Domitian was Roman emperor from 81 to 96. He was the younger brother of Titus and the son of Vespasian, his two predecessors on the throne, the last member of the Flavian dynasty. During his reign, the authoritarian nature of his rule put him at sharp odds with the senate, whose powers he drastically curtailed. Domitian had a minor and ceremonial role during the reigns of his father and brother. After the death of his brother, Domitian was declared emperor by the Praetorian Guard, his 15-year reign was the longest since that of Tiberius. As emperor, Domitian strengthened the economy by revaluing the Roman coinage, expanded the border defenses of the empire, initiated a massive building program to restore the damaged city of Rome. Significant wars were fought in Britain, where his general Agricola attempted to conquer Caledonia, in Dacia, where Domitian was unable to procure a decisive victory against king Decebalus. Domitian's government exhibited strong authoritarian characteristics. Religious and cultural propaganda fostered a cult of personality, by nominating himself perpetual censor, he sought to control public and private morals.
As a consequence, Domitian was popular with the people and army, but considered a tyrant by members of the Roman Senate. Domitian's reign came to an end in 96, he was succeeded the same day by his advisor Nerva. After his death, Domitian's memory was condemned to oblivion by the Roman Senate, while senatorial authors such as Tacitus, Pliny the Younger, Suetonius propagated the view of Domitian as a cruel and paranoid tyrant. Modern revisionists instead have characterized Domitian as a ruthless but efficient autocrat whose cultural and political programs provided the foundation of the peaceful second century. Domitian was born in Rome on 24 October 51, the youngest son of Titus Flavius Vespasianus—commonly known as Vespasian—and Flavia Domitilla Major, he had an older sister, Domitilla the Younger, brother named Titus Flavius Vespasianus. Decades of civil war during the 1st century BC had contributed to the demise of the old aristocracy of Rome, which a new Italian nobility replaced in prominence during the early part of the 1st century.
One such family, the Flavians, or gens Flavia, rose from relative obscurity to prominence in just four generations, acquiring wealth and status under the emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Domitian's great-grandfather, Titus Flavius Petro, had served as a centurion under Pompey during Caesar's civil war, his military career ended in disgrace when he fled the battlefield at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC. Petro managed to improve his status by marrying the wealthy Tertulla, whose fortune guaranteed the upward mobility of Petro's son Titus Flavius Sabinus I, Domitian's grandfather. Sabinus himself amassed further wealth and possible equestrian status through his services as tax collector in Asia and banker in Helvetia. By marrying Vespasia Polla he allied the Flavian family to the more prestigious gens Vespasia, ensuring the elevation of his sons Titus Flavius Sabinus II and Vespasian to senatorial rank; the political career of Vespasian included the offices of quaestor and praetor, culminated in a consulship in 51, the year of Domitian's birth.
As a military commander, Vespasian gained early renown by participating in the Roman invasion of Britain in 43. Ancient sources allege poverty for the Flavian family at the time of Domitian's upbringing claiming Vespasian had fallen into disrepute under the emperors Caligula and Nero. Modern history has refuted these claims, suggesting these stories circulated under Flavian rule as part of a propaganda campaign to diminish success under the less reputable Emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and to maximize achievements under Emperor Claudius and his son Britannicus. By all appearances, the Flavians enjoyed high imperial favour throughout the 60s. While Titus received a court education in the company of Britannicus, Vespasian pursued a successful political and military career. Following a prolonged period of retirement during the 50s, he returned to public office under Nero, serving as proconsul of the Africa Province in 63, accompanying the emperor Nero during an official tour of Greece in 66.
That same year Jews from the Province of Judaea revolted against the Roman Empire, sparking what is now known as the First Jewish-Roman War. Vespasian was assigned to lead the Roman army against the insurgents, with Titus — who had completed his military education by this time — in charge of a legion. Of the three Flavian emperors, Domitian would rule the longest, despite the fact that his youth and early career were spent in the shadow of his older brother. Titus had gained military renown during the First Jewish–Roman War. After their father Vespasian became emperor in 69 following the civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors, Titus held a great many offices, while Domitian received honours, but no responsibilities. By the time he was 16 years old, Domitian's mother and sister had long since died, while his father and brother were continuously active in the Roman military, commanding armies in Germania and Judaea. For Domitian, this meant that a significant part of his adolescence was spent in the absence of his near relatives.
During the Jewish–Roman wars, he was taken under the care of his uncle Titus Flavius Sabinus II, at the time serving as city prefect of Rome.
