Duke Blue Devils men's lacrosse
The Duke Blue Devils men's lacrosse team represents Duke University in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I men's lacrosse. Duke competes as a member of the Atlantic Coast Conference and plays its home games at Koskinen Stadium in Durham, North Carolina; the first lacrosse game played by Duke took place on April 9, 1938, when the Blue Devils traveled to meet their nearby rivals, North Carolina, which itself had just formed a team the year prior. Duke won that contest, 2–1; the first home game occurred a week when they hosted Syracuse, who beat the Blue Devils, 17–5. Duke finished the season with a 2–5 record, with their second win over North Carolina, this time in Durham; the following season, the Blue Devils compiled a 7–1 mark and secured the Dixie Lacrosse League championship. Ray Brown became Duke's first lacrosse All-American in 1940 and was honored as such again the following year. In 1946, Duke opened the season with an upset over national power Maryland in College Park, 12–4.
Despite finishing the season with a 2–3 record, the Blue Devils were awarded the Southern Lacrosse Association championship. The 1951 team is regarded as one of Duke's most successful pre-NCAA teams; the Blue Devils routed conference opponent Washington & Lee, 26–8. They scored victories against powerhouses, beating Navy, 17–6, Johns Hopkins, 9–7; the lone loss came against Virginia. Duke finished the season with a 6–1 record; the newly formed Atlantic Coast Conference sanctioned lacrosse in 1954, Duke captured the league's first title after posting a 7–1–1 season. Starting the following year however, the Blue Devils entered a twelve-year slump where they compiled a combined 17–67 record with no winning seasons. In 1967, Roy Skinner and Bruce Corrie took over as co-head coaches and reversed the team's fortunes, posting a 7–4 record that season and finishing second in the ACC. In 1971, Corrie became the sole coach. Mike Pressler was hired as head coach in 1991, the following season Duke made its first NCAA tournament appearance.
In 1994, the Blue Devils posted their first tournament win, their first victory against Maryland in Durham since 1954. They were edged, 12–11, in the quarterfinals by Syracuse; the next year, Duke won its first ACC tournament, in the process became the first number-four seed to do so. Two years they advanced to the Final Four. Duke won consecutive ACC tournaments in 2001 and 2002, advanced to the 2005 NCAA final before losing to Johns Hopkins, 9–8; the 2006 season was cut short. As a result of the incident, Duke forced Pressler to resign as head coach, the NCAA granted the players an extra season of eligibility. John Danowski replaced Pressler, in his first season in 2007, he led the Blue Devils to the ACC championship and a return to the NCAA title game. Duke again lost to Johns Hopkins by one goal, 12–11. In 2010, Duke returned to the final, where it defeated Notre Dame, 6–5 in overtime, to capture its first NCAA championship. In the 2013 season, Duke defeated Syracuse 16–10 to win their second NCAA lacrosse championship.
In the 2014 season, Duke defeated Notre Dame 11–9 to win their third NCAA lacrosse championship. The following is a list of Duke's results by season as a NCAA Division I program: Duke lacrosse case Official website
Matt Danowski is a professional lacrosse player for the Chesapeake Bayhawks of Major League Lacrosse. He has played for the Charlotte Hounds, New York Lizards, The New Jersey Pride, he played professional indoor lacrosse in the National Lacrosse League for the Rochester Knighthawks and Philadelphia Wings. He was a four-time college All-American at Duke University, is third all-time NCAA Division I in total points in a career. Danowski was a starter at Duke throughout his entire college career; as a sophomore in 2005, he won the Jack Turnbull Award, given to the nation's top collegiate attackman. Danowski was a member of Duke squad during the 2006 Duke University lacrosse team scandal, cutting short his junior campaign to eight games after the University prematurely ended the season. Following the forced resignation of long-time Duke lacrosse coach Mike Pressler, Danowski's father, John Danowski, became the head coach of the team. Due to the shortened season, resulting from "unusual circumstance," the NCAA granted 33 Duke lacrosse players, including Danowski, a rare fifth year of eligibility.
