Near-close front rounded vowel

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Near-close front rounded vowel
ʏ
IPA number 320
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʏ
Unicode (hex) U+028F
X-SAMPA Y
Kirshenbaum I.
Braille ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35) ⠽ (braille pattern dots-13456)
Listen

The near-close front rounded vowel, or near-high front rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is a near-close front-central rounded vowel.[2]

The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʏ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is Y.

Handbook of the International Phonetic Association defines [ʏ] as a mid-centralized (lowered and centralized) close front rounded vowel (transcribed [y̽] or [ÿ˕]), and the current official IPA name of the vowel transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʏ⟩ is near-close near-front rounded vowel.[3] However, acoustic analysis of cardinal vowels as produced by Daniel Jones and John C. Wells has shown that basically all cardinal front rounded vowels (so not just [y] but also [ø, œ, ɶ]) are near-front (or front-central) in their articulation, so [ʏ] may be just a lowered cardinal [y] ([y˕]), a vowel intermediate between cardinal [y] and cardinal [ø].[2] In many languages that contrast close, near-close and close-mid front rounded vowels there is no appreciable difference in backness between them.[4][5][6][7] In some transcriptions, this vowel is transcribed with ⟨y[8] or ⟨ø⟩.[9] When that is the case, this article transcribes it with the symbols ⟨⟩ (a lowered ⟨y⟩) and ⟨ø̝⟩ (a raised ⟨ø⟩), respectively.

In some languages however, ⟨ʏ⟩ is used to transcribed a vowel that is as low as close-mid, though it still fits the definition of a lowered and centralized (or just lowered) cardinal [y]. It occurs in some dialects of English (such as Estuary),[10] as well as some other languages (such as Weert Limburgish)[11] and it can be transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʏ̞⟩ (a lowered ⟨ʏ⟩) in narrow transcription. For the close-mid front rounded vowel that is not usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʏ⟩ (or ⟨y⟩), see close-mid front rounded vowel.

In most languages this rounded vowel is pronounced with compressed lips (in an exolabial manner). However, in a few cases the lips are protruded (in an endolabial manner), this is the case with Swedish, which contrasts the two types of rounding.

Near-close front compressed vowel[edit]

The near-close front compressed vowel is typically transcribed in IPA simply as ⟨ʏ⟩, and that is the convention used in this article. There is no dedicated diacritic for compression in the IPA. However, the compression of the lips can be shown with the letter ⟨β̞⟩ as ⟨ɪ͡β̞⟩ (simultaneous [ɪ] and labial compression) or ⟨ɪᵝ⟩ ([ɪ] modified with labial compression). The spread-lip diacritic ⟨  ͍ ⟩ may also be used with a rounded vowel letter ⟨ʏ͍⟩ as an ad hoc symbol, though technically 'spread' means unrounded.

The close-mid front compressed vowel can be transcribed ⟨ɪ̞͡β̞⟩, ⟨ɪ̞ᵝ⟩ or ⟨ʏ͍˕⟩.

Features[edit]

IPA: Vowels
Front Central Back

Paired vowels are: unrounded  rounded

  • Its vowel height is near-close, also known as near-high, which means the tongue is not quite so constricted as a close vowel (high vowel).
  • Its vowel backness is front, which means the tongue is positioned as far forward as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that rounded front vowels are often centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-front.
  • Its roundedness is compressed, which means that the margins of the lips are tense and drawn together in such a way that the inner surfaces are not exposed.

Occurrence[edit]

