. In countries such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, South Africa, the term tomato sauce is used to describe a condiment similar to ketchup. In some of these countries, both terms are used for the condiment; the use of tomato sauce with pasta appears for the first time in 1790 in the Italian cookbook L'Apicio moderno, by Roman chef Francesco Leonardi. The simplest tomato sauce consists just of chopped tomatoes cooked down and simmered until it loses its raw flavor. Of course, it may be seasoned with other herbs or spices.
Optionally, tomato skins may be scalded and peeled according to texture and tomato seeds may be removed for aesthetic purposes, leaving just the tomato flesh and pulp. Just like tomato puree or tomato paste, tomato sauce may be one of the ingredients in other dishes, like a tomato-based soup; the sauce is thinner than either the puree, or the paste, it may have additional flavors. Water is sometimes added to keep it from drying out too much. Onion and garlic are always sweated or sautéed at the beginning before the tomato is added, or puréed together with tomatoes and cooked together. Other seasonings include dried mild chili peppers, basil, oregano and black pepper. Ground or chopped meat is common. Tomato sauce was an ancient condiment in Mesoamerican food; the first western person to write of what may have been a tomato sauce was Bernardino de Sahagún, a Franciscan friar, who made note of a prepared sauce, offered for sale in the markets of Tenochtitlan. Of this he wrote, They sell some stews made of peppers and tomatoes — put in them peppers, pumpkin seeds, green peppers and fat tomatoes and other things that make tasty stews.
Spaniards brought the use of tomatoes to Europe. Basic Mexican tomato sauce was traditionally prepared with a molcajete to puree the tomatoes. Food, cooked in tomato sauce is known as entomatada. Tomato sauce is stock for spicy sauces and moles; the misconception that the tomato has been central to Italian cuisine since its introduction from the Americas is repeated. Though the tomato was introduced from the Spanish New World to European botanists in the 16th century, tomato sauce made a late entry in Italian cuisine: in Antonio Latini's cookbook Lo scalco alla moderna. Latini was chef to the Spanish viceroy of Naples, one of his tomato recipes is for sauce alla spagnuola, "in the Spanish style"; the first known use of tomato sauce with pasta appears in the Italian cookbook L'Apicio moderno, by Roman chef Francesco Leonardi, edited in 1790. Italian varieties of tomato sauce range from the simple pasta al pomodoro to the piquant puttanesca and arrabbiata sauces. Tomato sauce with pasta can stand on its own or it can be paired with ingredients such as Italian sausage, bacon cubes, meatballs or vegetables, for a more lively pasta dish.
Tomato-garlic sauce is prepared using tomatoes as a main ingredient, is used in various cuisines and dishes. In Italian cuisine, alla pizzaiola refers to tomato-garlic sauce, used on pizza and meats. Sauce tomate is one of the five mother sauces of classical French cooking, as codified by Auguste Escoffier in the early 20th century, it consists of salt belly of pork, bay leaves, tomato purée or fresh tomatoes, garlic, salt and pepper. Many times and flour will be listed in the ingredients, but those are only used to make the roux; the most common use of the term tomato sauce in New Zealand and South Africa is to describe a popular, commercially produced condiment, a type of table sauce, similar to American ketchup but without vinegar, applied to foods such as meat pies, other cooked meat, fish and chips. Tomato-based sauces served with pasta would be referred to as "pasta sauce" or "Napoletana sauce"; the meaning of the term "tomato sauce" depends on the context. In Australia "tomato sauce" refers to the same style of Table Sauce as American ketchup but varies in mixture and doesn't contain onions.