Danowski, teammate Zack Greer, led the Blue Devils high-powered attack to the 2007 NCAA Final Four. Duke faced Johns Hopkins University in the final, but lost despite mounting a strong comeback at the end of the game, This match-up was a repeat of the 2005 NCAA Division I Men's Lacrosse Championship game. In 2007, Danowski won the Tewaaraton Trophy, awarded to the nation's most outstanding collegiate lacrosse player; that year, he won the USILA's Lt. Raymond Enners Award as the national player of the year, his second Jack Turnbull Award as attackman of the year. In the first round of the 2008 NCAA Division I Men's Lacrosse Championship, in a victory over Loyola, Danowski broke the NCAA career points record, eclipsing Joe Vasta's mark. However, in the 2008 NCAA semifinals, Duke was again defeated by Johns Hopkins, ending Danowski's collegiate career without winning a NCAA championship. In 2008, he was again awarded the Lt. Raymond Enners Award as national player of the year. Only a few days after Danowski was awarded the 2008 Enners award as the USILA player of the year, he was drafted second overall by the New Jersey Pride in the 2008 Major League Lacrosse Collegiate Draft.
Danowski earned Rookie of the Week honors in Week 5 of the 2008 MLL season. He has scored 19 goals in 12 games with 3 two-point goals and 14 assists giving him a total of 36 points. In July 2009, Danowski was traded from the Colorado Mammoth to the New York Titans in exchange for Ryan Powell. Danowski becomes the fourth player in 2009 to play both for the Lizards of the MLL and the Titans of the NLL in the same season, joining Stephen Peyser, Matt Zash, Keith Cromwell. In 2011, Danowski was traded from the Long Island Lizards to the Charlotte Hounds along with Stephen Berger and two other draft picks in exchange for the No.1 pick in the 2012 MLL Collegiate Draft Pick. The Hounds gave up former Boston Canon MLL-All Star Max Quinzani whom Charlotte just picked up in the expansion draft. Matt Danowski's father, John Danowski, is the Duke men's lacrosse head coach since June 2006. Matt's grandfather, Ed Danowski, was as a quarterback for the New York Giants and led the New York them to two championships in 1935 and 1938.
6th in NCAA Division I career assists 3rd in NCAA Division I career points Seven-time MLL All-Star Tewaaraton Trophy Four-time USILA All-American Lt. Raymond Enners Award Jack Turnbull Award Atlantic Coast Conference Player of the Year Atlantic Coast Conference Rookie of the Year NCAA Lacrosse Records
The Star-Ledger is the largest circulated newspaper in the U. S. is based in Newark. It is a sister paper to The Jersey Journal of Jersey City, The Times of Trenton and the Staten Island Advance, all of which are owned by Advance Publications. In 2007, The Star-Ledger's daily circulation was more than the next two largest New Jersey newspapers combined and its Sunday circulation larger than the next three papers combined, it has suffered great declines in print circulation in recent years, to 180,000 daily in 2013 and 114,000 "individually paid print circulation,", the number of copies being bought by subscription or at newsstands, in 2015. In July 2013, The Ledger announced. In 2013, Advance Publications announced it was exploring cost-saving changes among its New Jersey properties, but was not considering mergers or changes in publication frequency at any of the newspapers, nor the elimination of home delivery; the Newark Daily Advertiser, founded in 1832, was Newark's first daily newspaper.
It subsequently evolved into the Newark Star-Eagle, owned by what became Block Communications. S. I. Newhouse bought the Star-Eagle from Block in 1939 and merged it with the Newark Ledger to become the Newark Star-Ledger; the paper dropped Newark from its masthead sometime in the 1970s, but is still popularly called the Newark Star-Ledger by many New Jersey residents. During the 1960s The Star-Ledger's chief competitor was the Newark Evening News, once the most popular newspaper in New Jersey. In March 1971, the Star-Ledger surpassed the Evening News in daily circulation, because the Newark News was on strike; the Evening News shut down in 1972. After the Newark Evening News moved to a high-traffic area the Star-Ledger opened a satellite plant in Piscataway; the Piscataway location offered quick access to Union, Monmouth and Middlesex counties. The Star-Ledger was the recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Reporting in 2005 for its comprehensive and clear-headed coverage of the resignation of New Jersey Governor Jim McGreevey, after he confessed to adultery with a male lover.