Note: Because front rounded vowels are assumed to have compression, and few descriptions cover the distinction, some of the following may actually have protrusion.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bavarian Northern[12] vill [v̥ʏl] 'much' Allophone of /i/ before /l/.[12]
Buwal[13] [ɗɛ́ɗʏ̄wɛ̄k] 'bitter' Palatalized allophone of /ə/ when adjacent to a labialized consonant.[13]
Chinese Shanghainese[14] / koe [kø̝¹] 'liver' Realization of /ø/ in open syllables and /ʏ/ in closed syllables. Near-close [ø̝] in the former case, close-mid [ʏ̞] in the latter.[14]
Danish Standard[15] købe [ˈkʰø̝ːb̥ə] 'buy' Also described as close-mid [øː].[16] See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard[17][18] hut [ɦʏ̞t] 'hut' Close-mid;[17][18] also described as central [ɵ].[19][20] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʏ⟩ or, more rarely, with ⟨ʉ⟩, ⟨ɵ⟩ or ⟨œ⟩. See Dutch phonology
Some dialects[21] [ɦʏt] Near-close; close-mid [ʏ̞ ~ ɵ] in Standard Dutch.[17][19][20][22] See Dutch phonology
English Estuary[23][24] foot [fʏʔt] 'foot' Possible realization of /ʊ/ and /uː/. In the former case, the height varies between near-close [ʏ] and close-mid [ʏ̞].[23][25]
Multicultural London[26] Possible realization of /ʊ/.[26]
Rural white Southern American[27] [fʏt̚] Can be central [ʊ̈] instead.[27]
West Country[28] [fʏt] Possible realization of /ʊ/ and /uː/.[28]
New Zealand[29][30] nurse [nʏːs] 'nurse' Possible realization of /ɵː/ (and also /ʉː/).[29][30][31] See New Zealand English phonology
Ulster[32] mule [mjʏl] 'mule' Short allophone of /u/; occurs only after /j/.[32] See English phonology
Faroese[33] krúss [kɹʏsː] 'mug' See Faroese phonology
French Parisian[34] tu [t̪y˕] 'fall' Also described as close [y];[35][36] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨y⟩. See French phonology
Quebec[37] lune [lʏn] 'moon' Allophone of /y/ in closed syllables.[37] See Quebec French phonology
German Standard[6][38] schützen [ˈʃʏt͡sn̩] 'protect' Described variously as near-close [ʏ][6] and close-mid [ʏ̞].[38] It may differ from /øː/ in almost nothing but length, though for some speakers, it may be as high as [y].[39] See Standard German phonology
Chemnitz dialect[40] dünn [t̪ʏn̪] 'thin' Used by some speakers in some cognates of Standard German words; contrasts with the central /ɵ/. Other speakers use an unrounded [ɪ].[40]
Some speakers[41] schwimmen [ʃvʏmː] 'to swim' Allophone of /ɪ/ before labial consonants. Used by some speakers in Northern and Central Germany.[41] See Standard German phonology
Some Swiss dialects[42][43] Vrǜnd [v̥rʏnd̥] 'friend' The example word is from the Bernese dialect.
Hungarian[4] üt About this sound [y˕t̪] 'to hit' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨y⟩. See Hungarian phonology
Icelandic[44] vinur [ˈʋɪ̞ːnʏ̞ɾ] 'friend' Close-mid;[44] also described as central [ɵ].[45] See Icelandic phonology
Kurdish d [dʏneː] 'yesterday' Allophone of /weː/ before consonant.
Limburgish Hamont dialect[46] bul [by˕l¹] 'a paper bag' May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨y⟩.[46]
Weert dialect[11] bluts [blʏ̞ts] 'bump' Close-mid.[11]
Low German[47] lütt / lut [lʏt] 'little'
Luxembourgish[48] blöd [blø̝ːt] 'stupid' Occurs only in loanwords.[48] See Luxembourgish phonology
Norwegian Urban East[49] gull [ɡʏlː] 'gold' The quality has been variously described as near-close near-front [ʏ],[49] near-close central [ʏ̈][50] and close central [ÿ],[51] whereas the type of rounding has been variously described as compressed[52][53] and protruded.[53][54] It may differ from /ʏ/ only by the type of rounding. Typically, it is transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʉ⟩. See Norwegian phonology
Ripuarian Kerkrade dialect[55] sjuts [ʃʏts] 'marksman'
Saterland Frisian[7] röögje [ˈʀø̝ːɡjə] 'to rain' Phonetic realization of /øː/ and /ʏ/. Near-close [ø̝ː] in the former case, close-mid [ʏ̞] in the latter. Phonetically, the latter is nearly identical to /œː/ ([øː]).[7]
Scots[56] buit [bʏt] 'boot' May be central [ʉ] instead.[56]
Swedish Central Standard[5][57] ut [ʏːt̪] 'out' Often realized as a sequence [ʏβ̞] or [ʏβ][58][59] (hear the word: About this sound [ʏβt̪]). The height has been variously described as near-close [ʏː][5][57] and close [].[60] It may differ from /ʏ/ only by the type of rounding and length. Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʉː⟩; it is central [ʉː] in other dialects. See Swedish phonology
Turkish[61] atasözü [ät̪äˈs̪ø̞z̪y˕] 'proverb' Allophone of /y/ described variously as "word-final"[61] and "occurring in final open syllable of a phrase".[62] See Turkish phonology
Wymysorys[63] büwa [ˈbʏvä] 'boys'

Near-close front protruded vowel[edit]

Near-close front protruded vowel
ʏ̫
ʏʷ
ɪʷ

Catford notes that most languages with rounded front and back vowels use distinct types of labialization, protruded back vowels and compressed front vowels. However, a few, such as Scandinavian languages, have protruded front vowels. One of them, Swedish, even contrasts the two types of rounding in front vowels as well as height and duration.[64]

As there are no diacritics in the IPA to distinguish protruded and compressed rounding, the old diacritic for labialization, ⟨◌̫⟩, will be used here as an ad hoc symbol for protruded front vowels. Another possible transcription is ⟨ʏʷ⟩ or ⟨ɪʷ⟩ (a near-close front vowel modified by endolabialization), but that could be misread as a diphthong.

The close-mid front protruded vowel can be transcribed ⟨ʏ̫˕⟩, ⟨ʏ̞ʷ⟩ or ⟨ɪ̞ʷ⟩.

For the close-mid front protruded vowel that is not usually transcribed with the symbol ⟨ʏ⟩ (or ⟨y⟩), see close-mid front protruded vowel.

Acoustically, this sound is "between" the more typical compressed near-close front vowel [ʏ] and the unrounded near-close front vowel [ɪ].

Features[edit]

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Norwegian Urban East[65][66] nytt [ny̫˕tː] 'new' May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨y⟩. See Norwegian phonology
Swedish Central Standard[5][57] ylle About this sound [²ʏ̫lːɛ̝] 'wool' The height has been variously described as close-mid [ʏ̫˕],[5] near-close [ʏ̫][57] and close [].[67] It may differ from /ʉː/ only by the type of rounding and length. See Swedish phonology

References[edit]

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ a b Geoff Lindsey (2013) The vowel space, Speech Talk
  3. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999), pp. 13, 171, 180.
  4. ^ a b Szende (1994), p. 92.
  5. ^ a b c d e Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  6. ^ a b c Lodge (2009), p. 87.
  7. ^ a b c Peters (2017), p. ?.
  8. ^ For example by Collins & Mees (2013:225), Szende (1994:92), Verhoeven (2007:221), and Vanvik (1979:13, 20).
  9. ^ For example by Chen & Gussenhoven (2015:328); Basbøll & Wagner (1985:40), cited in Basbøll (2005:48) and Peters (2017:?).
  10. ^ Altendorf & Watt (2004), pp. 188, 191.
  11. ^ a b c Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 110.
  12. ^ a b Rowley (1990), p. 422.
  13. ^ a b Viljoen (2013), p. 50.
  14. ^ a b Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), p. 328.
  15. ^ Basbøll & Wagner (1985:40), cited in Basbøll (2005:48).
  16. ^ Basbøll (2005), p. 46.
  17. ^ a b c Gussenhoven (1992), p. 47.
  18. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 128.
  19. ^ a b van Heuven & Genet (2002), cited in Gussenhoven (2007:10)
  20. ^ a b Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  21. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), p. 131.
  22. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), pp. 128, 131.
  23. ^ a b Przedlacka (2001), pp. 42–43.
  24. ^ Altendorf & Watt (2004), pp. 188, 190–191.
  25. ^ Altendorf & Watt (2004), pp. 188, 190.
  26. ^ a b Gimson (2014), p. 91.
  27. ^ a b Thomas (2004), pp. 303, 308.
  28. ^ a b Altendorf & Watt (2004), p. 200.
  29. ^ a b Bauer et al. (2007), p. 98.
  30. ^ a b Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).
  31. ^ Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 582.
  32. ^ a b Jilka, Matthias. "Irish English and Ulster English" (PDF). Stuttgart: Institut für Linguistik/Anglistik, University of Stuttgart. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 April 2014. 
  33. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 68, 75.
  34. ^ Collins & Mees (2013), p. 225.
  35. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  36. ^ Lodge (2009), p. 84.
  37. ^ a b Walker (1984), pp. 51–60.
  38. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 34.
  39. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), pp. 34, 64.
  40. ^ a b Khan & Weise (2013), p. 238.
  41. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 65.
  42. ^ Marti (1985), p. ?.
  43. ^ Fleischer & Schmid (2006), p. 247.
  44. ^ a b Árnason (2011), p. 60.
  45. ^ Einarsson (1945:10), cited in Gussmann (2011:73)
  46. ^ a b Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  47. ^ Prehn (2012), p. 157.
  48. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 72.
  49. ^ a b Vanvik (1979), p. 13.
  50. ^ Popperwell (2010), pp. 30–31.
  51. ^ Strandskogen (1979), pp. 15, 21.
  52. ^ Haugen (1974), p. 40.
  53. ^ a b Kristoffersen (2000), pp. 15–16.
  54. ^ Popperwell (2010), pp. 29, 31.
  55. ^ Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997), p. 16.
  56. ^ a b Stuart-Smith (2004), p. 54.
  57. ^ a b c d Bolander (2001), p. 55.
  58. ^ Engstrand (1999), p. 141.
  59. ^ Riad (2014), p. 28.
  60. ^ Riad (2014), pp. 27–28.
  61. ^ a b Göksel & Kerslake (2005), p. 11.
  62. ^ Zimmer & Organ (1999), p. 155.
  63. ^ Jarosław Weckwerth. "The pure vowels (monophthongs) of Wilamowicean – spectral characteristics" (PDF). pp. 1–2, 5. 
  64. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. ?.
  65. ^ Vanvik (1979), pp. 13, 20.
  66. ^ Popperwell (2010), pp. 32, 34.
  67. ^ Dahlstedt (1967), p. 16.

Bibliography[edit]