Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans. "Roman mythology" may refer to the modern study of these representations, to the subject matter as represented in the literature and art of other cultures in any period. The Romans treated their traditional narratives as historical when these have miraculous or supernatural elements; the stories are concerned with politics and morality, how an individual's personal integrity relates to his or her responsibility to the community or Roman state. Heroism was an important theme; when the stories illuminate Roman religious practices, they are more concerned with ritual and institutions than with theology or cosmogony. The study of Roman religion and myth is complicated by the early influence of Greek religion on the Italian peninsula during Rome's protohistory, by the artistic imitation of Greek literary models by Roman authors.
In matters of theology, the Romans were curiously eager to identify their own gods with those of the Greeks, to reinterpret stories about Greek deities under the names of their Roman counterparts. Rome's early myths and legends have a dynamic relationship with Etruscan religion, less documented than that of the Greeks. While Roman mythology may lack a body of divine narratives as extensive as that found in Greek literature and Remus suckling the she-wolf is as famous as any image from Greek mythology except for the Trojan Horse; because Latin literature was more known in Europe throughout the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance, the interpretations of Greek myths by the Romans had a greater influence on narrative and pictorial representations of "classical mythology" than Greek sources. In particular, the versions of Greek myths in Ovid's Metamorphoses, written during the reign of Augustus, came to be regarded as canonical; because ritual played the central role in Roman religion that myth did for the Greeks, it is sometimes doubted that the Romans had much of a native mythology.
This perception is a product of Romanticism and the classical scholarship of the 19th century, which valued Greek civilization as more "authentically creative." From the Renaissance to the 18th century, Roman myths were an inspiration for European painting. The Roman tradition is rich in historical myths, or legends, concerning the foundation and rise of the city; these narratives focus on human actors, with only occasional intervention from deities but a pervasive sense of divinely ordered destiny. In Rome's earliest period and myth have a mutual and complementary relationship; as T. P. Wiseman notes: The Roman stories still matter, as they mattered to Dante in 1300 and Shakespeare in 1600 and the founding fathers of the United States in 1776. What does it take to be a free citizen? Can a superpower still be a republic? How does well-meaning authority turn into murderous tyranny? Major sources for Roman myth include the Aeneid of Vergil and the first few books of Livy's history as well as Dionysius' s Roman Antiquities.
Other important sources are the Fasti of Ovid, a six-book poem structured by the Roman religious calendar, the fourth book of elegies by Propertius. Scenes from Roman myth appear in Roman wall painting and sculpture reliefs; the Aeneid and Livy's early history are the best extant sources for Rome's founding myths. Material from Greek heroic legend was grafted onto this native stock at an early date; the Trojan prince Aeneas was cast as husband of Lavinia, daughter of King Latinus, patronymical ancestor of the Latini, therefore through a convoluted revisionist genealogy as forebear of Romulus and Remus. By extension, the Trojans were adopted as the mythical ancestors of the Roman people; the characteristic myths of Rome are political or moral, that is, they deal with the development of Roman government in accordance with divine law, as expressed by Roman religion, with demonstrations of the individual's adherence to moral expectations or failures to do so. Rape of the Sabine women, explaining the importance of the Sabines in the formation of Roman culture, the growth of Rome through conflict and alliance.
Numa Pompilius, the Sabine second king of Rome who consorted with the nymph Egeria and established many of Rome's legal and religious institutions. Servius Tullius, the sixth king of Rome, whose mysterious origins were mythologized and, said to have been the lover of the goddess Fortuna; the Tarpeian Rock, why it was used for the execution of traitors. Lucretia, whose self-sacrifice prompted the overthrow of the early Roman monarchy and led to the establishment of the Republic. Cloelia, A Roman woman taken hostage by Lars Porsena, she escaped the Clusian camp with a group of Roman virgins. Horatius at the bridge, on the importance of individual valor. Mucius Scaevola, who thrust his right hand into the fire to prove his loyalty to Rome. Caeculus and the founding of Praeneste. Manlius and the geese, about divine intervention at the Gallic siege of Rome. Stories pertaining to the Nonae Caprotinae and Poplifugia festivals. Coriolanus, a story of politics and morality; the Etruscan city of Corythus as the "cradle" of Trojan and Italian civilization.