The paper awards the Star-Ledger Trophy each year to the number one high school teams in their respective sport in New Jersey. In 2005, George Arwady became the publisher of The Star-Ledger. A graduate of Columbia University, Arwady had been the publisher of the Kalamazoo Gazette in Kalamazoo, Michigan. Having worked with the Newhouse family for years, Arwady was asked to move to Newark to financially revamp the paper. Due to financial losses, the paper's parent company Advance Publications announced on July 31, 2008, that it would sell the Star-Ledger unless 200 non-union staff voluntarily left under a buyout offer, its unionized truck drivers and mailers agreed to concessions. On September 16, publisher George Arwady sent employees an email saying that management felt progress had been made on the buyout and concessions from the mailers, but that management is "far from an agreement with the Drivers' union.". The email continued: Since it is doubtful that the Drivers will ratify an agreement by October 8, 2008, we will be sending formal notices to all employees this week, as required by both federal and New Jersey law, advising you that the Company will be sold, or, failing that, that it will close operations on January 5, 2009.
On October 24, 2008, the newspaper announced that 168 newsroom employees had offered to take the company's buyout offer, that the company had accepted 151 of them, which resulted in a 40% reduction in newsroom staff. On January 16, 2013, the newspaper announced the layoffs of 34 employees including 18 newsroom staff; the Newark headquarters of the Star-Ledger, home to the state's largest newspaper for nearly 50 years, was sold to a New York developer in July 2014, according to a news article released by the paper. The Star-Ledger, which Vezza said will continue to be published seven days a week, will retain a presence in Newark in leased office space located within the downtown Gateway Center complex, where the publisher, the newspaper's editorial board, its columnists, its magazine staff and a handful of other jobs will be based. Advance Publications, the owner of the newspaper, launched a new media company — NJ Advance Media — in 2014 to provide content and marketing services for its online presence at NJ.com, many of its New Jersey newspapers out of the offices in Woodbridge.
The sales and marketing staffs moved to Woodbridge in June 2014. Amzi Armstrong William Burnet Kinney Thomas T. Kinney James Smith, Jr. Paul Block Samuel Irving Newhouse, Sr. Donald Newhouse Richard Vezza After Kevin Whitmer left in September 2015, Richard Vezza assumed the position as editor. Prior to Whitmer, James Willse manned the helm from 1995, he was appointed following the retirement of 32-year veteran editor Mort Pye. Willse was the former publisher of the New York Daily News. Prior to accepting the Ledger's editorship, Willse headed the review of electronic information options for all Newhouse newspapers, he expanded the Ledger' use of color and encouraged a more aggressive editorial team. The National Press Foundation named Willse its 1999 recipient of the George Beveridge Editor of the Year Award in recognition of Ledger's coverage of racial profiling by the New Jersey State Police; the Star-Ledger was featured prominently various times in the television series The Sopranos, an HBO drama series set in New Jersey.
Tony Soprano received home delivery of the paper, several episodes opened with him picking it up at the end of his driveway. The Sopranos creator David Chase credited a
Jeff Mullins (basketball)
Jeffrey Vincent Mullins is an American retired basketball player and coach. He played college basketball with the Duke Blue Devils and in the National Basketball Association with the St. Louis Hawks and Golden State Warriors. Mullins served as the head basketball coach at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte from 1985 to 1996. Mullins, a native of Lexington, was a talented 6'4" forward in high school. After graduation, he attended Duke University from 1960 through 1964, where he averaged 21.9 points per game for his career. His #44 Duke jersey was retired in 1994. In 2002, Mullins was named to the ACC 50th Anniversary men's basketball team as one of the fifty greatest players in Atlantic Coast Conference history. Mullins was a member of the United States Olympic basketball team that won the gold at the 1964 Summer Olympics. Mullins was taken by the St. Louis Hawks in the first round of the 1964 NBA draft. After two lackluster seasons with the Hawks he moved to the Golden State Warriors where he enjoyed the best seasons of his career and was selected as an NBA All-Star three times – in 1969, 1970, 1971.
