Lloyd Biggle Jr.
Lloyd Biggle Jr. was a musician and internationally known oral historian. Biggle was born in 1923 in Iowa, he served in World War II as a communications sergeant in a rifle company of the 102nd Infantry Division. His second wound, a shrapnel wound in his leg received near the Elbe River at the end of the war, left him disabled for life. After the war, Biggle resumed his education, he received an A. B. Degree with High Distinction from Wayne State University and M. M. and Ph. D. degrees from the University of Michigan. Biggle taught at Eastern Michigan University in the 1950s, he began writing professionally in 1955 and became a full-time writer with the publication of his novel, All the Colors of Darkness in 1963. Biggle was celebrated in science fiction circles as the author who introduced aesthetics into a literature known for its scientific and technological complications, his stories used musical and artistic themes. Such notables as songwriter Jimmy Webb and novelist Orson Scott Card have written of the tremendous effect that his early story, "The Tunesmith", had on them in their youth.
Among Biggle's enduring science fiction creations were the matter-transmission trouble-shooting team of Jan Darzek/Effie Schlupe, the Cultural Survey, featured in novels and magazine stories, through which Biggle explored issues of multi-culturalism and technology. In the field of mystery writing, Biggle's Grandfather Rastin stories appeared for many years in Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine, he loved writing historical fiction set in Edwardian England. He wrote a series of new Sherlock Holmes stories from the perspective of Edward Porter Jones, an assistant who began his association with Holmes as a "Baker Street Irregular"; these were followed by a series of stories featured in Alfred Hitchcock's Mystery Magazine starring Biggle's Victorian sleuth, Lady Sara Varnley. Both Biggle's science fiction and mystery stories have received international acclaim, being nominated for the 1962 Hugo for short fiction, for the Locus Readers awards in 1972, 1973, 1974, he published two-dozen books as well as numerous articles.
His last novel was The Chronocide Mission. He was writing to the moment of his death. "I can write them faster than the magazines can publish them," he once said, indeed, magazines continued to publish backlogged stories of his well after his death. Few of his works have been in print since the early 2000's, but most of his novels are available as e-books. Biggle was the founding Secretary-Treasurer of Science Fiction Writers of America and served as Chairman of its trustees for many years. In the 1970s, he founded the Science Fiction Oral History Association, which built archives containing hundreds of cassette tapes of science fiction notables making speeches and discussing aspects of their craft, he numbered many of these science fiction notables among his friends, his article in the July/August 2002 Analog Magazine, "Isaac Asimov Remembered", was based in part on his personal recollections of that celebrity. He was a member of the Veterans of Foreign Wars, the Disabled American Veterans, the Military Order of the Purple Heart.
He died at the end of a twenty-year battle with cancer. Banks, Michael A. "Lloyd Biggle Jr". Locus. Retrieved June 6, 2006. Lloyd Biggle Jr. at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database "Science Fiction Oral History Association". Retrieved June 6, 2006. Lloyd Biggle Papers at the Kenneth Spencer Research Library at the University of Kansas
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
A nebula is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen and other ionized gases. The term was used to describe any diffuse astronomical object, including galaxies beyond the Milky Way; the Andromeda Galaxy, for instance, was once referred to as the Andromeda Nebula before the true nature of galaxies was confirmed in the early 20th century by Vesto Slipher, Edwin Hubble and others. Most nebulae are of vast size. A nebula, visible to the human eye from Earth would appear larger, but no brighter, from close by; the Orion Nebula, the brightest nebula in the sky and occupying an area twice the diameter of the full Moon, can be viewed with the naked eye but was missed by early astronomers. Although denser than the space surrounding them, most nebulae are far less dense than any vacuum created on Earth – a nebular cloud the size of the Earth would have a total mass of only a few kilograms. Many nebulae are visible due to fluorescence caused by embedded hot stars, while others are so diffuse they can only be detected with long exposures and special filters.
