MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre
The Ed Sullivan Show
The Ed Sullivan Show was an American television variety show that ran on CBS from June 20, 1948, to June 6, 1971, was hosted by New York entertainment columnist Ed Sullivan. It was replaced in September 1971 by the CBS Sunday Night Movie. In 2002, The Ed Sullivan Show was ranked #15 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time. In 2013, the series finished No. 31 in TV Guide Magazine's 60 Best Series of All Time. From 1948 until its cancellation in 1971, the show ran on CBS every Sunday night from 8–9 p.m. E. T. and is one of the few entertainment shows to have run in the same weekly time slot on the same network for more than two decades. Every type of entertainment appeared on the show; the format was the same as vaudeville and, although vaudeville had undergone a slow demise for a generation, Sullivan presented many ex-vaudevillians on his show. Co-created and produced by Marlo Lewis, the show was first titled Toast of the Town, but was referred to as The Ed Sullivan Show for years before September 25, 1955, when that became its official name.
In the show's June 20, 1948 debut, Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis performed along with singer Monica Lewis and Broadway composers Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II previewing the score to their then-new show South Pacific, which opened on Broadway in 1949. From 1948 through 1962, the program's primary sponsor was the Lincoln-Mercury Division of the Ford Motor Company; the Ed Sullivan Show was broadcast via live television from CBS-TV studio 51, the Maxine Elliott Theatre, at Broadway and 39th St. before moving to its permanent home at CBS-TV Studio 50 in New York City, renamed the Ed Sullivan Theater on the occasion of the program's 20th anniversary in June 1968. The last original Sullivan show telecast was on March 28, 1971, with guests Melanie, Joanna Simon, Danny Davis and the Nashville Brass and Sandler and Young. Repeats were scheduled through June 6, 1971. Along with the new talent Sullivan booked each week, he had recurring characters appear many times a season, such as his "Little Italian Mouse" puppet sidekick Topo Gigio, who debuted December 9, 1962, ventriloquist Señor Wences debuted December 31, 1950.
While most of the episodes aired live from New York City, the show aired live on occasion from other nations, such as the United Kingdom and Japan. For many years, Ed Sullivan was a national event each Sunday evening, was the first exposure for foreign performers to the American public. On the occasion of the show's tenth anniversary telecast, Sullivan commented on how the show had changed during a June 1958 interview syndicated by the Newspaper Enterprise Association: The chief difference is one of pace. In those days, we had maybe six acts. Now we have 11 or 12; each of our acts would do a leisurely ten minutes or so. Now they do three minutes, and in those early days I talked too much. Watching these kines I cringe. I look up at me talking away and I say "You fool! Keep quiet!" But I just keep on talking. I've learned; the show enjoyed phenomenal popularity in early 1960s. As had occurred with the annual telecasts of The Wizard of Oz in the 1960s and'70s, the family ritual of gathering around the television set to watch Ed Sullivan became a U.
S. cultural universal. He was regarded as a kingmaker, performers considered an appearance on his program as a guarantee of stardom, although this sometimes did not turn out to be the case; the show's iconic status is illustrated by the song "Hymn for a Sunday Evening" from the 1960 musical Bye Bye Birdie. In the song, a family of viewers expresses their regard for the program in worshipful tones. In September 1965, CBS started televising the program in compatible color, as all three major networks began to switch to 100 percent color prime time schedules. CBS had once backed its own color system, developed by Peter Goldmark, resisted using RCA's compatible process until 1954. At that time, it built its first New York City color TV studio, Studio 72, in a former RKO movie theater at 2248 Broadway. One Ed Sullivan Show was broadcast on August 22, 1954, from the new studio, but it was used for one-time-only specials such as Rodgers and Hammerstein's March 31, 1957 Cinderella. CBS Studio 72 was replaced by an apartment house.