He helped the Warriors to the 1975 NBA championship. Upon his retirement in 1976 he had amassed a total of 13,017 points for a twelve-year career average of 16.2 points per game. In 1985, Mullins was hired as the head men's basketball coach and athletic director at UNC Charlotte; the program had struggled since making the NCAA Final Four in 1977, in three years Mullins took the 49ers back to the NCAA Tournament for the first time since their 1977 run. His 182 victories over eleven seasons stood as a school record until Bobby Lutz, Mullins' former assistant coach, surpassed that total in 2008. During Mullins' tenure, the 49ers played in three conferences: the Sun Belt, the Metro Conference, Conference USA. Jeff Mullins' statistics at Duke NBA Statistics for Jeff Mullins
Arthur Bruce Heyman was an American professional basketball player. Playing for Duke University in college, in 1963 he was USBWA Player of the Year, AP Player of the Year, UPI Player of the Year, Sporting News Player of the Year, Helms Foundation College Player of the Year, a consensus first-team All-American, ACC Player of the Year, ACC Athlete of the Year; that year he was the first overall pick in the first round of the 1963 NBA draft. He went on to have a 310 game professional career in the NBA and ABA. Heyman, Jewish, was born in New York City, lived in Rockville Centre, New York, Oceanside, New York. After attending Oceanside High School in Nassau County, New York, the 6'5" guard/forward was recruited by many schools, signed a letter of intent to play for the North Carolina Tar Heels. At the last moment, Heyman changed his mind and agreed to play for the Tar Heels' greatest rivals, the Duke Blue Devils. Due to NCAA eligibility rules that prohibited freshmen from playing varsity sports, Heyman played his first year at racially segregated Duke with the freshman team, which compiled a record of 10–5, including three victories over the Tar Heels.
During one of the Duke-North Carolina freshman games, North Carolina freshman Dieter Krause attacked Heyman, leading to a melee where the two coaches had to be restrained from attacking each other. Heyman needed five stitches after the attack. During his sophomore season, Heyman starred for the varsity team, North Carolina and Duke again were at each other's throats. On February 4, 1961, the Duke and North Carolina freshman teams had played the first game of the double header. There were multiple fights during the game, North Carolina had finished the game with only three players on the floor. During the varsity game that night, Heyman was involved in two incidents, where he first pushed over a fan who he thought was attacking him, in the closing minutes of the game, while trying to protect a slim Duke lead, Heyman committed a hard foul against future Hall of Fame coach Larry Brown, attempting to drive to the hoop. Brown threw the ball and a punch at Heyman, touching off a general melee, which saw future basketball executive Donnie Walsh a substitute player for North Carolina attack Heyman.
The melee lasted about ten minutes, despite Heyman being ejected for fighting, his 36 points had given Duke the victory, 81–77. Brown and Heyman were all suspended for the remainder of the ACC season. Heyman was allowed to play in non-conference games, the ACC Tournament. However, Duke failed to make the postseason, despite Heyman being voted the tournament's outstanding player, losing the ACC Tournament final to the Wake Forest Demon Deacons and their All American Len Chappell, 96–81. At the time, only the league champion was admitted to the NCAA Tournament, league rules prohibited ACC teams from playing in the NIT Tournament. Heyman finished the season averaging 25 points and nearly 11 rebounds per game, despite his suspension, Heyman was voted to the All-ACC basketball first team, he won numerous national plaudits, being named to the UPI and AP Third-Team All American squad. In 1962, Heyman's junior year, he again had a great year (scoring 25.3 points per game, averaging over 11 rebounds per game, but Duke failed to make the post season, being upset by the Clemson Tigers in the ACC Tournament semi-final.
Heyman was once again voted to the All-ACC Basketball first team, the AP and UPI Second Team All-American squad. However, during Heyman's 1963 senior year, Heyman unleashed his best season yet. Duke won the regular season conference title, but to make the NCAA tournament, they would have to win the ACC Tournament, their first game was against 8th seed Virginia, a game in which the Blue Devils won handily, 89–79. In the tournament semi finals, the Blue Devils defeated the North Carolina State Wolfpack, 82–65. In the final, they had a chance to get revenge for the 1961 tournament final loss, as they faced off against Wake Forest. Heyman and Duke avenged that 1961 loss, defeating the Demon Deacons 68–57, earning the Blue Devils the right to play in the 1963 NCAA Tournament; the Blue Devils were given a bye to play in the round of 16, they defeated New York University, who had Happy Hairston and Barry Kramer, 81-76 in the East regional semi-finals, with Heyman scoring 22 points, adding 13 rebounds.