Some sources claim that Australian tomato sauce has less tomato than ketchup, but this varies between brands and is not a universal feature. Australian tomato sauce is used in the same way as American ketchup. "Tomato sauce" may be used in its generic English meaning of a sauce based on tomatoes, as in a menu item "Gnocchi in a tomato sauce" where it would be understood that the sauce would be of the kind used in Italian cooking for pastas. In the U. S. "tomato sauce" refers to two distinct sauces. One is a tomato concentrate with salt and minimal herbs, used in cooking; this product is c
The carrot is a root vegetable orange in colour, though purple, red and yellow cultivars exist. Carrots are a domesticated form of the wild carrot, Daucus carota, native to Europe and southwestern Asia; the plant originated in Persia and was cultivated for its leaves and seeds. The most eaten part of the plant is the taproot, although the stems and leaves are eaten as well; the domestic carrot has been selectively bred for its enlarged, more palatable, less woody-textured taproot. The carrot is a biennial plant in the umbellifer family Apiaceae. At first, it grows a rosette of leaves while building up the enlarged taproot. Fast-growing cultivars mature within three months of sowing the seed, while slower-maturing cultivars need a month longer; the roots contain high quantities of alpha- and beta-carotene, are a good source of vitamin K and vitamin B6, but the belief that eating carrots improves night vision is a myth put forward by the British in World War II to mislead the enemy about their military capabilities.
The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization reports that world production of carrots and turnips for the calendar year 2013 was 37.2 million tonnes. Carrots are used in many cuisines in the preparation of salads, carrot salads are a tradition in many regional cuisines; the word is first recorded in English circa 1530 and was borrowed from Middle French carotte, itself from Late Latin carōta, from Greek καρωτόν or karōton from the Indo-European root *ker-, due to its horn-like shape. In Old English, carrots were not distinguished from parsnips: the two were collectively called moru or more. Various languages still use the same word for "carrot" as they do for "root". Both written history and molecular genetic studies indicate that the domestic carrot has a single origin in Central Asia, its wild ancestors originated in Persia, which remains the centre of diversity for the wild carrot Daucus carota. A occurring subspecies of the wild carrot was bred selectively over the centuries to reduce bitterness, increase sweetness and minimise the woody core.
When they were first cultivated, carrots were grown for their aromatic leaves and seeds rather than their roots. Carrot seeds have been found in Switzerland and Southern Germany dating back to 2000–3000 BC; some close relatives of the carrot are still grown for their leaves and seeds, such as parsley, coriander, anise and cumin. The first mention of the root in classical sources is from the 1st century AD; the plant is depicted and described in the Eastern Roman Juliana Anicia Codex, a 6th-century AD Constantinopolitan copy of the Greek physician Dioscorides' 1st-century pharmacopoeia of herbs and medicines, De Materia Medica. Three different types of carrots are depicted, the text states that "the root can be cooked and eaten"; the plant was introduced into Spain by the Moors in the 8th century. In the 10th century, roots from West Asia and Europe were purple; the modern carrot originated in Afghanistan at about this time. The 11th-century Jewish scholar Simeon Seth describes both red and yellow carrots, as does the 12th-century Arab-Andalusian agriculturist, Ibn al-'Awwam.
Cultivated carrots appeared in China in the 14th century, in Japan in the 18th century. There are many claims that Dutch growers created orange carrots in the 17th century to honor the Dutch flag at the time. Other authorities argue. Modern carrots were described at about this time by the English antiquary John Aubrey: "Carrots were first sown at Beckington in Somersetshire; some old Man there did remember their first bringing hither." European settlers introduced the carrot to colonial America in the 17th century. Outwardly purple carrots, still orange on the inside, were sold in British stores beginning in 2002. Daucus carota is a biennial plant. In the first year, its rosette of leaves produces large amounts of sugars, which are stored in the taproot to provide energy for the plant to flower in the second year. Soon after germination, carrot seedlings show a distinct demarcation between taproot and stem: the stem is thicker and lacks lateral roots. At the upper end of the stem is the seed leaf.
The first true leaf appears about 10–15 days after germination. Subsequent leaves are alternate, spirally arranged, pinnately compound, with leaf bases sheathing the stem; as the plant grows, the bases of the seed leaves, near the taproot, are pushed apart. The stem, located just above the ground, is compressed and the internodes are not distinct; when the seed stalk elongates for flowering, the tip of the stem narrows and becomes pointed, the stem extends upward to become a branched inflorescence up to 60–200 cm tall. Most of the taproot consists of an inner core. High-quality carrots have a large proportion of cortex compared to core. Although a xylem-free carrot is not possible, some cultivars have small and pigmented cores. Taproots are long and conical, although cylindrical and nearly-spherical cultivars are available