Ernst Christian Andreas Martin Fabricius was a German historian and classical scholar. Between 1882 and 1888 he participated in excavations in Greece and Asia Minor and pioneered German research on the Roman Empire border defenses known as the Limes Germanicus. Ernst Fabricius began his university studies in Strasbourg. In 1881 he received a doctorate in'Comprehensive Greek Architecture' from the University of Bonn, his teachers included Rudolf Schöll, Heinrich Nissen and Hermann Usener. As a fellow of the German Archaeological Institute, along with geographer Heinrich Kiepert, he visited Italy and Asia Minor. In 1886, he was appointed professor of classical philology and ancient history at the University of Berlin. Subsequently, he participated in excavations in Greece and Asia Minor at Pergamon, Lesbos and Crete. From 1888 until his retirement he was professor of ancient history at the Albert-Ludwigs-Universität in Freiburg, the University of Freiburg in Breisgau. At the University of Freiburg, Fabricius was the dean of the college and Chairman of the Committee for the construction of the new universities.
In 1902 he was appointed President of the German Limes Commission for the Committee on the Germanic-Rhaetian Limes. During his career, Fabricius was extensively involved in politics, he served in the parliament of Baden from 1913 to 1918. He was a supporter of Pangermanism. For many years he was a member of the People's League for Germans Abroad becoming president of the association in 1920. Fabricius worked with Federico Halbherr on the Italian archaeological mission to Crete, was a major contributor in the excavation and study of the Gortyn Code on civil rights. Federico Halbherr, Ernst Fabricius e Domenico Comparetti, Leggi antiche della città di Gortyna in Creta. Firenze: Loescher, 1885 Der Limes vom Rhein bis zur Lahn. Nach den Untersuchungen der Streckenkommissare, Heidelberg 1915 Über die Lex Mamilia Roscia Peducaea Alliena Fabia, Heidelberg 1924 Mitherausgeber: Der obergermanisch-raetische Limes des Roemerreiches. Im Auftrag der Reichs-Limeskommission, Berlin-Leipzig, Heidelberg 1894-1938.
– Reprint Greiner, Remshalden, 2005, ISBN 978-3-935383-61-5 Jürgen von Beckerath, Wilhelm Schleiermacher: Bibliographie Ernst Fabricius. In: Bericht der Römisch-Germanischen Kommission 32, 1942, pp. 229–236. Breve autobiografia di Fabricius
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
A watchtower is a type of fortification used in many parts of the world. It differs from a regular tower in that its primary use is military and from a turret in that it is a freestanding structure, its main purpose is to provide a high, safe place from which a sentinel or guard may observe the surrounding area. In some cases, non-military towers, such as religious towers, may be used as watchtowers; the Romans built numerous towers as part of a system of communications, one example being the towers along Hadrian's Wall in Britain. Romans built many lighthouses, such as the Tower of Hercules in northern Spain, which survives to this day as a working building, the famous lighthouse at Dover Castle, which survives to about half its original height as a ruin. In medieval Europe, many castles and manor houses, or similar fortified buildings, were equipped with watchtowers. In some of the manor houses of western France, the watchtower equipped with arrow or gun loopholes was one of the principal means of defense.
A feudal lord could keep watch over his domain from the top of his tower. In southern Saudi Arabia and Yemen, small stone and mud towers called "qasaba" were constructed as either watchtowers or keeps in the Asir mountains. Furthermore, in Najd, a watchtower, called "Margab", was used to watch for approaching enemies far in distance and shout calling warnings from atop. Scotland saw the construction of Peel towers that combined the function of watchtower with that of a keep or tower house that served as the residence for a local notable family. Mediterranean countries, Italy in particular, saw the construction of numerous coastal watchtowers since the early Middle Ages, connected to the menace of Saracen attacks from the various Muslim states existing at the time. Many were restored or built against the Barbary pirates; some notable examples of military Mediterranean watchtowers include the towers that the Knights of Malta had constructed on the coasts of Malta. These towers ranged in size from small watchtowers to large structures armed with numerous cannons.
They include the Wignacourt, de Redin, Lascaris towers, named for the Grand Master, such as Martin de Redin, that commissioned each series. In the Channel Islands, the Jersey Round Towers and the Guernsey loophole towers date from the late 18th Century, they were erected to give warning of attacks by the French. The Martello towers that the British built in the UK and elsewhere in the British Empire were defensive fortifications that were armed with cannon and that were within line of sight of each other. One of the last Martello towers to be built was Fort Denison in Sydney harbour; the most recent descendants of the Martello Towers are the flak towers that the various combatants erected in World War II as mounts for anti-aircraft artillery. In modern warfare the relevance of watchtowers has decreased due to the availability of alternative forms of military intelligence, such as reconnaissance by spy satellites and unmanned aerial vehicles; however watch towers have been used in counter-insurgency wars to maintain a military presence in conflict areas in case such as by the French Army in French Indochina, by the British Army and the RUC in Northern Ireland and the IDF in Gaza and West Bank.