In the East Regional final and the Blue Devils defeated Saint Joseph's University, 73–59, to advance to the Final Four for the first time in school history. Despite Heyman's 29 points and 12 rebounds in the semi-finals, the Blue Devils succumbed 94-75 to eventual national champion Loyola of Chicago. In the consolation game, Heyman completed his college career when Duke defeated Oregon State 85-63. In this game, Heyman scored 22 points, added seven rebounds. Art Heyman was named MVP of the 1963 NCAA tournament though Duke finished third. Heyman again won the plaudits of the sportswriters, winning the AP National Player of the Year award, the ACC Player of the Year award, the Oscar Robertson Trophy. Heyman averaged 25.1 points per game and scoring 1,984 points while at Duke University, which were both school records at that time. Heyman is one of three athletes in ACC History to have been elected unanimously to the All-ACC Men's Basketball team three times, along with David Thompson and Tyler Hansbrough.
Heyman's success in college led to him being selected first in the 1963 NBA draft by the New York Knicks. During his first season with the team, he averaged
Leonard Robert Rosenbluth is an American former basketball player and All-American at the University of North Carolina, NBA basketball player. In college, he was Helms Foundation Player of the Year, Consensus first-team All-American, Second-team All-American – AP, UPI, INS, Third-team All-American – NEA, Collier's, ACC Player of the Year, 3× First-team All-ACC, had his No. 10 retired by UNC. Rosenbluth was born in the Bronx in New York city, is Jewish, he attended James Monroe High School in the Bronx, Staunton Military Academy in Staunton, Virginia for the 1952-53 school year. He played only eight games in high school. In his first year of varsity basketball at the University of North Carolina in 1955, the 6’ 5" small forward was the Tar Heels' leading scorer, he was named third team All-America, averaging 11.7 rebounds. In 1956 he achieved All-America honors, but this time they were split between various first and second team selections, he again led the Tar Heels in scoring with a 26.7 average.
In his senior season in 1957 Rosenbluth averaged 27.9 points and 8.6 rebounds per game while leading the Tar Heels to a 32–0 record. His regular season performance earned him the Helms Hall of Fame "Collegiate Player of the Year" designation over the University of Kansas's Wilt Chamberlain. Tar Heels went on to defeat Chamberlain's Jayhawks 54–53 in triple overtime for the NCAA Basketball Championship, North Carolina's first, which brought credibility to the fledgling Atlantic Coast Conference. Rosenbluth's scored 20 points in the championship final, was the tournament's overall top scorer at 28.0 ppg, was named to the All-Tournament Team. He was named the ACC Player of the Year and ACC Male Athlete of the Year. Rosenbluth has been honored for his athletic achievements while at North Carolina. In 2002, he was named to the ACC 50th Anniversary men's basketball team as one of the 50 greatest players in Atlantic Coast Conference history, he was selected to the "All-Decade Final Four" team for the 1950s.
He is in the Helms College Basketball Hall of Fame, is listed by some as one of the "100 Greatest College Players of All-Time", is a member of the International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame. Rosenbluth received a number of other accolades and awards during his playing career: Three-time All-ACC selections 1957 ACC Player and Athlete of the Year MVP of the'57 ACC Tournament All-Tournament at three Dixie Classics; until Duke University's Christian Laettner, Rosenbluth was the only collegian to be named NCAA National Player of the Year, ACC Player of the Year, ACC Tournament MVP, NCAA regional MVP in the same season. Rosenbluth holds several UNC records, including most points in a single season, highest single-season average. In the 1957 NBA Draft he was the sixth player picked by the Philadelphia Warriors, his professional career included a brief stint with the Warriors. He played for them from 1957–59, he played in 82 games, averaged 4.2 points per game. After he retired from basketball, he had a long career as coach.
He moved with his wife to Fort Myers, Florida. List of select Jewish basketball players NBA career statistics
Louis Brian Piccolo was a professional American football player, a running back for the Chicago Bears of the National Football League for four years. He died at age 26 from embryonal cell carcinoma, an aggressive form of germ cell testicular cancer, first diagnosed after it had spread to his chest cavity. Piccolo was the subject of the 1971 TV movie Brian's Song, with a remake TV movie filmed in 2001, he was portrayed in the original film by Sean Maher in the 2001 remake. Born in Pittsfield, Piccolo was the youngest of three sons of Joseph and Irene Piccolo; the family moved south to Fort Lauderdale, when Piccolo was three, due to his parents' concerns for his brother Don's health. Piccolo and his brothers were athletes, he was a star running back on his high school football team although he considered baseball his primary sport, he graduated from the former Central Catholic High School in Fort Lauderdale in 1961. Piccolo played college football at Wake Forest in North Carolina, he led the nation in rushing and scoring during his senior season in 1964, was named the Atlantic Coast Conference Player of the Year, yet went unselected in the both the AFL and NFL drafts.