The arrival of the Great Mother in Rome. Narratives of divine activity played a more important role in the system of Greek religious belief than among the Romans, for whom ritual and cult were primary. Although Roman religion did not have a basis in scriptures and exegesis, priestly literature was one of the earliest written forms of Latin prose; the books and commentaries of the College of Pontiffs and
St Nectan's Glen
Saint Nectan's Glen is an area of woodland in Trethevy near Tintagel, north Cornwall stretching for around one mile along both banks of the Trevillet River. The glen's most prominent feature is St Nectan's Kieve, a spectacular sixty foot waterfall through a hole in the rocks; the site attracts tourists who believe it to be "one of the UK's most spiritual sites," and tie or place ribbons, photographs, small piles of flat stones and other materials near the waterfall. It is believed locally that, in the sixth century, Saint Nectan had a hermitage above the waterfall, rang a silver bell to warn ships of the dangers of offshore rocks at the mouth of the Rocky Valley during storms; the site was known as Nathan's Cave in 1799, named after a local character, either Nathan Williams or Nathan Cock. There is a late nineteenth or early twentieth century half-timbered private residence known as The Hermitage constructed on the remains of a Celtic chapel. Further downstream are the brick remains of St Gerwyn, a house, destroyed in a fire in the mid-twentieth century.
The supposed connection with St Nectan is a Victorian invention and the current use of the site as a place for depositing "sacred offerings" is a more recent invention. The more recent fashion for calling the waterfall Merlin's Well has no basis in any local tradition; as a result of the glen's flora and fauna it was designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest in 1985. The damp shade provided by the glen supports a rich bryophyte flora, including two rare liverworts Jubula hutchinsiae and Trichocolea tomentella, the mosses Fissidens curnovii and Fissidens osmundoides. Dippers nest in the rocks near Saint Nectan's Kieve; the site is owned but there is free public access to the glen. A charge is made to visit the waterfall. In 2011 the Friends of St Nectan's Glen attempted to raise enough money to buy the site of 14 acres from the owner Barry Litton. A guide price of £800,000 was set by the estate agents; the site and adjacent café were purchased in 2012 by Guy Mills, a business park owner who said that his intention was to maintain it as "a place of inward reflection and self-realisation for everyone to enjoy".
The café attracted 10,000 visitors a year, before its recent refurbishment under the new owners. Clootie well "Photos of St Nectan's Glen and Waterfall". Marhamchurch website. "St Nectan's Glen and Waterfall"
The Celts are an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group of Europe identified by their use of Celtic languages and cultural similarities. The history of pre-Celtic Europe and the exact relationship between ethnic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial; the exact geographic spread of the ancient Celts is disputed. According to one theory, the common root of the Celtic languages, the Proto-Celtic language, arose in the Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture of Central Europe, which flourished from around 1200 BC. According to a theory proposed in the 19th century, the first people to adopt cultural characteristics regarded as Celtic were the people of the Iron Age Hallstatt culture in central Europe, named for the rich grave finds in Hallstatt, Austria, thus this area is sometimes called the "Celtic homeland". By or during the La Tène period, this Celtic culture was supposed to have expanded by trans-cultural diffusion or migration to the British Isles and the Low Countries, Bohemia and much of Central Europe, the Iberian Peninsula and northern Italy and, following the Celtic settlement of Eastern Europe beginning in 279 BC, as far east as central Anatolia in modern-day Turkey.
The earliest undisputed direct examples of a Celtic language are the Lepontic inscriptions beginning in the 6th century BC. Continental Celtic languages are attested exclusively through inscriptions and place-names. Insular Celtic languages are attested beginning around the 4th century in Ogham inscriptions, although they were being spoken much earlier. Celtic literary tradition begins with Old Irish texts around the 8th century CE. Coherent texts of Early Irish literature, such as the Táin Bó Cúailnge, survive in 12th-century recensions. By the mid-1st millennium, with the expansion of the Roman Empire and migrating Germanic tribes, Celtic culture and Insular Celtic languages had become restricted to Ireland, the western and northern parts of Great Britain, the Isle of Man, Brittany. Between the 5th and 8th centuries, the Celtic-speaking communities in these Atlantic regions emerged as a reasonably cohesive cultural entity, they had a common linguistic and artistic heritage that distinguished them from the culture of the surrounding polities.