An example of nonmilitary watchtower in history is the one of Jerusalem. Though the Hebrews used it to keep a watch for approaching armies, the religious authorities forbade the taking of weapons up into the tower as this would require bringing weapons through the temple. Rebuilt by King Herod, that watchtower was renamed after Mark Antony, his friend who battled against Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus and lost. Diaolou Fire lookout tower Observation towers are similar constructions being outside of fortifications. A similar use have Control towers on airports or harbours. Media related to Watch towers at Wikimedia Commons
Rottweil is a town in southwest Germany in the state of Baden-Württemberg. Rottweil was a Free Imperial City for nearly 600 years. Located between the Black Forest and the Swabian Alps, Rottweil has about 25,000 inhabitants; the old town is famous for its traditional carnival. It is the oldest town in Baden-Württemberg and its appearance has changed little since the 16th century. Rottweil was founded by the Romans in AD 73 as Arae Flaviae and became a municipium, but there are traces of human settlement going back to 2000 BC. Roman baths and an Orpheus mosaic of c. AD 180, date from the time of Roman settlement; the present town became a ducal and a royal court before 771 and in the Middle Ages it became a Free Imperial City in 1268. In 1463 Rottweil joined the Swiss Confederacy under the pretence of a temporary alliance. In 1476 the Rottweilers fought on the side against Karl the Bold in the Battle of Morat. In 1512, Pope Julius II gave the city a valuable "Julius banner" for their services in the 1508-1510 "Great Pavier Campaign" to expel the French.
In 1519, they left the old alliance. They joined a new one in which their membership was extended indefinitely - the so-called "Eternal Covenant." Rottweil thus became a centre of the Swiss confederation. The relations between the Swiss Confederation and Rottweil cooled during the Reformation; when Rottweil was troubled by wars, however, it still asked the Confederates for help. In the Rottweil Witch Hunts from 1546 to 1661, 266 so-called witches and magicians executed in the imperial city of Rottweil. On April 15, 2015, they were given a posthumous pardon. An official apology was given by the City Council about 400 years after their violent death. Both its status as free city and its alliance with the Swiss Confederacy were lost with the conquest of the region by Napoleon in 1803. 1820–1833: Max Joseph von Khuon, Schultheiß 1833–1845: Max Teufel 1845–1848: Karl Dinkelmann 1848–1851: Kaspar Rapp 1852–1887: Johann Baptist Marx 1887–1923: Edwin Glückher 1924–1943: Josef Abrell 1943–1944: Otto Mann 1944–1945: Paul Fritz 1945–1946: Franz Mederle 1946–1965: Arnulf Gutknecht 1965–1985: Ulrich Regelmann, from 1970 Lord mayor 1985–2001: Michael Arnold, Lord mayor 2001–2009: Thomas Engeser, Lord mayor 2009–present: Ralf Broß, Lord mayor The late-Romanesque and Gothic-era Münster Heiliges Kreuz, built over a pre-existing church from 1270.