In the balloting for the Heisman Trophy won by John Huarte of Notre Dame, Piccolo was tenth, just ahead of Joe Namath of Alabama and future teammate Gale Sayers of Kansas. A season earlier in 1963, Darryl Hill of the University of Maryland was the first and only African-American football player in the ACC. According to Lee Corso, a Maryland assistant coach at that time, Wake Forest had "the worst atmosphere" of any campus the Maryland football team visited. Piccolo went over to the Maryland bench, walked Hill over to the area in front of the student section and put his arm around him, silencing the crowd. Following his spectacular senior season Piccolo married his high school sweetheart, Joy Murrath, on December 26, 1964, they had three daughters: Lori and Kristi. Because he was not selected in the 1965 NFL draft or AFL draft, Piccolo tried out for the Chicago Bears as a free agent, he made the team for the 1965 season, but only on the taxi squad, meaning he could practice but not suit up for games.
In 1966, he made the main roster but his playing time was on special teams. In 1967 he got more playing time backing up superstar starting tailback Gale Sayers, which increased after Sayers' knee injury in November 1968. Piccolo's biggest statistical year was 1968, during which he posted career bests with 450 yards on 123 carries, two touchdowns, 28 receptions for 291 yards. In 1969, Piccolo was moved up to starting fullback, with Sayers returning as tailback, placing the two in the same backfield on offense. Players at that time were still segregated by race for hotel-room assignments. At the suggestion of the Bears' captain, the policy was changed and each player was reassigned by position, so that wide receivers would room together, quarterbacks would room together, etc. Running back was the only position on the 1969 Bears with one black and one white player and Piccolo, respectively; the Bears were in the worst record in their history. Piccolo had earned a place in the starting lineup as an undersized fullback.
Their first win came in the eighth game on November 9, a 38–7 home win over struggling Pittsburgh and Piccolo opened the scoring at Wrigley Field with a 25-yard touchdown reception. The next week in Atlanta, he scored a fourth quarter touchdown on a one-yard run, voluntarily removed himself from the game, something he had never done, raising great concern among his teammates and coaches. Breathing while playing had become difficult for him, so when the team returned to Chicago he was promptly sent for a medical examination and diagnosed with embryonal cell carcinoma. Soon after initial surgery at Sloan-Kettering in New York City to remove the tumor, he underwent a second procedure in April 1970 to remove his left lung and pectoral muscle. Bothered by chest pain afterward, he was re-admitted to the hospital in early June and doctors determined the cancer had spread to other organs his liver, he died in the early morning of June 16 at the age of 26. The month before Piccolo's death, Gale Sayers was accepting the George S. Halas Award for Most Courageous Player and told the crowd that they had selected the wrong person for the award.
He said, "I love Brian Piccolo, I'd like all of you to love him, too. Tonight, when you hit your knees to pray, please ask God to love him, too."Sayers and Dick Butkus were among the six Bears teammates who served as pallbearers at Piccolo's funeral at Christ the King Catholic Church in Chicago on June 19. He was buried at Saint Mary Catholic Cemetery in Illinois. In 1972, Brian Piccolo Middle School 53 opened in Queens, New York on Nameoke Street in Far Rockaway; the school name was chosen by students after the first airing of Brian's Song. The football jersey that belonged to Brian Piccolo, displayed in the lobby has been missing since the school was renovated in the late 1990s. In August 1973, Orr Middle School, located on the West Side of Chicago on Keeler Avenue, was renamed after Piccolo to the Brian Piccolo Specialty School. In 1980, students at Wake Forest, Piccolo's alma mater, began the Brian Piccolo Cancer Fund Drive in his memory, they raised money for the Comprehensive Cancer Center at the Bowman Gray Medical Center of Wake Forest University.
In addition, the Brian Piccolo Student Volunteer Program was established to provide undergraduates with an opportunity to