CBS Studio 50 was "colorized" in 1965. The 1965–66 season premiere starred the Beatles in an episode airing on September 12, the last episode to air in black and white; this occurred because the episode was taped at the Beatles' convenience on August 14, the eve of their Shea Stadium performance and a two-week tour of North America before the program was ready for color transmission. In the late 1960s, Sullivan remarked, he realized that to keep viewers, the best and brightest in entertainment had to be seen, or else the viewers were going to keep on changing the channel. Along with declining viewership, Ed Sullivan attracted a higher median age for the average viewer as the seasons went on; these two factors were the reason the show was canceled by CBS as part of a mass cancellation of advertiser-averse progr
Mulan (1998 film)
Mulan is a 1998 American animated musical action adventure film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation for Walt Disney Pictures. It is based on the Chinese legend of Hua Mulan, was Disney's 36th animated feature and the ninth animated film produced and released during the Disney Renaissance, it was directed by Tony Bancroft and Barry Cook, with story by Robert D. San Souci and screenplay by Rita Hsiao, Philip LaZebnik, Chris Sanders, Eugenia Bostwick-Singer, Raymond Singer. Ming-Na Wen, Eddie Murphy, Miguel Ferrer and BD Wong star in the English version, while Jackie Chan provided the voice of Captain Li Shang for the Chinese dubs of the film; the film's plot takes place in China during the Han dynasty, where Fa Mulan, daughter of aged warrior Fa Zhou, impersonates a man to take her father's place during a general conscription to counter a Hun invasion. Produced and released during the Disney Renaissance, Mulan was the first of three features produced at the Disney animation studio at Disney-MGM Studios in Orlando, Florida.
Development for the film began in 1994, when a number of artistic supervisors were sent to China to receive artistic and cultural inspiration. Mulan was well received by critics and the public, grossing $304 million, earning Golden Globe and Academy Award nominations, winning several Annie Awards including Best Animated Feature. A 2004 direct-to-video sequel, Mulan II, followed. A live-action adaptation of the film directed by Niki Caro will be released on March 27, 2020; the Huns, who are led by the ruthless Shan Yu, invade Han China by breaching the Great Wall. The Chinese emperor orders a general mobilization, with conscription notices requiring one man from each family to join the Chinese army; when Fa Mulan hears that her elderly father Fa Zhou, the only man in their family and an army veteran, is once more to go to war, she becomes anxious and apprehensive due to his weakening health. Taking her father's old armor, she disguises herself as a man so that she can enlist instead of her parent.
The family learns of her departure, Mulan's grandmother prays to the family ancestors for Mulan's safety. The ancestors order their "great stone dragon" to protect Mulan. Reporting to the training camp, Mulan is able to pass as a man, although her military skills are lacking. Mushu provides clumsy guidance to Mulan on. Under the command of Captain Li Shang and her fellow recruits Yao and Chien-Po become trained warriors. Desiring to see Mulan succeed, Mushu creates a fake order from Shang's father, General Li, ordering Shang to follow the main imperial army into the mountains; the reinforcements set out, but arrive at a burnt-out encampment and discover that General Li and his troops have been massacred by the Huns. As the reinforcements solemnly leave the mountains, they are ambushed by the Huns, but Mulan cleverly uses a cannon to cause an avalanche, which buries most of the invaders. An enraged Shan Yu slashes her in the chest, her deception is revealed when the wound is bandaged. Instead of executing Mulan as the law requires, Shang spares her life, but nonetheless expels her from the army.
Mulan is left to follow alone as the recruits depart for the imperial city to report the news of the Huns' destruction. However, it is discovered that several Hun warriors, including Shan Yu, have survived the avalanche, Mulan catches sight of them as they make their way to the city, intent on capturing the emperor. At the imperial city, Mulan is unable to convince Shang about Shan Yu's survival; the Huns seize the palace. With Mulan's help, Yao and Chien-Po pose as concubines, are able to enter the palace. With the help of Shang, they defeat Shan Yu's men. Meanwhile, acting on Mulan's instructions and signal, Mushu fires a large skyrocket at Shan Yu; the rocket strikes and propels him into a fireworks launching tower, where he dies in the resulting explosion. Mulan is praised by the Emperor and the assembled inhabitants of the city, who bow to her in an unprecedented honor. While she accepts the crest of the Emperor and the sword of Shan Yu as gifts, she politely declines his offer to be his advisor, asks to return to her family.
