Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Super Audio CD
Super Audio CD is a read-only optical disc for audio storage, introduced in 1999. It was developed jointly by Sony and Philips Electronics, intended to be the successor to their Compact Disc format. While the SACD format can offer more channels, a longer playing time than CD, research published in 2007 found no significant difference in audio quality between SACD and standard CD at ordinary volume levels. Having made little impact in the consumer audio market, by 2007, SACD was deemed to be a failure by the press. A small market for SACD has remained; the Super Audio CD format was introduced in 1999. Royal Philips and Crest Digital partnered in May 2002 to develop and install the first SACD hybrid disc production line in the United States, with a production capacity of three million discs per year. SACD did not achieve the same level of growth that compact discs enjoyed in the 1980s, was not accepted by the mainstream market; the first broadcast of a SACD Disc on BBC Radio was in March 2000. The programme was an interview between Colin Mackenzie and Kit Frazer.
The disc played was Mariah Carey'Mariah'. By October 2009, record companies had published more than 6,000 SACD releases more than half of which were classical music. Jazz and popular music albums remastered previous releases, were the next two most numerous genres represented. Many popular artists have released some or all of their back catalog on SACD. Pink Floyd's album The Dark Side of the Moon sold over 800,000 copies by June 2004 in its SACD Surround Sound edition; the Who's rock opera Tommy, Roxy Music's Avalon, were released on SACD to take advantage of the format's multi-channel capability. All three albums were remixed in 5.1 surround, released as hybrid SACDs with a stereo mix on the standard CD layer. Some popular artists have released new recordings on SACD. Sales figures for Sting's Sacred Love album reached number one on SACD sales charts in four European countries in June 2004. Between 2007 and 2008, Genesis re-released all of their studio albums across three box sets; each album in these sets contains the album on SACD in 5.1 mixes.
The original stereo mixes were not included. The US & Canada versions do not use CD instead. By August 2009 443 labels had released one or more SACDs. Instead of depending on major label support, some orchestras and artists have released SACDs on their own. For instance, the Chicago Symphony Orchestra started the Chicago Resound label to provide full support for high-resolution SACD hybrid discs, the London Symphony Orchestra established their own'LSO Live' label. Many of the SACD discs that were released from 2000-2005 are now out of print and are available only on the used market. By 2009, the major record companies were no longer releasing discs in the format, with new releases confined to the smaller labels. SACD is a disc of identical physical dimensions as a standard compact disc. There are three types of disc: Hybrid: Hybrid SACDs are encoded with a 4.7 GB DSD layer, as well as a PCM audio layer readable by most conventional Compact Disc players. Single-layer: A DVD-5 encoded with one 4.7 GB DSD layer.
Dual-layer: A DVD-9 encoded with two DSD layers, totaling 8.5 GB, no PCM layer. Dual-layer SACDs can store nearly twice as much data as a single-layer SACD. Unlike hybrid discs, both single- and dual-layer SACD's are incompatible with conventional CD players and cannot be played on them. A stereo SACD recording has an uncompressed rate of 5.6 Mbit/s, four times the rate for Red Book CD stereo audio. Other technical parameters are as follows: Commercial releases included both surround sound and stereo mixes on the SACD layer; some reissues however, retained the mixes of earlier multi-channel formats. Objective lenses in conventional CD players have a longer working distance, or focal length, than lenses designed for SACD players; this means that when a hybrid SACD is placed into a conventional CD player, the laser beam passes the high-resolution layer and is reflected by the conventional layer at the standard 1.2 mm distance, the high-density layer is out of focus. When the disc is placed into an SACD player, the laser is reflected by the high-resolution layer before it can reach the conventional layer.
Conversely, if a conventional CD is placed into an SACD player, the laser will read the disc as a CD since there is no high-resolution layer. SACD audio is stored in a format called Direct Stream Digital, which differs from the conventional Pulse-code modulation used by the compact disc or conventional computer audio systems. In PCM, the audio amplitude at any one moment is determined by the most recent single number encoded in the bit stream, while in DSD, the amplitude is a function of the entire past sequence of bits that have been read up to that moment. DSD is 1-bit, has a sampling rate of 2.8224 MHz, makes use of noise shaping quantization techniques in order to push 1-bit quantization noise up to inaudible ultrasonic frequencies. This gives the format a greater dynamic range and wider frequency response than the CD; the SACD format is capable of delivering a dynamic range of 120 dB from 20 Hz to 20 kHz and an extended frequency response up to 100 kHz, although most currently
Mahou no Kotoba (Would You Marry Me?)