It features a crucifix by noteworthy Gothic sculptures. Kapellenkirche, a Gothic church with a tower and with three statue-decorated portals. Lorenzkapelle, in late Gothic style, it houses some two hundred works by Swabian masters and Gothic altarpieces from the 14th and 15th centuries. The town's museum, including a notable Roman mosaic with the legend of Orpheus; the late-Gothic town hall. St. Pelagius, a Romanesque church from the 12th century. Excavations have brought to light Roman baths in the same site. Dominican museum Rottweil – local branch of the Landesmuseum Württemberg ThyssenKrupp is constructing a $45 million, 807-foot tower; the tower is a research facility for the company and will be used to test new elevator cars and technologies. At 807 feet, it will be the tallest structure in the district; the windowless building is going to have 12 elevator shafts. The Rottweiler dog is named after this town. Adam of Rottweil, the 15th-century scholar and printer, was born in Rottweil. Konrad Witz, painter "Das Mädchen aus Rottweil" is a song by the German band Die Toten Hosen Egon Rieble, art historian and dialect poet Hermann Schäfer and music scientist Kurt Bantle, former member of Landtag Ekkehard Lindner and professor Sigrid Peyerimhoff, chemist Peter Dussmann, chemist Franz Xavier Wernz, superior general of the Jesuits Erwin Teufel, former minister president of Baden-Württemberg Rüdiger Safranski and literary scholar Thomas Engeser, 2001–2009 Lord mayor of Rottweil Rita Haller-Haid, Member of Landtag 2001-2016 Anne Haigis and singer Bernd Marquart, jazz musician Ralf Broß, since 2 July 2009 Lord mayor of Rottweil Andreas Schwab and member of European Parliament Joshua Kimmich, football player Rottweil is twinned with: L'Aquila, Italy Brugg, Switzerland Hyères, France Imst, Austria Rottweil Synagoge Rottweil Official website Feast of Fools: Medieval Carnival Celebrations in Rottweil History and territory of the former Reichsstadt Rottweil Pictures and stories about Rottweil
The Neckar is a 362-kilometre-long river in Germany flowing through the southwestern state of Baden-Württemberg, with a short section through Hesse. The Neckar is a major right tributary of the Rhine. Rising in the Black Forest near Villingen-Schwenningen in the Schwenninger Moos conservation area at a height of 706 m above sea level, it passes through Rottweil, Rottenburg am Neckar, Kilchberg, Tübingen, Wernau, Nürtingen, Esslingen, Ludwigsburg, Marbach and Heidelberg, before discharging into the Rhine at Mannheim, at 95 m above sea level. From Plochingen to Stuttgart the Neckar valley is densely populated and industrialised, with several well-known companies, e.g. Daimler AG and Mahle GmbH being located there. Between Stuttgart and Lauffen the Neckar cuts a scenic, in many places steep-sided, valley into fossiliferous Triassic limestones and Pleistocene travertine. Along the Neckar's valley in the Odenwald hills many castles can be found, including Hornberg Castle and Guttenberg Castle in Haßmersheim.
After passing Heidelberg, the Neckar discharges on average 145 m3/s of water into the Rhine, making the Neckar its 4th largest tributary, the 10th largest river in Germany. From about 1100 Black Forest timber was rafted downstream as far for use in shipyards; the name Neckar might be derived from Nicarus and Neccarus from Celtic Nikros, meaning wild water or wild fellow. The grammatical gender of the name in German is masculine. During the 19th century, traditional horse-drawn boats were replaced by steam-powered chain boats that used a 155 km long chain in the river to haul themselves upstream towing barges. After 1899 a railway made it possible to transport timber to the port of Heilbronn, limiting timber rafting to the lower part of the Neckar. Due to the construction of 11 locks, ships up to 1500 t could travel to Heilbronn in 1935. By 1968 the last of 27 locks, at Deizisau, was completed, making the Neckar navigable for cargo ships about 200 kilometres upstream from Mannheim to the river port of Plochingen, at the confluence with the Fils, where the Neckar bends, taking a northwesterly instead of a northeasterly course.
Other important ports include Heilbronn. The river's course provides a popular route for cyclists during the summer months, its steep valley sides are used for vineyards for the cultivation of Trollinger, Kerner, Müller-Thurgau amongst other locally grown grape varieties.. The name "Neckar" was given to the world's first motorboat made during the summer of 1886 by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach when their Standuhr petrol engine was tested on the river near Bad Cannstatt. From its source to its confluence with the Rhine: Villingen-Schwenningen Rottweil Oberndorf am Neckar Sulz am Neckar Horb am Neckar Rottenburg am Neckar Kilchberg Tübingen Nürtingen Wendlingen Wernau Plochingen Esslingen am Neckar Stuttgart Remseck Ludwigsburg Marbach am Neckar Benningen am Neckar Freiberg am Neckar Besigheim Lauffen am Neckar Heilbronn Neckarsulm Bad Wimpfen Mosbach Eberbach Neckarsteinach Heidelberg Mannheim Eschach Ammer * Lauter Fils Körsch Nesenbach Rems Murr Enz Zaber Sulm Kocher Jagst Elz Neckar Valley Bridge Weitingen, near the town Horb am Neckar.
Old Bridge, in Heidelberg The Neckar is mentioned prominently in Gustav Mahler's "Rheinlegendchen", composed in August 1893. "Rheinlegendchen" was first published in 1899 in a cycle of 12 songs under the title Humoresken.
Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes
The Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes, or ORL, is a 550-kilometre-long section of the former external frontier of the Roman Empire between the rivers Rhine and Danube. It runs from Rheinbrohl to Eining on the Danube; the Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes is an archaeological site and, since 2005, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Together with the Lower Germanic Limes it forms part of the Limes Germanicus; the term limes meant "border path" or "swathe" in Latin. In Germany, "Limes" refers to the Rhaetian Limes and Upper Germanic Limes, collectively referred to as the Limes Germanicus. Both sections of limes are named after the adjacent Roman provinces of Germania Superior. In the Roman limites we have, for the first time in history defined territorial borders of a sovereign state that were visible on the ground to friend and foe alike. Most of the Upper German-Rhaetian Limes did not follow rivers or mountain ranges, which would have formed natural boundaries for the Roman Empire, it includes the longest land border in the European section of the limes, interrupted for only a few kilometres, by a section that follows the River Main between Großkrotzenburg and Miltenberg.
By contrast, elsewhere in Europe, the limes is defined by the rivers Rhine and Danube. The function of the Roman military frontiers has been discussed for some time; the latest research tends to view at least the Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes not as a military demarcation line, but rather a monitored economic boundary for the non-Roman lands. The limes, it is argued, was not suitable for fending off systematic external attacks. Thanks to a skillful economic policy, the Roman Empire extended its influence far to the northeast, beyond the frontier. Evidence of this are the many border crossings which, although guarded by Roman soldiers, would have enabled a brisk trade, the numerous Roman finds in "Free Germania". Attempts were also made, to settle Roman legions beyond the limes or, more to recruit auxiliaries; as a result, the Romanization of the population extended beyond the limes. Interest in the limes as the remains of a site dating to the Roman period was rekindled in Germany at the time of the Renaissance and Renaissance humanism.
This was bolstered by the rediscovery of the Germania and Annales of Tacitus in monastic libraries in the 15th and early 16th centuries. Scholars like Simon Studion researched discovered forts. Studion led archaeological excavations of the Roman camp of Benningen on the Neckar section of the Neckar-Odenwald Limes. Local limes commissions were established but were confined to small areas, for example, in the Grand Duchy of Hesse or Grand Duchy of Baden, due to the political situation. Johann Alexander Döderlein was the first person to record the course of the limes in the Eichstätt region. In 1723, he was the first to interpret the meaning of the limes and published the first scholarly treatise about it in 1731. Only after the foundation of the German Empire could archaeologists begin to study more the route of the limes, about which there had only been a rudimentary knowledge; as a result, they were able to make the first systematic excavations in the second half of the 19th century. In 1892, the Imperial Limes Commission was established for this purpose in Berlin, under the direction of the ancient historian, Theodor Mommsen.
The work of this commission is considered pioneering for reworking of Roman provincial history. Productive were the first ten years of research, which worked out the course of the Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes and named the camps along the border; the research reports on the excavations were published from 1894 to the dissolution of the Commission in 1937. The individual reports went under the title of The Upper Rhaetian Limes of the Roman Empire, published in fifteen volumes, of which seven cover the route of the limes and eight cover the various camps and forts; the documents of the Imperial Limes Commission are now in the custody of the Roman-Germanic Commission of the German Archaeological Institute. The RLK numbered the sections of the route, the forts and the watchtowers on the individual sections. In the course of this work the 550-kilometre-long route of the limes was surveyed, divided into sections and described; this division followed the administrative boundaries in 19th-century Germany and not that of ancient Rome: Section 1: Rheinbrohl – Bad Ems Section 2: Bad Ems – Adolfseck near Bad Schwalbach Section 3: Adolfseck near Bad Schwalbach – Taunus – Köpperner Tal Section 4: Köpperner Tal – Wetterau – Marköbel Section 5: Marköbel – Großkrotzenburg am Main Section 6a: Hainstadt – Wörth am Main Section 6b: Trennfurt – Miltenberg Section 7: Miltenberg – Walldürn – Buchen-Hettingen Section 8: Buchen-Hettingen – Osterburken – Jagsthausen Section 9: Jagsthausen – Öhringen – Mainhardt – Welzheim – Alfdorf-Pfahlbronn Section 10: Wörth am Main – Bad Wimpfen Section 11: Bad Wimpfen – Köngen Section 12: Alfdorf-Pfahlbronn – Lorch – Rotenbachtal near Schwäbisch Gmünd – Aalen – Stödtlen Section 13: Mönchsroth – Weiltingen-Ruffenhofen - Gunzenhausen Section 14: Gunzenhausen – Weißenburg – Kipfenberg Section 15: Kipfenberg – Eining Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes in general Dietwulf Baatz: Der römische Limes.
Archäologische Ausflüge zwischen Rhein und Donau. 4th edn. Gebrüder Mann, Berlin, 2000, ISBN 3-7861-1701-2. Thomas Becker