Mulan returns home and presents these gifts to her father, overjoyed to have Mulan back safely. Having become enamored with Mulan, Shang soon arrives under the pretext of returning her helmet, but accepts the family's invitation to stay for dinner. Mushu is reinstated as a Fa family guardian by the ancestors amid a returning celebration. Ming-Na Wen as Mulan Eddie Murphy as Mushu BD Wong as Captain Li Shang Miguel Ferrer as Shan Yu June Foray as Grandmother Fa Harvey Fierstein as Yao Gedde Watanabe as Ling Jerry Tondo as Chien-Po James Hong as Chi-Fu Soon-Tek Oh as Fa Zhou Pat Morita as The Emperor of China George Takei as First Ancestor Miriam Margolyes as The Matchmaker Freda Foh Shen as Fa Li James Shigeta as General Li Frank Welker as Cri-Kee and Khan Chris Sanders as Little Brother Mary Kay Bergman as various ancestorsKelly Chen, Coco Lee and Xu Qing voiced Mulan in the Cantonese, Taiwanese Mandarin and Mainland standard versions of the film while Jackie Chan provided the voice of Li Shang in all three Chinese versions and appeared in the version of promo
Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. It was founded in 1887, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business, the second major company to produce records. From 1961 to 1990, Columbia recordings were released outside North America under the name CBS Records to avoid confusion with EMI's Columbia Graphophone Company. Columbia is one of Sony Music's four flagship record labels, alongside former longtime rival RCA Records, as well as Arista Records and Epic Records. Artists who have recorded for Columbia include Harry Styles, AC/DC, Louis Armstrong, Tony Bennett, Beyoncé, Dave Brubeck, The Byrds, Johnny Cash, Mariah Carey, The Chainsmokers, The Clash, Miles Davis, Rosemary Clooney, Neil Diamond, Celine Dion, Bob Dylan, Wind & Fire, Duke Ellington, 50 Cent, Erroll Garner, Benny Goodman, Adelaide Hall, Billy Joel, Janis Joplin, John Mayer, George Michael, Billy Murray, Pink Floyd, Lil Nas X, Frank Sinatra and Garfunkel, Bessie Smith, Bruce Springsteen, Barbra Streisand, Andy Williams, Pharrell Williams, Bill Withers, Paul Whiteman, Joe Zawinul The Columbia Phonograph Company was founded in 1887 by stenographer and New Jersey native Edward D. Easton and a group of investors.
It derived its name from the District of Columbia. At first it had a local monopoly on sales and service of Edison phonographs and phonograph cylinders in Washington, D. C. Maryland, Delaware; as was the custom of some of the regional phonograph companies, Columbia produced many commercial cylinder recordings of its own, its catalogue of musical records in 1891 was 10 pages. Columbia's ties to Edison and the North American Phonograph Company were severed in 1894 with the North American Phonograph Company's breakup. Thereafter it sold only phonographs of its own manufacture. In 1902, Columbia introduced a molded brown wax record, to use up old stock. Columbia introduced black wax records in 1903. According to one source, they continued to mold brown waxes until 1904 with the highest number being 32601, "Heinie", a duet by Arthur Collins and Byron G. Harlan; the molded brown waxes may have been sold to Sears for distribution. Columbia began selling disc records and phonographs in addition to the cylinder system in 1901, preceded only by their "Toy Graphophone" of 1899, which used small, vertically cut records.
For a decade, Columbia competed with both the Edison Phonograph Company cylinders and the Victor Talking Machine Company disc records as one of the top three names in American recorded sound. In order to add prestige to its early catalog of artists, Columbia contracted a number of New York Metropolitan Opera stars to make recordings; these stars included Marcella Sembrich, Lillian Nordica, Antonio Scotti and Edouard de Reszke, but the technical standard of their recordings was not considered to be as high as the results achieved with classical singers during the pre–World War I period by Victor, England's His Master's Voice or Italy's Fonotipia Records. After an abortive attempt in 1904 to manufacture discs with the recording grooves stamped into both sides of each disc—not just one—in 1908 Columbia commenced successful mass production of what they called their "Double-Faced" discs, the 10-inch variety selling for 65 cents apiece; the firm introduced the internal-horn "Grafonola" to compete with the popular "Victrola" sold by the rival Victor Talking Machine Company.
During this era, Columbia used the "Magic Notes" logo—a pair of sixteenth notes in a circle—both in the United States and overseas. Columbia stopped recording and manufacturing wax cylinder records in 1908, after arranging to issue celluloid cylinder records made by the Indestructible Record Company of Albany, New York, as "Columbia Indestructible Records". In July 1912, Columbia decided to concentrate on disc records and stopped manufacturing cylinder phonographs, although they continued selling Indestructible's cylinders under the Columbia name for a year or two more. Columbia was split into one to make records and one to make players. Columbia Phonograph was moved to Connecticut, Ed Easton went with it, it was renamed the Dictaphone Corporation. In late 1922, Columbia went into receivership; the company was bought by its English subsidiary, the Columbia Graphophone Company in 1925 and the label, record numbering system, recording process changed. On February 25, 1925, Columbia began recording with the electric recording process licensed from Western Electric.
"Viva-tonal" records set a benchmark in tone and clarity unequaled on commercial discs during the 78-rpm era. The first electrical recordings were made by Art Gillham, the "Whispering Pianist". In a secret agreement with Victor, electrical technology was kept secret to avoid hurting sales of acoustic records. In 1926, Columbia acquired Okeh Records and its growing stable of jazz and blues artists, including Louis Armstrong and Clarence Williams. Columbia had built a catalog of blues and jazz artists, including Bessie Smith in their 14000-D Race series. Columbia had a successful "Hillbilly" series. In 1928, Paul Whiteman, the nation's most popular orchestra leader, left Victor to record for Columbia. During the same year, Columbia executiv
Pocahontas II: Journey to a New World
Pocahontas II: Journey to a New World is a 1998 direct-to-video sequel to the 1995 Disney film Pocahontas. While the first film dealt with her meeting with John Smith and the arrival of the British settlers in Jamestown, the sequel focuses on Pocahontas's journey to England with John Rolfe to negotiate for peace between the two nations, although her death is omitted from the film's ending. In London, John Smith is ambushed by a group of soldiers with a warrant for his arrest and presumed dead in the ensuing confrontation. In order to prevent this, the King sends a young diplomat, John Rolfe, to bring Chief Powhatan to England for negotiations. In the New World, Powhatan's daughter, mourns John Smith's death but is able to move on. John Rolfe soon arrives, greeted by a curious Pocahontas. Rolfe speaks with Powhatan, but he refuses to accompany him to England, so Pocahontas goes in her father's stead, believing that she can bring about peace between the two nations. Powhatan sends a bodyguard. Rolfe and Pocahontas have a rocky start, but warm up to each other.
In England, Rolfe leaves Pocahontas at his mansion and meets with King James and Queen Anne, but James refuses to meet with Pocahontas despite Rolfe's pleas. Instead, per Ratcliffe's suggestion, James invites both Rolfe and Pocahontas to an upcoming ball and promises that if Pocahontas impresses him by acting "civilised", he will prevent the armada from sailing to Jamestown, but if she does not, he will declare war. Knowing that Ratcliffe deliberately manipulated the King and his maid, Mrs. Jenkins, educate Pocahontas in the ways of British etiquette to prepare her. At the ball, Pocahontas wins over the King and Queen with flattery and manages to prevent war, but a bear-baiting arranged by Ratcliffe and enjoyed by the snobbish nobility infuriates Pocahontas and she accuses the King of savage behaviour. James angrily orders Pocahontas and Uti imprisoned in the Tower of London, declares war on the Powhatan tribe. At his home, a despondent Rolfe is approached by a hooded stranger who helps him break Pocahontas and Uti out of the tower and take them to an inn, where the man reveals himself to be John Smith.
Smith implores Pocahontas to stay hidden with him, but she instead takes Rolfe's advice and decides to try and stop the war one last time. She confronts the King in the palace and reveals Smith, thus proving that Ratcliffe had been lying the entire time. Realizing Ratcliffe's treachery, James sends a battalion to stop the armada, they are successful in stopping the ships before they can set sail, but Ratcliffe refuses to give up and tries to kill Pocahontas. Smith appears and fights Ratcliffe one-on-one until Ratcliffe draws a gun, but before he can fire, Rolfe sends him overboard with the ship's mast. Ratcliffe makes it back to the port. Smith receives his own ship from the King as a sign of apology. Pocahontas and Rolfe, appear on the verge of admitting that they love each other. Before they can, Smith appears and implores Pocahontas to accompany him on his new journeys around the world, but Pocahontas chooses otherwise and she and Smith part ways as friends; as Pocahontas prepares to return to Jamestown, she finds Rolfe waiting for her on the ship, having chosen to go and live with her in Jamestown.
They kiss as the ship sails into the sunset. Irene Bedard as Pocahontas: the main character. Desiring everlasting peace between England and her people, she travels to London as a diplomat, falling in love with John Rolfe on the way. Billy Zane as John Rolfe: the diplomat sent to bring Chief Powhatan to England and who falls in love with Pocahontas to the point that he stands up against Ratcliffe and King James. Donal Gibson as Captain John Smith: Pocahontas's one time love, presumed dead after a confrontation with Ratcliffe, he resurfaces to aid Pocahontas and John Rolfe against Ratcliffe. Gibson replaces his older brother, who voiced Smith in the first film. David Ogden Stiers as Governor Ratcliffe: the main villain. Having lied to King James about the events in Jamestown, Ratcliffe becomes more determined than to go to war with the Powhatans in order to find his falsely speculated treasure if it means influencing the King. John Kassir as Meeko: Pocahontas's pet raccoon looking for fun. Russell Means as Chief Powhatan: Pocahontas's father and chief of the Powhatans.
