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Young's modulus

Young's modulus, or the Young modulus, is a mechanical property that measures the stiffness of a solid material. It defines the relationship between stress and strain in a material in the linear elasticity regime of a uniaxial deformation. Young's modulus is named after the 19th-century British scientist Thomas Young; the term modulus is derived from the Latin root term modus. A solid material will undergo elastic deformation when a small load is applied to it in compression or extension. Elastic deformation is reversible. At near-zero stress and strain, the stress–strain curve is linear, the relationship between stress and strain is described by Hooke's law that states stress is proportional to strain; the coefficient of proportionality is Young's modulus. The higher the modulus, the more stress is needed to create the same amount of strain. Not many materials are elastic beyond a small amount of deformation. E = σ ε, where E is Young's modulus σ is the uniaxial stress, or uniaxial force per unit surface ε is the strain, or proportional deformation.

Young's moduli are so large that they are expressed not in pascals but in megapascals or gigapascals. Material stiffness should not be confused with these properties: Strength: maximal amount of stress the material can withstand while staying in the elastic deformation regime. Young's modulus enables the calculation of the change in the dimension of a bar made of an isotropic elastic material under tensile or compressive loads. For instance, it predicts how much a material sample extends under tension or shortens under compression; the Young's modulus directly applies to cases of uniaxial stress, tensile or compressive stress in one direction and no stress in the other directions. Young's modulus is used in order to predict the deflection that will occur in a statically determinate beam when a load is applied at a point in between the beam's supports. Other elastic calculations require the use of one additional elastic property, such as the shear modulus, bulk modulus or Poisson's ratio. Any two of these parameters are sufficient to describe elasticity in an isotropic material.

Young's modulus represents the factor of proportionality in Hooke's law, which relates the stress and the strain. However, Hooke's law is only valid under the assumption of an linear response. Any real material will fail and break when stretched over a large distance or with a large force. If the range over which Hooke's law is valid is large enough compared to the typical stress that one expects to apply to the material, the material is said to be linear. Otherwise the material is said to be non-linear. Steel, carbon fiber and glass among others are considered linear materials, while other materials such as rubber and soils are non-linear. However, this is not an absolute classification: if small stresses or strains are applied to a non-linear material, the response will be linear, but if high stress or strain is applied to a linear material, the linear theory will not be enough. For example, as the linear theory implies reversibility, it would be absurd to use the linear theory to describe the failure of a steel bridge under a high load.

In solid mechanics, the slope of the stress–strain curve at any point is called the tangent modulus. It can be experimentally determined from the slope of a stress–strain curve created during tensile tests conducted on a sample of the material. Young's modulus is not always the same in all orientations of a material. Most metals and ceramics, along with many other materials, are isotropic, their mechanical properties are the same in all orientations; however and ceramics can be treated with certain impurities, metals can be mechanically worked to make their grain structures directional. These materials become anisotropic, Young's modulus will change depending on the direction of the force vector. Anisotropy can be seen in many composites as well. For example, carbon fiber has a much higher Young's modulus when force is loaded parallel to the fibers. Other such materials reinforced concrete. Engineers can use this directional phenomenon to

Busman's Honeymoon

Busman's Honeymoon is a 1937 novel by Dorothy L. Sayers, her eleventh and last featuring Lord Peter Wimsey, her fourth and last to feature Harriet Vane. Lord Peter Wimsey and Harriet Vane marry and go to spend their honeymoon at Talboys, an old farmhouse in Hertfordshire which he has bought her as a present; the honeymoon is intended as a break from their usual routine of solving crimes and writing about them, but it turns into a murder investigation when the seller of the house is found dead at the bottom of the cellar steps with severe head injuries. A "busman's holiday" is a holiday spent by a bus driver travelling on a bus: it is no break from his usual routine. By analogy, anyone who spends his holiday doing his normal job is taking a "busman's holiday". After an engagement of some months following the events at the end of Gaudy Night, Lord Peter Wimsey and Harriet Vane marry, they plan to spend their honeymoon at Talboys, an old farmhouse in Harriet's native Hertfordshire which Wimsey has bought for her, they abscond from the wedding reception, evading the assembled reporters.

Arriving late at night, they are surprised to find the house not prepared for them. They gain access and spend their wedding night there, but next morning they discover the former owner, dead in the cellar with head injuries; the quiet honeymoon is ruined as a murder investigation begins and the house fills with policemen and brokers' men distraining Noakes' hideous furniture. Noakes was a miser and a blackmailer, he was assumed to be well off, but it transpires that he was bankrupt, owed large amounts of money, was planning to flee his creditors with the cash paid for Talboys. The house had been locked and bolted when the newly-weds arrived, medical evidence seems to rule out an accident, so it seems he was attacked in the house and died having somehow locked up after his attacker; the suspects include Noakes' niece Aggie. Peter's and Harriet's relationship, always complex and painfully negotiated, is resolved during the process of catching the murderer and bringing him to justice. In a final scene, in which the entire cast of characters is gathered in the front room of Talboys, reflecting the novel's origin as a work for the stage, the killer turns out to be Crutchley.