By the 6th century, the Continental Celtic languages were no longer in wide use. Insular Celtic culture diversified into that of the Gaels and the Celtic Britons of the medieval and modern periods. A modern Celtic identity was constructed as part of the Romanticist Celtic Revival in Great Britain and other European territories, such as Portugal and Spanish Galicia. Today, Scottish Gaelic and Breton are still spoken in parts of their historical territories, Cornish and Manx are undergoing a revival; the first recorded use of the name of Celts – as Κελτοί – to refer to an ethnic group was by Hecataeus of Miletus, the Greek geographer, in 517 BC, when writing about a people living near Massilia. In the fifth century BC, Herodotus referred to Keltoi living around the head of the Danube and in the far west of Europe; the etymology of the term Keltoi is unclear. Possible roots include Indo-European *kʲel'to hide', IE *kʲel'to heat' or *kel'to impel'. Several authors have supposed it to be Celtic in origin, while others view it as a name coined by Greeks.
Linguist Patrizia De Bernardo Stempel falls in the latter group, suggests the meaning "the tall ones". In the 1st century BC, Julius Caesar reported that the people known to the Romans as Gauls called themselves Celts, which suggests that if the name Keltoi was bestowed by the Greeks, it had been adopted to some extent as a collective name by the tribes of Gaul; the geographer Strabo, writing about Gaul towards the end of the first century BC, refers to the "race, now called both Gallic and Galatic," though he uses the term Celtica as a synonym for Gaul, separated from Iberia by the Pyrenees. Yet he reports Celtic peoples in Iberia, uses the ethnic names Celtiberi and Celtici for peoples there, as distinct from Lusitani and Iberi. Pliny the Elder cited the use of Celtici in Lusitania as a tribal surname, which epigraphic findings have confirmed. Latin Gallus might stem from a Celtic ethnic or tribal name perhaps one borrowed into Latin during the Celtic expansions into Italy during the early fifth century BC.
Its root may be the Proto-Celtic *galno, meaning "power, strength", hence Old Irish gal "boldness, ferocity" and Welsh gallu "to be able, power". The tribal names of Gallaeci and the Greek Γαλάται most have the same origin; the suffix -atai might be an Ancient Greek inflection. Classical writers did not apply the terms Κελτοί or Celtae to the inhabitants of Britain or Ireland, which has led to some scholars preferring not to use the term for the Iron Age inhabitants of those islands. Celt is a modern English word, first attested in 1707, in the writing of Edward Lhuyd, whose work, along with that of other late 17th-century scholars, brought academic attention to the languages and history of the early Celtic inhabitants of Great Britain; the English form Gaul (first recorded in the 17th cent
The River Boyne is a river in Leinster, the course of, about 112 kilometres long. It rises at Trinity Well, Newberry Hall, near Carbury, County Kildare, flows towards the Northeast through County Meath to reach the Irish Sea between Mornington, County Meath, Baltray, County Louth. Salmon and trout can be caught in the river, surrounded by the Boyne Valley, it is crossed just west of Drogheda by the Boyne River Bridge, which carries the M1 motorway, by the Boyne Viaduct, which carries the Dublin-Belfast railway line to the east. The catchment area of the River Boyne is 2,695 km2; the long term average flow rate of the River Boyne is 38.8 cubic metres per second. Despite its short course, the Boyne has historical and mythical connotations; the Battle of the Boyne, a major battle in Irish history, took place along the Boyne near Drogheda in 1690 during the Williamite war in Ireland. It passes through the ancient town of Trim, Trim Castle, the Hill of Tara, the Hill of Slane, Brú na Bóinne, Mellifont Abbey, the medieval town of Drogheda.
In the Boyne Valley can be found other historical and archaeological monuments, including Loughcrew, Celtic crosses, castles. This river has been known since ancient times; the Greek geographer Ptolemy drew a map of Ireland in the 2nd century which included the Boyne, which he called Βουουινδα or Βουβινδα. During the High Middle Ages, Giraldus Cambrensis called it the Boandus. In Irish mythology it is said that the river was created by the goddess Boann, according to F. Dinneen, lexicographer of the Irish Gaelic language, Boyne is an anglicised form of the name. In other legends, it was in this river where Fionn mac Cumhail captured Fiontán, the Salmon of Knowledge; the Meath section of the Boyne was known as Smior Fionn Feidhlimthe. The Boyne Navigation is a series of canals running parallel to the main river from Oldbridge near Drogheda to Navan. Owned by An Taisce and derelict, the Inland Waterways Association of Ireland are restoring the navigation to navigable status; the canal at )Oldbridge which runs through the battle of the Boyne Site was the first to be restored.