He refuses to travel to England, so Pocahontas goes in his stead. Frank Welker as Flit: Pocahontas's hummingbird friend, now warmer towards strangers than before. Linda Hunt as Grandmother Willow: Pocahontas's spiritual guardian, she advises Pocahontas to go to England for peace. Danny Mann as Percy: once Ratcliffe's pet dog, now living with Pocahontas and Meeko in Jamestown. Michelle St. John as Nakoma: Pocahontas's best friend, now married to a Powhatan who somewhat resembles Kocoum. Jim Cummings as King James: King of England. While well-meaning, he is portrayed as a simple-minded buffoon, easily manipulated by Ratcliffe. Finola Hughes as Queen Anne: James's wife, somewhat more intelligent and open than her husband. Jean Stapleton as Mrs. Jenkins: John Rolfe's well-meaning housemaid. Brad Garrett as Uttamatomakkin: Pocahontas's bodyguard, sent by Powhat
National Library of Poland
The National Library of Poland is the central Polish library, subject directly to the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage of the Republic of Poland. The library collects books, journals and audiovisual publications published in the territory of Poland, as well as Polonica published abroad, it is the most important humanities research library, the main archive of Polish writing and the state centre of bibliographic information about books. It plays a significant role as a research facility and is an important methodological center for other Polish libraries; the National Library receives a copy of every book published in Poland as legal deposit. The Jagiellonian Library is the only other library in Poland to have a national library status. There are three general sections: The Library The Bibliographic Institute of the National Library The Book and Readership Institute The National Library's history has origins in the 18th century including items from the collections of John III Sobieski which were obtained from his grand daughter Maria Karolina Sobieska, Duchess of Bouillon.
However, the Załuski collection was confiscated by troops of Russian tsarina Catherine II in the aftermath of the second Partition of Poland and sent to Saint Petersburg, where the books formed the mass of the Imperial Public Library on its formation in 1795. Parts of the collection were damaged or destroyed as they were mishandled while being removed from the library and transported to Russia, many were stolen. According to the historian Joachim Lelewel, the Zaluskis' books, "could be bought at Grodno by the basket"; because of that, when Poland regained her independence in 1918, there was no central institution to serve in the capacity of a national library. On 24 February 1928, by the decree of president Ignacy Mościcki, the National Library was created in its modern form, it was opened in 1930 and had 200 thousand volumes. Its first Director General was Stefan Demby, succeeded in 1934 by Stefan Vrtel-Wierczyński; the collections of the library were extended. For instance, in 1932 president Mościcki donated all of the books and manuscripts from the Wilanów Palace Museum to the library, some 40 thousand volumes and 20 thousand pictures from the collection of Stanisław Kostka Potocki.
The National Library lacked a seat of its own. Because of that, the collections had to be accommodated in several places; the main reading room was located in the newly built library building of the Warsaw School of Economics. In 1935 the Potocki Palace in Warsaw became home for the special collections. A new, purpose-built building for the library was planned in what is now the Pole Mokotowskie, in a planned monumental "Government District". However, its construction was hampered by the outbreak of World War II. Before World War II, the library collections consisted of: 6.5 million books and journals from 19th and 20th centuries 3,000 early prints 2,200 incunables 52,000 manuscripts maps and musicIn 1940 the Nazi occupants changed the National Library into Municipal Library of Warsaw and divided it as follows: Department of Books for Germans Restricted Department, containing books that were not available to readers All special collections from various Warsaw offices and institutions In 1944 the special collections were set ablaze by the Nazi occupants as a part of repressions after the Warsaw Uprising.
80,000 early printed books, including priceless 16th-18th century Polonica, 26,000 manuscripts, 2,500 incunables, 100,000 drawings and engravings, 50,000 pieces of sheet music and theatre materials were destroyed. It is estimated that out of over 6 million volumes in Warsaw's major libraries in 1939, 3.6 million volumes were lost during World War II, a large part of them belonging to the National Library. Today the collections of the National Library are one of the largest in the country. Among 7,900,000 volumes held in the library are 160,000 objects printed before 1801, over 26,000 manuscripts, over 114,000 music prints and 400,000 drawings; the library collections include photographs and other iconographic documents, more than 101,000 atlases and maps, over 2,000,000 ephemera, as well as over 2,000,000 books and about 800,000 copies of journals from 19th to 21st centuries. Notable items in the collection include 151 leaves of the Codex Suprasliensis, inscribed in UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme Register in 2007 in recognition for its supranational and supraregional significance.
In 2012 the library signed an agreement to add 1.3 million Polish library records to WorldCat. List of libraries damaged during the World War II Digital Library of the National Library of Poland National Library website Polona - National Digital Library A Commonwealth of Diverse Cultures