He planned to marry Noakes' somewhat elderly niece and get his hands on the money he had left her in his will. He set a booby trap with a weighted plant pot on a chain, triggered by the victim opening the radio cabinet after locking up for the night. Wimsey's reaction to the case – his arrangement for the defendant to be represented by top defence counsel, it is mentioned that Wimsey had also suffered similar pangs of conscience when other murderers had been sent to the gallows. His deep remorse and guilt at having caused Crutchley to be executed leave doubt as to whether he would undertake further murder investigations – and in fact Sayers completed no further Wimsey novels after this one; the 1942 short story Talboys, the last Wimsey fiction published by Sayers, is both a sequel to the present book, in having the same location and some of the same village characters, an antithesis in being lighthearted and having no crime worse than the theft of some peaches from a neighbour's garden. Lord Peter Wimsey – protagonist, an aristocratic amateur detective Harriet Vane, now Lady Peter Wimsey – protagonist, a mystery writer, wife of Lord Peter Mervyn Bunter – Lord Peter's manservant Honoria Lucasta, Dowager Duchess of Denver – Lord Peter's mother William Noakes – previous owner of Talboys and murder victim Miss Agnes Twitterton – a spinster niece of the murdered man Frank Crutchley – a motor mechanic and gardener Mrs Martha Ruddle – neighbour of Noakes and his cleaning lady Bert Ruddle – her son Chief Superintendent Kirk – Hertfordshire CID Joseph Sellon – the local police constable The Reverend Simon Goodacre – Vicar of Paggleham In their review of Crime novels, the US writers Barzun and Taylor comment that the novel is "Not near the top of her form, but remarkable as a treatment of the newly wedded and bedded pair of eccentrics... with Bunter in the offing and three local characters, chiefly comic.

Peter's mother – Dowager Duchess of Denver – Peter's sister, John Donne, a case of vintage port, the handling of "corroded sut" provide plenty of garnishing for an indifferent murder if we weren't given an idea of Lord Peter's sexual tastes and powers under trying circumstances." Busman's Honeymoon first saw the light of day as a stage play by Muriel St. Clare Byrne. Subtitled A Detective Comedy in Three Acts, it opened at London's Comedy Theatre, in December 1936. A 1940 film version, based as much on the play as on the novel, starred Robert Montgomery as Peter and Constance Cummings as Harriet; the movie was released in the United States as Haunted Honeymoon. In 1983 BBC Radio 4 broadcast a six-part adaptation; this starred Ian Carmichael as Lord Peter Wimsey, Sarah Badel as Harriet, Peter Jones as Bunter, Rosemary Leach as Miss Twitterton, Pearl Hackney as Mrs Ruddle, Peter Vaughan as Superintendent Kirk and John Westbrook as the Narrator. Lifeline Theatre presented an original adaptation of Busman's Honeymoon in the spring and summer of 2009.

Frances Limoncelli adapted the script from Dorothy Sayers' novel. The show was directed by Paul Holmquist. Busman's Honeymoon was preceded by adaptations of Whose Body?, Strong Poison, Gaudy Night (all adapted by

River of Fundament

River of Fundament is a 2014 operatic experimental film written and directed by American artist and filmmaker Matthew Barney, co-directed by longtime collaborator Jonathan Bepler. It was produced by Barney and the Laurenz Foundation and is loosely based on the 1983 novel Ancient Evenings by Norman Mailer; the film features Barney, Dave Bald Eagle, Milford Graves, Ellen Burstyn, Maggie Gyllenhaal, Paul Giamatti, Aimee Mullins. River of Fundament was produced over 2007 to 2012, being the final product of a series of performances that accumulated into becoming the film's narrative; the film follows Norman Mailer as he travels through three different reincarnations, enduring the seven mythological states of his soul, loosely based on his own novel, "Ancient Evenings". Along with the main narrative, it includes other elements from performance and opera, it has been described as an "eulogy for Mailer."The film was released on February 12, 2014 in a limited theatrical release and through exhibitions at museums in several countries.

Writer Norman Mailer, becoming a protagonist of his own, reincarnates three times during and after his wake into three separate bodies, the last failing to survive through the womb and body of his wife, Hathfertiti. Each reincarnation, he wakes up in a river of feces running beneath his Brooklyn Heights apartment. Mailer's body is represented as three generations of American cars: a 1967 Chrysler Crown Imperial, a 1979 Pontiac Firebird Trans Am and a 2001 Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor. All three cars are transmogrified through modern industrial processing and recycling to symbolize the regeneration and reincarnation of Mailer. Through this, the narrative follows American car dealerships and bugle corps,'stomp teams', James Lee Byars' piece "The Death of James Lee Byars", Los Angeles culture, the Brooklyn Navy Yard and alchemy. River of Fundament on IMDb River of Fundament at Rotten Tomatoes

John Hart (Jesuit)