A rock with indications of being Prehistoric art was found in August 2013. Cliadh O’Gibne reported through the Archaeological Survey of Ireland that a boulder with geometric carvings had been found in Donore, County Meath; the Boyne Fishermen's Rescue and Recovery Service, near Drogheda, County Louth, were doing one of their regular operations to remove shopping trolleys from the Boyne, in May 2013, when they discovered an ancient log boat, which experts believe may be 5000 years old. Initial examination by an underwater archaeologist, suggests it could be rare because, unlike other log-boats found here, it has oval shapes on the upper edge which could have held oars. Investigations were on-going as of 2013. In 2006, the remains of a Viking ship were found in the river bed in Drogheda during dredging operations; the vessel is to be excavated. See Annals of Inisfallen AI770.2 The battle of Bolg Bóinne against the Uí Néill, by the Laigin. HMS Boyne Salmon fishing on the River Boyne, from Salmon Ireland A canoeing and kayaking guide to the River Boyne, from Irish Whitewater
Neck (water spirit)
The neck, nixie or nokken are shapeshifting water spirits in Germanic mythology and folklore who appeared in forms of other creatures. Under a variety of names, they were common to the stories of all Germanic peoples, although they are best known from Scandinavian folklore; the related English knucker was depicted as a wyrm or dragon, although more recent versions depict the spirits in other forms. Their sex and various transformations vary geographically; the German Nix and his Scandinavian counterparts were males. The German Nixe was a female river mermaid; the names are held to derive from Common Germanic * nikwis, derived from PIE * neigw. They are related to Sanskrit nḗnēkti, Greek νίζω nízō and νίπτω níptō, Irish nigh; the form neck appears in Swedish. The Swedish form is derived from Old Swedish neker, which corresponds to Old Icelandic nykr, nykk in Norwegian Nynorsk. In Finnish, the word is näkki. In Old Danish, the form was nikke and in modern Danish and Norwegian Bokmål it is nøkk; the Icelandic and Faroese nykur are horselike creatures.
In Middle Low German, it was called necker and in Middle Dutch nicker. The Old High German form nihhus meant "crocodile", while the Old English nicor could mean both a "water monster" like those encountered by Beowulf, a "hippopotamus"; the Norwegian Fossegrim and Swedish Strömkarlen are related figures sometimes seen as by-names for the same creature. The southern Scandinavian version can transform himself into a horse-like kelpie, is called a Bäckahästen, whilst the Welsh version is called the Ceffyl Dŵr. English folklore contains many creatures with similar characteristics to the Näck; these include Jenny Greenteeth, the Shellycoat, the river-hag Peg Powler, the Bäckahäst-like Brag, the Grindylow. At Lyminster near Arundel in the English county of Sussex, there are today said to dwell "water-wyrms" called knuckers, in a pool called the Knucker-hole; the great Victorian authority Skeat had plausibly suggested the pool's name of knucker was derived from the Old English nicor, a creature-name found in Beowulf.
Yet the waters at the pool were badly muddied by a local antiquarian named Samuel Evershed, who from 1866 tried assiduously to connect the pool with dragons and thus with the tale of St. George and the Dragon. Any authentic water-sprite folklore the site may have had was thus trampled down by Evershed's enthusiastic inculcation of the local people in ideas about water-dragons; the Scandinavian näcken, näkki, nøkk were male water spirits who played enchanted songs on the violin, luring women and children to drown in lakes or streams. However, not all of these spirits were malevolent. Stories exist wherein the Fossegrim agreed to live with a human who had fallen in love with him, but many of these stories ended with the nøkk returning to his home a nearby waterfall or brook; the nøkker were said to grow despondent unless they had regular contact with a water source. The Norwegian Fossegrim or Grim, Swedish strömkarl, is a related figure who, if properly approached, will teach a musician to play so adeptly "that the trees dance and waterfalls stop at his music".
It is difficult to describe the appearance of the nix, as one of his central attributes was thought to be shapeshifting. He did not have any true shape, he could show himself as a man playing the violin in brooks and waterfalls but could appear to be treasure or various floating objects, or as an animal—most in the form of a "brook horse". The modern Scandinavian names are derived from Old Norse nykr, meaning "river horse". Thus, it is that the figure of the brook horse preceded the personification of the nix as the "man in the rapids". Fossegrim and derivatives were always portrayed as beautiful young men, whose clothing varied from story to story; the enthralling music of the nøkk was most dangerous to women and children pregnant women and unbaptised children. He was thought to be most active during Midsummer's Night, on Christmas Eve, on Thursdays. However, these superstitions do not relate to all the versions listed here. Many, if not all of them, developed after the Christianizing of the northern countries, as was the case of similar stories of faeries and other entities in other areas.
When malicious nøkker attempted to carry off people, they could be defeated by calling their name. Another belief was that if a person bought the nøkk a treat of three drops of blood, a black animal, some brännvin or snus dropped into the water, he would teach his enchanting form of music; the nøkk was an omen for drowning accidents. He would scream at a particular spot in a lake or river, in a way reminiscent of the loon, on that spot, a fatality would take place, he was said to cause drownings, but swimmers could protect themselves against such a fate by throwing a bit of steel into the water. In the Romantic folklore and folklore-inspired stories of the 19
Tintagel or Trevena is a civil parish and village situated on the Atlantic coast of Cornwall, United Kingdom. The population of the parish was 1,820 people, the area of the parish is 4,281 acres; the parish population decreased to 1,727 at the 2011 census. An electoral ward exists extending inland to Otterham; the population of this ward at the same census was 3,990. The village and nearby Tintagel Castle are associated with the legends surrounding King Arthur; the village has, in recent times, become attractive to day-trippers and tourists, is one of the most-visited places in Britain. Treknow is the largest of the other settlements in the parish, which include Trethevy, Tregatta and Trewarmett. Toponymists have had difficulty explaining the origin of'Tintagel': the probability is that it is Norman French, as the Cornish of the 13th century would have lacked the soft'g'. If it is Cornish then'Dun' would mean Fort. Oliver Padel proposes'Dun"-tagell' meaning narrow place in his book on place names.
There is a possible cognate in the Channel Islands named Tente d'Agel, but that still leaves the question subject to doubt. The name first occurs in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae as Tintagol, implying pronunciation with a hard sound as in modern English girl, but in Layamon's Brut, in early Middle English, the name is rendered as Tintaieol. The letter i in this spelling implies a soft consonant like modern English j. An oft-quoted Celtic etymology in the Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names, accepts the view of Padel that the name is from Cornish *din meaning fort and *tagell meaning neck, constriction, narrow; the modern-day village of Tintagel was always known as Trevena until the Post Office started using'Tintagel' as the name in the mid-19th century. The village has the'Old Post Office', which dates from the 14th century, it became a post office during the 19th century, is now listed Grade I and owned by the National Trust. In Geoffrey's Historia, Duke of Cornwall, puts his wife Igraine in Tintagol while he is at war.
Merlin disguised Uther Pendragon as Gorlois so that Uther could enter Tintagel and impregnate Igraine while pretending to be Gorlois. Uther and Igraine's child was King Arthur. In the Tristan and Iseult legend some events are set at Tintagel. In Norman times a small castle was established at Bossiney before the Domesday Survey of 1086. In Domesday Book there are two manors in this parish. Bossiney was held from the monks of Bodmin by the Earl of Cornwall: there was land for 6 ploughs and 30 acres of pasture; the monks of Bodmin held Treknow themselves: there was land for 8 ploughs and 100 acres of pasture. Tintagel was one of the 17 Antiqua maneria of the Duchy of Cornwall; the parish feast traditionally celebrated at Tintagel was 19 October, the feast day of St Denys, patron of the chapel at Trevena. The market hall and the site of the fair were near the chapel; the borough of Bossiney was given the right to send two MPs to Parliament c. 1552 and continued to do so until 1832 when its status as a borough was abolished.
The villages of Trevena and Bossiney were until the early 20th century separated by fields along Bossiney Road. The Tithe Commissioners' survey was carried out in 1840–41 and recorded the area of the parish as 4,280 acres, of which arable and pasture land was 3,200 acres; the land owned by the largest landowner, Lord Wharncliffe, amounted to 1,814 acres, there was 125 acres of glebe land. Precise details of the size and tenure of every piece of land are given. Sidney Madge did research into the history of the parish and compiled a manuscript Records of Tintagel in 1945. On 6 July 1979, Tintagel was subject to national attention when an RAF Hawker Hunter fighter aircraft crashed into the village following an engine malfunction; the unusual incident caused no deaths. The Ravenna Cosmography, of around 700, makes reference to Purocoronavis,'a fort or walled settlement of the Cornovii': the location is unidentified, but Tintagel and Carn Brea have both been suggested. Major excavations beginning with C. A. Ralegh Radford's work in the 1930s on and around the site of the 12th-century castle have revealed that Tintagel headland was the site of a high status Celtic monastery or a princely fortress and trading settlement dating to the 5th and 6th centuries, in the period following the withdrawal of the Romans from Britain.