Some nebulae are variably illuminated by T Tauri variable stars. Nebulae are star-forming regions, such as in the "Pillars of Creation" in the Eagle Nebula. In these regions the formations of gas and other materials "clump" together to form denser regions, which attract further matter, will become dense enough to form stars; the remaining material is believed to form planets and other planetary system objects. Around 150 AD, Claudius Ptolemaeus recorded, in books VII–VIII of his Almagest, five stars that appeared nebulous, he noted a region of nebulosity between the constellations Ursa Major and Leo, not associated with any star. The first true nebula, as distinct from a star cluster, was mentioned by the Persian astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, in his Book of Fixed Stars, he noted "a little cloud". He cataloged the Omicron Velorum star cluster as a "nebulous star" and other nebulous objects, such as Brocchi's Cluster; the supernova that created the Crab Nebula, the SN 1054, was observed by Arabic and Chinese astronomers in 1054.
In 1610, Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc discovered the Orion Nebula using a telescope. This nebula was observed by Johann Baptist Cysat in 1618. However, the first detailed study of the Orion Nebula was not performed until 1659, by Christiaan Huygens, who believed he was the first person to discover this nebulosity. In 1715, Edmund Halley published a list of six nebulae; this number increased during the century, with Jean-Philippe de Cheseaux compiling a list of 20 in 1746. From 1751 to 1753, Nicolas Louis de Lacaille cataloged 42 nebulae from the Cape of Good Hope, most of which were unknown. Charles Messier compiled a catalog of 103 "nebulae" by 1781; the number of nebulae was greatly increased by the efforts of William Herschel and his sister Caroline Herschel. Their Catalogue of One Thousand New Nebulae and Clusters of Stars was published in 1786. A second catalog of a thousand was published in 1789 and the third and final catalog of 510 appeared in 1802. During much of their work, William Herschel believed that these nebulae were unresolved clusters of stars.
In 1790, however, he discovered a star surrounded by nebulosity and concluded that this was a true nebulosity, rather than a more distant cluster. Beginning in 1864, William Huggins examined the spectra of about 70 nebulae, he found that a third of them had the emission spectrum of a gas. The rest thus were thought to consist of a mass of stars. A third category was added in 1912 when Vesto Slipher showed that the spectrum of the nebula that surrounded the star Merope matched the spectra of the Pleiades open cluster, thus the nebula radiates by reflected star light. About 1923, following the Great Debate, it had become clear that many "nebulae" were in fact galaxies far from our own. Slipher and Edwin Hubble continued to collect the spectra from many different nebulae, finding 29 that showed emission spectra and 33 that had the continuous spectra of star light. In 1932, Hubble announced that nearly all nebula are associated with stars, their illumination comes from star light, he discovered that the emission spectrum nebulae are nearly always associated with stars having spectral classifications of B or hotter, while nebulae with continuous spectra appear with cooler stars.
Both Hubble and Henry Norris Russell concluded that the nebulae surrounding the hotter stars are transfomed in some manner. There are a variety of formation mechanisms for the different types of nebulae; some nebulae form from gas, in the interstellar medium while others are produced by stars. Examples of the former case are giant molecular clouds, the coldest, densest phase of interstellar gas, which can form by the cooling and condensation of more diffuse gas. Examples of the latter case are planetary nebulae formed from material shed by a star in late stages of its stellar evolution. Star-forming regions are a class of emission nebula associated with giant molecular clouds; these form as a molecular cloud collapses under its own weight. Massive stars may form in the center, their ultraviolet radiation ionizes the surrounding gas, making it visible at optical wavelengths; the region of ionized hydrogen surrounding th
Spider Robinson is an American-born Canadian science fiction author. Robinson was born in New York City, New York, he attended a Catholic high school, spending his junior year in a seminary, followed by two years in a Catholic college, five years at the State University of New York at Stony Brook in the 1960s, earning a Bachelor of Arts in English. While at Stony Brook, Spider earned a reputation as a great entertainer at campus coffeehouses and gatherings, strumming his guitar and singing in harmony with his female partner. In his 20s, he "spent several years in the woods, deliberately trying to live without technology." In 1971, just out of college, he got a night job guarding sewers in New York City. He wrote his first published science fiction story, "The Guy with The Eyes". In 1975 he married Jeanne Robinson, a choreographer, Sōtō Zen monk, who co-wrote his Stardance Trilogy, they had Terri Luanna da Silva, who once worked for Martha Stewart. According to Robinson, he had always been known as "Robbie", a contraction of his last name, until he became sick of it, feeling "it was kind of a juvenile name for a college man."