"Mahou no Kotoba" is the fifteenth single by Do As Infinity, released in 2003. Two versions of the single were released, a limited CD+DVD edition and a normal CD edition, each version with a different cover, it was used as the theme song for the 2003 Japanese drama Chocolat. Due to the high popularity and marriage based theme of the A-side track "Mahou no Kotoba", the song became one of the most requested wedding songs in Japan; this song was included in the band's compilation albums Do the A-side. "Mahou no Kotoba" "Mellow Amber" "Mahou no Kotoba" "Mellow Amber" "Mahou no Kotoba: Would You Marry Me?" at Avex Network "Mahou no Kotoba: Would You Marry Me?" at Oricon
A music video is a short film that integrates a song with imagery, is produced for promotional or artistic purposes. Modern music videos are made and used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings. There are cases where songs are used in tie-in marketing campaigns that allow them to become more than just a song. Tie-ins and merchandising can be used for food or other products. Although the origins of the music video date back to musical short films that first appeared in the 1920s, they again came into prominence in the 1980s when the channel MTV based their format around the medium. Prior to the 1980s, these kinds of videos were described by various terms including "illustrated song", "filmed insert", "promotional film", "promotional clip", "promotional video", "song video", "song clip" or "film clip". Music videos use a wide range of styles and contemporary video-making techniques, including animation, live action and non-narrative approaches such as abstract film.
Some music videos combine different styles with the music, such as animation and live action. Combining these styles and techniques has become more popular because of the variety for the audience. Many music videos interpret images and scenes from the song's lyrics, while others take a more thematic approach. Other music videos may not have any concept, being a filmed version of the song's live concert performance. In 1894, sheet music publishers Edward B. Marks Joe Stern hired electrician George Thomas and various performers to promote sales of their song "The Little Lost Child". Using a magic lantern, Thomas projected a series of still images on a screen simultaneous to live performances; this would become a popular form of entertainment known as the illustrated song, the first step toward music video. In 1926, with the arrival of "talkies" many musical short films were produced. Vitaphone shorts featured many bands and dancers. Animation artist Max Fleischer introduced a series of sing-along short cartoons called Screen Songs, which invited audiences to sing along to popular songs by "following the bouncing ball", similar to a modern karaoke machine.
Early 1930s cartoons featured popular musicians performing their hit songs on-camera in live-action segments during the cartoons. The early animated films by Walt Disney, such as the Silly Symphonies shorts and Fantasia, which featured several interpretations of classical pieces, were built around music; the Warner Bros. cartoons today billed as Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies, were fashioned around specific songs from upcoming Warner Bros. musical films. Live action musical shorts, featuring such popular performers as Cab Calloway, were distributed to theaters. Blues singer Bessie Smith appeared in a two-reel short film called St. Louis Blues featuring a dramatized performance of the hit song. Numerous other musicians appeared in short musical subjects during this period. Soundies and released from 1940 to 1947, were musical films that included short dance sequences, similar to music videos. In the mid-1940s, musician Louis Jordan made short films for his songs, some of which were spliced together into a feature film, Lookout Sister.
These films were, according to music historian Donald Clarke, the "ancestors" of music video. Musical films were another important precursor to music video, several well-known music videos have imitated the style of classic Hollywood musicals from the 1930s to the 1950s. One of the best-known examples is Madonna's 1985 video for "Material Girl", modelled on Jack Cole's staging of "Diamonds Are A Girl's Best Friend" from the film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. Several of Michael Jackson's videos show the unmistakable influence of the dance sequences in classic Hollywood musicals, including the landmark "Thriller" and the Martin Scorsese-directed "Bad", influenced by the stylised dance "fights" in the film version of West Side Story. According to the Internet Accuracy Project, disc jockey–singer J. P. "The Big Bopper" Richardson was the first to coin the phrase "music video", in 1959. In his autobiography, Tony Bennett claims to have created "...the first music video" when he was filmed walking along the Serpentine in Hyde Park, London in 1956, with the resulting clip being set to his recording of the song "Stranger in Paradise".
The clip was sent to UK and US television stations and aired on shows including Dick Clark's American Bandstand. The oldest example of a promotional music video with similarities to more abstract, modern videos seems to be the Czech "Dáme si do bytu" created in 1958 and directed by Ladislav Rychman. In the late 1950s the Scopitone, a visual jukebox, was invented in France and short films were produced by many French artists, such as Serge Gainsbourg, Françoise Hardy, Jacques Dutronc, the Belgian Jacques Brel to accompany their songs, its use spread to other countries, similar machines such as the Cinebox in Italy and Color-Sonic in the USA were patented. In 1961, for the Canadian show Singalong Jubilee, Manny Pittson began pre-recording the music audio, went on-location and taped various visuals with the musicians lip-synching edited the audio and video together. Most music numbers were taped in-studio on stage, the location shoot "videos" were to add variety. In 1964, Kenneth Anger's experimental short film, Scorpio Rising used popular songs instead of dialog.