John Hart was an English Jesuit, known for his equivocal behaviour on the English mission in the early 1580s. The son of William Hart of Eynsham, a recusant, he was abroad with his younger brother William, he was admitted to the English College, Rome where he took Roman Catholic minor orders in 1575. He took the degree of B. D. in the university of Douay in 1578, was ordained priest on 29 March 1578 in Cambrai. In June 1580 Hart was ordered to the English mission. Arrested as soon as he landed at Dover, Hart was sent in custody to Nonsuch Palace and examined by Francis Walsingham, he was not confined, but was instead given permission to go to Oxford to confer with theologians. He was subsequently placed in the Marshalsea Prison, taken to the Tower of London on 24 December 1580. On 15 November 1581, the day after Edmund Campion's condemnation, Hart was tried with other priests and condemned to death. On 1 December 1581 he was to have been executed with Campion, Ralph Sherwin, Alexander Briant, but when placed on the hurdle he promised to recant, he was taken back to prison.

Hart wrote to Walsingham what was an act of apostasy, a document that has survived. He retracted it. What Hart agreed with Walsingham at this point is that he would inform on William Allen, using a claim to having been racked to add to his credibility. Hart retracted the offer, was condemned to die on 28 May 1582, was reprieved again, it is stated that on 18 March 1582. Walsingham gave Hart leave to go to Oxford for three months on condition that he should confer with John Rainolds on the matters in controversy between the English and Roman churches; the conference appears to have taken place during 1582. William Camden was complimentary about Hart's learning; the Summe of the Conference betwene John Rainoldes and John Hart, touching the Head and Faith of the Church. Penned by John Rainoldes, according to the notes set down in writing by them both. Charles Dodd argued that the conference was held on unequal terms, as Hart was unprovided with books, asserted that the details were unfairly given by Rainolds.

Hart returned to Walsingham, was sent back to the Tower of London. He remained confined for a long period, was subjected to punishments; the view of Rainolds was. On 21 January 1585 Hart and twenty others, including Jasper Heywood, were sent to France, banished from England by royal commission, they were landed on the coast of Normandy, were sent to Abbeville after signing a certificate to the effect that they had been well treated on the voyage. Hart went to Verdun, on to Rome, his superiors ordered him to Poland, he died at Jarosław, on 17 or 19 July 1586. Hart's journal from the Tower has been attributed incorrectly to Edward Rishton, it formed part of the material for the second edition of the De origine ac progressu schismatis Anglicani' of Nicholas Sander. From the third edition it was not used, the suggestion is that Robert Persons by knew that Hart had offered to become an agent of Walsingham. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Stephen, Leslie.

"Hart, John". Dictionary of National Biography. 25. London: Smith, Elder & Co

Welsh Cup

The Welsh Football Association Cup is a knock-out football competition contested annually by teams in the Welsh football league system. It is considered the most prestigious of the cup competitions in domestic Welsh association football; the Football Association of Wales is the organising body of this competition, run every year since its inception in 1877–78. In the early years of organised football in Wales, football was much the sport of north Wales rather than the rugby union playing south – the FAW was founded in Ruabon, near Wrexham in 1876, Wrexham remained the site of the FAW's head office until 1986; the winning team qualifies to play in the following season's UEFA Europa League. The full sponsored name of the competition is the JD Welsh Cup; until 1995, Welsh clubs playing in the Welsh or English leagues were invited to play in the Welsh Cup. On occasion some English clubs those from border areas such as Shrewsbury and Chester, were invited to participate. However, in the event of an English club winning the Welsh Cup, they were not allowed to progress to the European Cup Winners' Cup.

Instead, the best placed Welsh club in the Welsh Cup competition would take the European place. From 1996 to 2011, only clubs playing in the Welsh football league system were allowed to enter the Welsh Cup; this rule excluded the six Welsh clubs who played in the English football league system: Cardiff City, Colwyn Bay, Merthyr Town, Newport County, Swansea City and Wrexham. On 20 April 2011, the Football Association of Wales invited these six clubs to rejoin the Welsh Cup for the 2011–12 season, but only Merthyr Town, Newport County and Wrexham accepted. In March 2012, UEFA stated that Welsh clubs playing in the English football league system could not qualify for European competitions via the Welsh Cup but they could qualify via the English league and cup competitions, hence they were subsequently again excluded from the Welsh Cup. Between the 1961–62 and 1984–85 seasons, the final was played as a two-leg match on a points basis rather than aggregate score. In the 1985–86 season, it reverted to a single game, to be decided by extra time and penalties as necessary.

Shrewsbury Town hold the record for the most times an English team has won the Cup, a record that will remain unbroken because English teams have not been allowed to compete in the cup since 1995. The last English winner of the Welsh Cup was Hereford United in 1990. FAW Premier Cup Football in Wales List of football clubs in Wales List of stadiums in Wales by capacity Welsh football league system Welsh League Cup FAW Trophy Welsh Football Data Archive Welsh Cup pages