He asked his friends for a new first name, they came up with "Spider", though each for a different reason. Robinson made his first short-story sale in 1972 to Analog Science Fiction magazine; the story, "The Guy with the Eyes", was set in a bar called Callahan's Place. The stories have been collected into a number of published books. Robinson made several short-story sales to Analog, Galaxy Science Fiction magazine and others, worked as a book reviewer for Galaxy magazine during the mid-to-late 1970s. In 1978–79 he contributed book reviews to the original anthology series Destinies. Robinson's first published novel, was an expansion of his Hugo award-winning novella "By Any Other Name". Over the following three decades, Robinson on average released a book a year, including short story anthologies. In 1996 -- 2005, he served as a columnist in the Op-Ed section of The Mail. In 2004, he pronounced himself "overjoyed" to begin working on a seven-page 1955 novel outline by the late Robert A. Heinlein to expand it into a novel.
The book, titled Variable Star, was released on September 19, 2006. Robinson has always made his admiration for Heinlein clear. Early in Robinson's career, Heinlein helped to support Robinson financially during an difficult period. Robinson is an admirer of mystery writer John D. MacDonald. Lady Sally McGee, from the Callahan's series, is named in honor of Travis McGee, the central character in MacDonald's mystery novels; the lead character in Lady Slings The Booze refers to Travis McGee as a role model. In Callahan's Key the patrons make a visit to the marina near Fort Lauderdale where the Busted Flush was moored in the McGee series. On Robinson's website there is a photo of him "at the address of'The Busted Flush,' home of John D. MacDonald’s immortal character Travis McGee: Slip F-18, Bahia Mar Marina, Fort Lauderdale FL." Important to Robinson is writer Donald E. Westlake and Westlake's most famous character, John Archibald Dortmunder. Robinson has resided in Canada for nearly 40 years in the provinces of Nova Scotia and British Columbia.
He lived in "an upscale district of Vancouver for a decade," and has lived on Bowen Island since 1999. He became a Canadian citizen in 2002. Spider and Jeanne's only grandchild, was born in 2009, as Jeanne was undergoing treatment for "a rare and virulent form of biliary cancer". Jeanne Robinson died May 30, 2010, their daughter Terri died on December 2014, of breast cancer. Robinson recovered. Due to the health issues faced by his family he has not published a novel since 2008. In 2013, Robinson reported on his website that work on his next book Orphan Stars was progressing, albeit slowly. Concurrently, he has begun work on his autobiography, he has been named a Guest of Honor at the 76th World Science Fiction Convention in 2018. Callahan and Company - Off the Wall at Callahan's - The Callahan Chronicals - The Star Dancers Antinomy Melancholy Elephants True Minds User Friendly By Any Other Name God Is an Iron and Other Stories My Favorite Shorts The Best of All Possible Worlds - collection of works by other authors edited and introduced by Robinson Belabouring the Obvious The Crazy Years: Reflections of a Science Fiction Original, a collection of his articles for The Globe and Mail John W. Campbell Award for Best New Writer Hugo Awards f
Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe inspired by real world myth and folklore. Its roots are in oral traditions, which became literature and drama. From the twentieth century it has expanded further into various media, including film, graphic novels and video games. Fantasy is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the absence of scientific or macabre themes though these genres overlap. In popular culture, the fantasy genre is predominantly of the medievalist form. In its broadest sense, fantasy consists of works by many writers, artists and musicians from ancient myths and legends to many recent and popular works. Most fantasy uses other supernatural elements as a main plot element, theme, or setting. Magic and magical creatures are common in many of these worlds. An identifying trait of fantasy is the author's reliance on imagination to create narrative elements that do not have to rely on history or nature to be coherent; this differs from realistic fiction in that realistic fiction has to attend to the history and natural laws of reality, where fantasy does not.
An author applies his or her imagination to come up with characters and settings that are impossible in reality. Many fantasy authors use real-world mythology as inspiration. For instance, a narrative that takes place in an imagined town in the northeastern United States could be considered realistic fiction as long as the plot and characters are consistent with the history of a region and the natural characteristics that someone, to the northeastern United States expects. Fantasy has been compared to science fiction and horror because they are the major categories of speculative fiction. Fantasy is distinguished from science fiction by the plausibility of the narrative elements. A science fiction narrative is unlikely, though possible through logical scientific or technological extrapolation, where fantasy narratives do not need to be scientifically possible. Authors have to rely on the readers' suspension of disbelief, an acceptance of the unbelievable or impossible for the sake of enjoyment, in order to write effective fantasies.
Despite both genres' heavy reliance on the supernatural and horror are distinguishable. Horror evokes fear through the protagonists' weaknesses or inability to deal with the antagonists. Elements of the supernatural and the fantastic were a part of literature from its beginning. Fantasy elements occur throughout the ancient Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh; the ancient Babylonian creation epic, the Enûma Eliš, in which the god Marduk slays the goddess Tiamat, contains the theme of a cosmic battle between good and evil, characteristic of the modern fantasy genre. Genres of romantic and fantasy literature existed in ancient Egypt; the Tales of the Court of King Khufu, preserved in the Westcar Papyrus and was written in the middle of the second half of the eighteenth century BC, preserves a mixture of stories with elements of historical fiction and satire. Egyptian funerary texts preserve mythological tales, the most significant of which are the myths of Osiris and his son Horus. Folk tales with fantastic elements intended for adults were a major genre of ancient Greek literature.
The comedies of Aristophanes are filled with fantastic elements his play The Birds, in which an Athenian man builds a city in the clouds with the birds and challenges Zeus's authority. Ovid's Metamorphoses and Apuleius's The Golden Ass are both works that influenced the development of the fantasy genre by taking mythic elements and weaving them into personal accounts. Both works involve complex narratives in which humans beings are transformed into animals or inanimate objects. Platonic teachings and early Christian theology are major influences on the modern fantasy genre. Plato used allegories to convey many of his teachings, early Christian writers interpreted both the Old and New Testaments as employing parables to relay spiritual truths; this ability to find meaning in a story, not true became the foundation that allowed the modern fantasy genre to develop. The most well known fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, a compilation of many ancient and medieval folk tales.
Various characters from this epic have become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin and Ali Baba. Hindu mythology was an evolution of the earlier Vedic mythology and had many more fantastical stories and characters in the Indian epics; the Panchatantra, for example, used various animal fables and magical tales to illustrate the central Indian principles of political science. Chinese traditions have been influential in the vein of fantasy known as Chinoiserie, including such writers as Ernest Bramah and Barry Hughart. Beowulf is among the best known of the Nordic tales in the English speaking world, has had deep influence on the fantasy genre. Norse mythology, as found in the Elder Edda and the Younger Edda, includes such figures as Odin and his fellow Aesir, dwarves, elves and giants; these elements have been directly imported into various fantasy works. The separate folklore of Ireland and Scotland has sometimes been us
Brian Wilson Aldiss, OBE was an English writer and anthologies editor, best known for science fiction novels and short stories. His byline reads either Brian W. Aldiss or Brian Aldiss, except for occasional pseudonyms during the mid-1960s. Influenced by science fiction pioneer H. G. Wells, Aldiss was a vice-president of the international H. G. Wells Society, he was co-president of the Birmingham Science Fiction Group. Aldiss was named a Grand Master by the Science Fiction Writers of America in 2000 and inducted by the Science Fiction Hall of Fame in 2004, he received two Hugo Awards, one Nebula Award, one John W. Campbell Memorial Award, he wrote the short story "Super-Toys Last All Summer Long", the basis for the Stanley Kubrick-developed Steven Spielberg film A. I. Artificial Intelligence. Aldiss was associated with the British New Wave of science fiction. Aldiss was born on 18 August 1925, above his paternal grandfather's draper's shop in Dereham, Norfolk; when Aldiss's grandfather died, his father, sold his share in the shop and the family left Dereham.
Aldiss's mother, was the daughter of a builder. He had an older sister, stillborn, a younger sister; as a 3-year-old, Aldiss started to write stories which his mother would put on a shelf. At the age of 6, he went to Framlingham College but moved to Devon and was sent to board at West Buckland School in Devon in 1939 after the outbreak of the war; as a child he discovered the pulp magazine Astounding Science Fiction, read all the novels by H. G. Wells and Robert Heinlein, Philip K. Dick. In 1943, during the Second World War, he saw action in Burma, his Army experience inspired the Horatio Stubbs second and third books, A Soldier Erect and A Rude Awakening, respectively. After the war, he worked as a bookseller in Oxford, he wrote a number of short pieces for a booksellers' trade journal about life in a fictitious bookshop, which attracted the attention of Charles Monteith, an editor at the publisher Faber and Faber. As a result and Faber published Aldiss' first book, The Brightfount Diaries, a 200-page novel in diary form about the life of a sales assistant in a bookshop.
About this time he began to write science fiction for various magazines. According to ISFDB, his first speculative fiction in print was the short story Criminal Record, published by John Carnell in the July 1954 issue of Science Fantasy. Several of his stories appeared in 1955, including three in monthly issues of New Worlds, a more important magazine edited by Carnell. In 1954, The Observer newspaper ran a competition for a short story set in the year 2500. Aldiss' story Not For An Age was ranked third following a reader vote; the Brightfount Diaries had been a minor success, Faber asked Aldiss if he had any more writing they could look at with a view to publishing. Aldiss confessed to being a science fiction author, to the delight of the publishers, who had a number of science fiction fans in high places, so his first science fiction book was published, a collection of short stories entitled Space and Nathaniel. By this time, his earnings from writing matched his wages in the bookshop, he made the decision to become a full-time writer.
Aldiss led the voting for Most Promising New Author of 1958 at the next year's Worldcon, but finished behind "no award". He was elected president of the British Science Fiction Association in 1960, he was the literary editor of the Oxford Mail newspaper from 1958 to 1969. Around 1964, he and long-time collaborator Harry Harrison started the first journal of science fiction criticism, Science Fiction Horizons, which during its brief span of two issues published articles and reviews by such authors as James Blish, featured a discussion among Aldiss, C. S. Lewis, Kingsley Amis in the first issue and an interview with William S. Burroughs in the second. In 1967 Algis Budrys listed Aldiss, J. G. Ballard, Roger Zelazny, Samuel R. Delany as "an earthshaking new kind of" writers, leaders of the New Wave. Besides his own writings, he had great success as an anthologist. For Faber he edited Introducing SF, a collection of stories typifying various themes of science fiction, Best Fantasy Stories. In 1961, he edited an anthology of reprinted short science fiction for the British paperback publisher Penguin Books under the title Penguin Science Fiction.
This was remarkably successful, went into numerous reprints, was followed up by two further anthologies: More Penguin Science Fiction and Yet More Penguin Science Fiction. The anthologies enjoyed the same success as the first, all three were published together as The Penguin Science Fiction Omnibus, which went into a number of reprints. In the 1970s, he produced several large collections of classic grand-scale science fiction, under the titles Space Opera, Space Odysseys, Galactic Empires, Evil Earths, Perilous Planets which were quite successful. Around this time, he edited a large-format volume Science Fiction Art, with selections of artwork from the magazines and pulps. In response to the results from the planetary probes of the 1960s and 1970s, which showed that Venus was unlike the hot, tropical jungle depicted in science fiction and Harrison edited an anthology Farewell, Fantastic Venus!, reprinting stories based on the pre-probe ideas of Venus. He edited, with Harrison, a series of anthologies The Year's Best Science Fiction.
Aldiss invented a form of short story called the mini-saga. The Daily Telegraph hosted a competition for the best mini-saga for several years
Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dealing with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, extraterrestrials in fiction. Science fiction explores the potential consequences of scientific other various innovations, has been called a "literature of ideas." "Science fiction" is difficult to define as it includes a wide range of concepts and themes. James Blish wrote: "Wells used the term to cover what we would today call'hard' science fiction, in which a conscientious attempt to be faithful to known facts was the substrate on which the story was to be built, if the story was to contain a miracle, it ought at least not to contain a whole arsenal of them."Isaac Asimov said: "Science fiction can be defined as that branch of literature which deals with the reaction of human beings to changes in science and technology." According to Robert A. Heinlein, "A handy short definition of all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world and present, on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method."Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no delineated limits to science fiction."
Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it." Mark C. Glassy described the definition of science fiction as U. S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart did with the definition of pornography: "I know it when I see it." Science fiction had its beginnings in a time when the line between myth and fact was arguably more blurred than the present day. Written in the 2nd century CE by the satirist Lucian, A True Story contains many themes and tropes that are characteristic of contemporary science fiction, including travel to other worlds, extraterrestrial lifeforms, interplanetary warfare, artificial life; some consider it the first science-fiction novel. Some of the stories from The Arabian Nights, along with the 10th-century The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter and Ibn al-Nafis's 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus contain elements of science fiction. Products of the Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Johannes Kepler's Somnium, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Cyrano de Bergerac's Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon and The States and Empires of the Sun, Margaret Cavendish's "The Blazing World", Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Ludvig Holberg's Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum and Voltaire's Micromégas are regarded as some of the first true science-fantasy works.
Indeed, Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Somnium the first science-fiction story. Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science-fiction novel. Brian Aldiss has argued. Edgar Allan Poe wrote several stories considered science fiction, including "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" which featured a trip to the Moon. Jules Verne was noted for his attention to detail and scientific accuracy Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea which predicted the contemporary nuclear submarine. In 1887, the novel El anacronópete by Spanish author Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau introduced the first time machine. Many critics consider H. G. Wells one of science fiction's most important authors, or "the Shakespeare of science fiction." His notable science-fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds. His science fiction imagined alien invasion, biological engineering and time travel.
In his non-fiction futurologist works he predicted the advent of airplanes, military tanks, nuclear weapons, satellite television, space travel, something resembling the World Wide Web. In 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long planetary romance series of Barsoom novels, set on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback published the first American science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, in which he wrote: By'scientifiction' I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Edgar Allan Poe type of story—a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision... Not only do these amazing tales make tremendously interesting reading—they are always instructive, they supply knowledge... in a palatable form... New adventures pictured for us in the scientifiction of today are not at all impossible of realization tomorrow... Many great science stories destined to be of historical interest are still to be written...
Posterity will point to them as having blazed a new trail, not only in literature and fiction, but progress as well. In 1928, E. E. "Doc" Smith's first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, appeared in Amazing Stories. It is called the first great space opera; the same year, Philip Francis Nowlan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419 appeared in Amazing Stories. This was followed by the first serious science-fiction comic. In 1937, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, an event, sometimes conside