In 1964, The Moody Blues producer, Alex Murray, wanted to promote his version of "Go Now". The short film clip he produced and directed to promote the single has a striking visual style that predates Queen's similar "Bohemian Rhapsody" vid
Oricon Inc. established in 1999, is the holding company at the head of a Japanese corporate group that supplies statistics and information on music and the music industry in Japan. It started as Original Confidence Inc., founded by Sōkō Koike in November 1967 and became known for its music charts. Oricon Inc. was set up as a subsidiary of Original Confidence and took over the latter’s Oricon record charts in April 2002. The charts are compiled from data drawn from some 39,700 retail outlets and provide sales rankings of music CDs, DVDs, electronic games, other entertainment products based on weekly tabulations. Results are announced every Tuesday and published in Oricon Style by subsidiary Oricon Entertainment Inc; the group lists panel survey-based popularity ratings for television commercials on its official website. Original Confidence Inc. the original Oricon company, was founded by the former Snow Brand Milk Products promoter Sōkō Koike in 1967. That November, the company began publishing a singles chart on an experimental:basis.
Entitled Sōgō Geinō Shijō Chōsa, this went official on January 4, 1968. Like the preceding Japanese music charts provided by Tokushin Music Report, started in 1962, early Original Confidence was an exclusive information magazine only for the people who worked in the music industry. However, in the 1970s, Koike willingly advertised his company's charts to make its existence prevail among the Japanese public. Thanks to his intensive promotional efforts through multiple media including television programs, the hit parade became known by its abbreviation "Oricon" by the late 1970s; the company shortened its name to Oricon in 1992 and was split into a holding company and several subsidiaries in 1999. Since Sōkō Koike's death, Oricon has been managed by the founder's relatives. In 2004, Hirakawachi 1-chome made Oricon history by reaching the 7th spot, making their debut, Enpitsu de tsukuru uta, the youngest J-pop male artists' album charted in the top 10. Oricon monitors and reports on sales of CDs, DVDs, video games, entertainment content in several other formats.
Charts are published every Tuesday on Oricon's official website. Every Monday, Oricon receives data from outlets, but data on merchandise sold through certain channels does not make it into the charts. For example, the debut single of NEWS, a pop group, was released only through 7-Eleven stores, which are not covered by Oricon, its sales were not reflected in the Oricon charts. Oricon’s rankings of record sales are therefore not accurate. Before data was collected electronically, the charts were compiled on the basis of faxes that were sent from record shops. In 2006, Oricon sued journalist Hiro Ugaya when he was quoted in a Saizo magazine article as suggesting that Oricon was manipulating its statistics to benefit certain management companies and labels Johnny and Associates. Ugaya condemned the lawsuit as an example of a strategic lawsuit against public participation in Japan; the lawsuit, filed by Oricon on November 17, 2006, accused Ugaya of “mendacious comments” and demanded 50 million yen in damages.
In the interview, Ugaya questioned the validity of Oricon’s hit chart on the grounds that its statistical methods were not transparent. Many NGOs, including Reporters Without Borders, denounced the lawsuit as a violation of free expression. A Tokyo District Court ordered Ugaya to pay 1 million yen in damages, but Ugaya appealed to the Tokyo high court. Oricon dropped the charges, after a 33-month battle that laid waste to the reporter's life. No charge was laid against the journalist. Oricon’s decision to drop the action is unusual in Japan. According to Japanese supreme court figures, only 0.1 per cent of the cases closed in 2007 were terminated as a result of the plaintiff’s decision to abandon the claim. LitruPond LLC – 29.34% Yoshiaki Yoshida - 8.94% Hikari Tsushin, Inc. – 4.94% Ko Koike – 2.75% Lawson, Inc. - 1.98% Hidekō Koike - 1.89% Naoko Koike - 1.87% DHC Corp. – 1.59% Yumi Koike - 1.55% Singles Chart Albums Chart Karaoke Chart DVD Chart Book Chart Comic Chart Bunkobon Chart Blu-ray Disc Chart Music DVD & Blu-ray Disc Chart Long Hit Album Catalogue Chart Digital Albums Chart Digital Singles Chart Streaming Chart Combined Albums Chart Combined Singles Chart LP Chart CT Chart Cartridges Chart CD Chart LD Chart Sell-Video Chart VHD Chart MD Chart Game Software Chart All-Genre Formats Ranking New Media Chart Tracks Chart Oricon Singles Chart Oricon Albums Chart List of Oricon number-one singles List of Oricon number-one albums List of best-selling singles in Japan List of best-selling albums in Japan Oricon website
Zoids Genesis is the fourth anime installment of the Zoids franchise. It tells the story of Ruuji Familon, a young boy who finds a Liger-type Zoid during a salvage mission; the village is attacked by Bio-Raptor Bio-Zoids, a Bio-Megaraptor. After the village generator is destroyed in combat, Ruuji takes the Murasame Liger Zoid and leaves the village alongside Ra-Kan and Rei Mii to find a generator mechanic or the village will be destroyed. Through his journey Ruuji learns, it aired on TV Tokyo from April 2005 to March 2006. In July 2006, the series was announced to appear as a part of Toonami Jetstream, an online internet streaming project featuring current Toonami shows and all-new titles. Viz Media has indeed licensed the show as of August 2007. However, Toonami Jetstream was removed from the internet shortly after the Toonami television block was removed, so it is unknown if Zoids: Genesis will get a North American release, online or otherwise, it has been shown, however, on several markets outside the United States.