Finds of Mediterranean oil and wine jars show that Sub-Roman Britain was not the isolated outpost it was considered to be, for an extensive trade in high-value goods was
Cornwall is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom. The county is bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar which forms most of the border between them. Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the South West Peninsula of the island of Great Britain; the furthest southwestern point of Great Britain is Land's End. Cornwall has a population of 563,600 and covers an area of 3,563 km2; the county has been administered since 2009 by Cornwall Council. The ceremonial county of Cornwall includes the Isles of Scilly, which are administered separately; the administrative centre of Cornwall, its only city, is Truro. Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and the cultural and ethnic origin of the Cornish diaspora, it retains a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history, is recognised as one of the Celtic nations. It was a Brythonic kingdom and subsequently a royal duchy; the Cornish nationalist movement contests the present constitutional status of Cornwall and seeks greater autonomy within the United Kingdom in the form of a devolved legislative Cornish Assembly with powers similar to those in Wales and Scotland.
In 2014, Cornish people were granted minority status under the European Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, giving them recognition as a distinct ethnic group. First inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods, Cornwall continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age peoples, by Brythons with strong ethnic, linguistic and cultural links to Wales and Brittany the latter of, settled by Britons from the region. Mining in Cornwall and Devon in the south-west of England began in the early Bronze Age. Few Roman remains have been found in Cornwall, there is little evidence that the Romans settled or had much military presence there. After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Cornwall was a part of the Brittonic kingdom of Dumnonia, ruled by chieftains of the Cornovii who may have included figures regarded as semi-historical or legendary, such as King Mark of Cornwall and King Arthur, evidenced by folklore traditions derived from the Historia Regum Britanniae.
The Cornovii division of the Dumnonii tribe were separated from their fellow Brythons of Wales after the Battle of Deorham in 577 AD, came into conflict with the expanding English kingdom of Wessex. The regions of Dumnonia outside of Cornwall had been annexed by the English by 838 AD. King Athelstan in 936 AD set the boundary between the English and Cornish at the high water mark of the eastern bank of the River Tamar. From the early Middle Ages and culture were shared by Brythons trading across both sides of the Channel, resulting in the corresponding high medieval Breton kingdoms of Domnonée and Cornouaille and the Celtic Christianity common to both areas. Tin mining was important in the Cornish economy. In the mid-19th century, the tin and copper mines entered a period of decline. Subsequently, china clay extraction became more important, metal mining had ended by the 1990s. Traditionally and agriculture were the other important sectors of the economy. Railways led to a growth of tourism in the 20th century.
Cornwall is noted for coastal scenery. A large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall; the north coast has many cliffs. The area is noted for its wild moorland landscapes, its long and varied coastline, its attractive villages, its many place-names derived from the Cornish language, its mild climate. Extensive stretches of Cornwall's coastline, Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the modern English name Cornwall is a compound of two ancient demonyms coming from two different language groups: Corn- originates from the Brythonic tribe, the Cornovii. The Celtic word "kernou" is cognate with the English word "horn". -wall derives from the Old English exonym walh, meaning "foreigner" or "Roman". In the Cornish language, Cornwall is known as Kernow which stems from a similar linguistic background; the present human history of Cornwall begins with the reoccupation of Britain after the last Ice Age. The area now known as Cornwall was first inhabited in the Mesolithic periods.
It continued to be occupied by Neolithic and Bronze Age people. According to John T. Koch and others, Cornwall in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age, in modern-day Ireland, Wales, France and Portugal. During the British Iron Age, like all of Britain, was inhabited by a Celtic people known as the Britons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Brittany; the Common Brittonic spoken at the time developed into several distinct tongues, including Cornish, Breton and Pictish. The first account of Cornwall comes from the 1st-century BC Sicilian Greek historian Diodorus Siculus quoting or paraphrasing the 4th-century BCE geographer P