Much like Zoids: Fuzors, Genesis still takes place on Planet Zi, seems to share no connection to the previous series. The show takes a more post-apocalyptic setting, following a cataclysmic environmental/geological event known as "Gods' Fury" that has destroyed much of the civilizations on Zi and devastated the planet. Many of Zi's survivors have created new civilizations with the use of giant structures called "Generators" that are scattered around the planet. However, out of the ashes of "Gods' Fury", the technology of the Zoids still existed and are excavated for human use; the show returns to the more adventurous and war-themed styles reminiscent of Zoids: Chaotic Century. It focuses on a boy named Ruuji who lives in a small seaside village called Miroodo and becomes the pilot of the Murasame Liger after excavating it from the ocean. Generations ago on planet Zi, at the height of human development, Zoids were used in an epic war that led to the destruction of the world. So devastated was the world that the planet was habitable for humanity and nature.
The catastrophe was named "Gods' Fury" and was considered a supernatural event by locals who believed the world was punished because of humanity's foolishness. Using one of their most powerful and largest Zoids, the surviving people of this conflict rode on Gildragons for safety and shelter. While one group returned to the earth and founded Iron Rock City, another group built a floating city in the heavens called Sky City; the people there rebuilt their society and began researching ways to restore the planet. After many years of research, they planned to use their advanced bio-mechanical technology to restore the world in order to re-inhabit the land their ancestors destroyed. Although not returning, the technology they developed was implemented upon the planet, which utilized to what the surviving locals refer as generators, it has unique capabilities to maintain energy and growth for machinery and life in the surrounding area. Sky City would encounter energy depletion and scouted Zi with their own secret agents.
As other agents monitored the growth and progress of the humans that survived "Gods' Fury," others approached people to make special arrangements. The council of Sky City chose a city traded off advanced technology for Reggel, their arrangement not only involved treaties, but sending a Sky citizen to be adopted as part of the agreement. The King of Digu would accept Jiin as his son and Digu has since invested resources and developed their own technologies to form their own army, the Digald Army. Digald would mass-produce their own special units, Bio-Zoids, with the aid of technology provided by Iron Rock; the Bio Zoids were made in rapid numbers and started conquering neighboring villages and cities that had generators to help produce more energy for Digald's energy consumption. They used special stones that could detect a human's ability to pilot a Bio-Zoid and drafted them into Digald forces, never to see their friends and family again. Though known and feared throughout the continent, people couldn't do much to defend themselves as their Zoids were no match against the formidable armor of the Bio-Zoids and they couldn't survive without having a generator.
The story of Zoids Genesis begins around here, as Lord Ra-Kan roams the world with Princess Mii after his kingdom has fallen to Digald. Though his kingdom had fallen, Kira's survivors rebuilt a new city called Zuuri in a new secret location far from Digald's influence. Young Ruuji Familon was working with his father to help recover Zoids from the bottom of the ocean in their village, Miroodo. While Mii and Ra-Kan was within the local area, so was Major Zairin. Zairin would discover. Ruuji could never activate a Zoid, but the situation was dire and he jumped into the just-excavated Murasame Liger; this Zoid answered to Ruuji's call and activated to aid him against the Bio-Raptors attacking his village. Ra-Kan and Mii joined Ruuji in their fight against Digald. A battle between Zairin and Ruuji lead to the accidental damage to Miroodo's generator. With the generator damaged, this l
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro