Saturday Night Live
Saturday Night Live is an American late-night live television variety show created by Lorne Michaels and developed by Dick Ebersol. The show premiered on NBC on October 1975, under the original title NBC's Saturday Night; the show's comedy sketches, which parody contemporary culture and politics, are performed by a large and varying cast of repertory and newer cast members. Each episode is hosted by a celebrity guest, who delivers the opening monologue and performs in sketches with the cast as with featured performances by a musical guest. An episode begins with a cold open sketch that ends with someone breaking character and proclaiming, "Live from New York, it's Saturday Night!", properly beginning the show. In 1980, Michaels left the series to explore other opportunities, he was replaced by Jean Doumanian, replaced by Ebersol after a season of bad reviews. Ebersol ran the show until 1985. Since Michaels' return he has held the job of show-runner. Many of SNL's cast found national stardom while appearing on the show, achieved success in film and television, both in front of and behind the camera.
Others associated with the show, such as writers, have gone on to successful careers creating and starring in television and film. Broadcast from Studio 8H at NBC's headquarters in the Comcast Building at 30 Rockefeller Plaza, SNL has aired 868 episodes since its debut, began its forty-fourth season on September 29, 2018, making it one of the longest-running network television programs in the United States; the show format has been developed and recreated in several countries, meeting with different levels of success. Successful sketches have seen life outside the show as feature films including The Blues Brothers and Wayne's World; the show has been marketed in other ways, including home media releases of "best of" and whole seasons, books and documentaries about behind-the-scenes activities of running and developing the show. Throughout four decades on air, Saturday Night Live has received a number of awards, including 65 Primetime Emmy Awards, four Writers Guild of America Awards, two Peabody Awards.
In 2000, it was inducted into the National Association of Broadcasters Hall of Fame. It was ranked tenth in TV Guide's "50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time" list, in 2007 it was listed as one of Time magazine's "100 Best TV Shows of All-TIME"; as of 2018, the show has received 252 Primetime Emmy Award nominations, the most received by any television program. The live aspect of the show has resulted in several controversies and acts of censorship, with mistakes and intentional acts of sabotage by performers as well as guests. From 1965 until September 1975, NBC ran The Best of Carson reruns of The Tonight Show, airing them on either Saturday or Sunday night at local affiliates' discretion. In 1974, Johnny Carson announced that he wanted the weekend shows pulled and saved so that they could be aired during weeknights, allowing him to take time off. In 1974, NBC president Herbert Schlosser approached his vice president of late night programming, Dick Ebersol, asked him to create a show to fill the Saturday night time slot.
At the suggestion of Paramount Pictures executive Barry Diller and Ebersol approached Lorne Michaels. Over the next three weeks and Michaels developed the latter's idea for a variety show featuring high-concept comedy sketches, political satire, music performances that would attract 18- to 34-year-old viewers. By 1975, Michaels had assembled a talented cast, including Dan Aykroyd, John Belushi, Chevy Chase, Jane Curtin, Garrett Morris, Laraine Newman, Michael O'Donoghue, Gilda Radner, George Coe; the show was called NBC's Saturday Night, because Saturday Night Live was in use by Saturday Night Live with Howard Cosell on the rival network ABC. After the cancellation of the Cosell show, NBC purchased the rights to the name in 1976 and adopted the new title on March 26, 1977. Debuting on October 11, 1975, the show developed a cult following becoming a mainstream hit and spawning "Best of Saturday Night Live" compilations that reached viewers who could not stay awake for the live broadcasts, but during the first season in 1975 and 1976, according to a book about the show authored by Doug Hill and Jeff Weingrad, some NBC executives were not satisfied with the show's Nielsen ratings and shares.
Lorne Michaels pointed out to them that Nielsen's measurement of demographics indicated that baby boomers constituted a large majority of the viewers who did commit to watching the show, many of them watched little else on television. In 1975 and 1976, they were the most desirable demographic for television advertisers though Generation X was the right age for commercials for toys and other children's products. Baby boomers far outnumbered Generation X in reality but not in television viewership with the exception of Michaels' new show and major league sports, advertisers had long been concerned about baby boomers' distaste for the powerful medium. NBC executives understood Michaels' explanation of the desirable demographics and they decided to keep the show on the air despite many angry letters and phone calls that the network received from viewers who were offended by certain sketches, they included a Weekend Update segment on April 24, 1976, the 18th episode, that ridiculed Aspen, Colorado murder suspect Claudine Longet and warranted an on-air apology by announcer Don Pardo during the following episode.
Herminio Traviesas, a censor, vice president of the network's Standards and Practices department, objected to cast member Laraine Newman's use of the term "pissed off" in the March 13, 1976 episode with host Anthony Per
Macumba Love is a 1960 American voodoo horror film shot in Brazil, directed and co-produced by Douglas Fowley and written by Norman Graham. The film stars Walter Reed, Ziva Rodann, William Wellman Jr. June Wilkinson and Ruth de Souza; the film was released in June 1960, by United Artists. J. Peter Wells, an exposé writer, arrives on an island off the coast of South America, to complete a book on voodoo, ju-ju, macumba and other cult beliefs, which he believes are responsible for unsolved murders on this island. Wealthy landowner Venis de Vias warns him against stirring up the natives any efforts to lessen the prestige of the reigning VooDoo Queen Mama Rata-loi; the arrival of Wells' daughter and her husband, Warren, on a honeymoon trip, starts the pot boiling and making the natives restless, along with Queen Mama Rata-loi, who wants Warren and his friends to satisfy her own sexual appetite and blood lust. Walter Reed as J. Peter Weils Ziva Rodann as Venus de Viasa William Wellman Jr. as Warren June Wilkinson as Sara Ruth de Souza as Mama Rata-loi Pedro Paulo Hatheyer as Insp.
Escoberto Cléa Simões as Symanthemum Macumba Love on IMDb Macumba Love at the TCM Movie Database Macumba Love at AllMovie
Bizarre magic is a branch of stage magic, like stage illusions, sleight of hand, or children's magic. The major difference is that bizarre magic uses storytelling and word play to a much greater degree, less emphasis is placed on the manual dexterity of the performer or the complexity of his equipment; the experience is intended to be more akin to small, intimate theater than a conventional magic show. Bizarre Magicians use authentic antique or simulated artifacts to enhance their presentations. Storytelling is employed for a greater sense of theatrical authenticity. Techniques such as these distinguish Bizarre from other types of magic performance. Max Maven has said of Bizarre Magic that it "references a larger magical world beyond the boundaries of the performance."Bizarre magic uses horror and supernatural imagery in addition to the standard commercial magic approaches of comedy and wonder. Bizarre magic deliberately utilizes discomfort for theatrical effect. Another methodology employed in performance is the integration of storytelling enhanced by magic.
Bizarre Magic is performed as close-up magic, for a few people at a time, but it can be performed as a club show or as a stage act, depending on the routine, the props, the performer. The movement of the art of Bizarre Magic began in the late 1960s with Charles Cameron and Tony "Doc" Shiels; some of the significant artists since that time have been Tony Andruzzi, Eugene Burger, Christian Chelman, Robert Neale, Jeff McBride. Most of the material on the subject is published within the Bizarre Magic community and is not available through normal distribution, and many of the important works were either hand-made or published on a limited basis. So despite being recent publications, many have significant collectible value. Contemporary British practitioners include Todd Landman, Iain Jay, Michael Murray, Nick Brunger, Stuart Burrell, Ashton Carter, Steve Drury and Dale Shrimpton. There are a few annual events focused on Bizarre Magic; the first event was the now defunct "Invocational" which started a tradition of annual gatherings in honor of the Bizarre.
In Edinburgh, Scotland the annual Charles Cameron Gathering is held in October. In October is the Magic and Meaning Conference in Las Vegas, Nevada. England's most popular convention for bizarre magicians is "Doomsday" - being held in Dracula's favourite seaside town, Whitby, it moves to a new location in 2019 after being held for the final time there in May 2018. Since 2015, The East Coast Spirit Sessions is held in January in Myrtle Beach,SC. In 2018, the first annual Mid-Atlantic Bizarre Hauntings Conference was held
David Blaine White is an American magician, illusionist and "endurance artist". He is best known for his high-profile feats of endurance, has set and broken several world records. Blaine innovated, his idea was to turn the camera around on the people watching instead of the performer, to make the audience watch the audience. The New York Times noted that "he's taken a craft that's been around for hundreds of years and done something unique and fresh with it." According to the New York Daily News, "Blaine can lay claim to his own brand of wizardry. The magic he offers operates on an uncommonly personal level." Penn Jillette called Blaine's first television special, Street Magic, "the biggest breakthrough done in our lifetime" for changing the perspective of television viewers toward those seeing the trick live. Blaine was born and raised in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Patrice Maureen White, a school teacher, William Perez, a veteran of the Vietnam War, his father was of half Puerto Rican and half Italian descent, his mother was of Russian Jewish ancestry.
When Blaine was four years old, he saw a magician performing magic in the subway. This triggered a lifelong interest for him, he attended many schools in Brooklyn. When he was 10 years old, his mother married John Bukalo and they moved to Little Falls, New Jersey, where he attended Passaic Valley Regional High School; when Blaine was 17 years old, he moved to New York. On May 19, 1997, Blaine's first television special, David Blaine: Street Magic aired on ABC. "It really does break new ground," said Penn Jillette of Penn and Teller. When asked about his performance style, Blaine explained, "I'd like to bring magic back to the place it used to be 100 years ago."' Time commented, "His deceptively low-key, ultracool manner leaves spectators more amazed than if he'd razzle-dazzled."In Magic Man, Blaine is shown traveling across the country, entertaining unsuspecting pedestrians in Atlantic City, Dallas, the Mojave Desert, New York City, San Francisco, recorded by a small crew with handheld cameras.
Jon Racherbaumer commented: "Make no mistake about it, the focus of this show and girls, is not Blaine. It is about theatrical proxemics. USA Today called Blaine the "hottest name in magic right now". On April 5, 1999, Blaine was entombed in an underground plastic box underneath a 3-ton water-filled tank for seven days, across from Trump Place on 68th St. and Riverside Drive, as part of a stunt titled "Buried Alive". According to CNN, "Blaine's only communication to the outside world was by a hand buzzer, which could have alerted an around-the-clock emergency crew standing by." BBC News reported that the plastic coffin had two inches on each side. During the endurance stunt Blaine did not eat and drank only two to three US tablespoons of water a day. An estimated 75,000 people visited the site, including Marie Blood, Harry Houdini's niece, who said, "My uncle did some amazing things, but he could not have done this." On the final day of the stunt, April 12, hundreds of news teams were stationed at the site for the coffin-opening.
A team of construction workers removed a portion of the 75 cubic feet of gravel surrounding the 6-foot deep coffin before a crane lifted the water tank. Blaine emerged and told the crowd, "I saw something prophetic... a vision of every race, every religion, every age group banding together, that made all this worthwhile." BBC News stated, "The 26-year-old magician has outdone his hero, Harry Houdini, who had planned a similar feat but died in 1926 before he could perform it." On November 27, 2000, Blaine performed a stunt called Frozen in Time, where he attempted and failed to stay in a large block of ice located in Times Square, New York City for 72 hours. It was covered on a TV special, he was dressed and appeared to be shivering before the blocks of ice were placed around him. A tube supplied him with water while his urine was removed with another tube, he was encased in the box of ice for 63 hours, 42 minutes and 15 seconds before being removed with chain saws. The ice was transparent and resting on an elevated platform to show that he was inside the ice the entire time.
He was taken to a hospital due to fears he might be going into shock. The New York Times reported, "The magician who emerged from the unstable ice box seemed a shadow of the confident, shirtless fellow who entered two days before." Blaine said it took a month to recover and that he had no plans to attempt a stunt of this difficulty in the future. In 2010, a magician from Israel named Hezi Dean broke Blaine's record when he was encased in a block of ice for 66 hours. On May 22, 2002, a crane lifted Blaine onto a 100 feet high and 22 inches wide pillar in Bryant Park, New York City, he was not harnessed to the pillar, although there were two retractable handles on either side of him to grasp in the event of harsh weather. He remained on the pillar for 35 hours, he ended the feat by jumping down onto a landing platform made out of a 12 feet high pile of cardboard boxes and suffered a mild concussion. He revealed during his 2010 TED Talk that he had suffered from severe hallucinations in the final hours of this stunt, causing the buildings and structures around him to look like animal heads.
Mysterious Stranger: A Book of Magic by David Blaine was published on October 29, 2002. The book is an
Rubber cement is an adhesive made from elastic polymers mixed in a solvent such as acetone, heptane or toluene to keep them fluid enough to be used. Water-based formulae stabilised by ammonia, are available; this makes it part of the class of drying adhesives: as the solvents evaporate, the "rubber" portion remains behind, forming a strong, yet flexible bond. A small percentage of alcohol is added to the mix. Rubber cement is a mixture of solid rubber in a volatile solvent that will dissolve it; when the cement is applied, the solvent evaporates. Any rubber can be used; the rubbers used might be gum mastic or gum arabic. Early solvents used included benzene. In the United States of America, current formulations include n-heptane. In the UK, a product called. Many compositions have included hardeners and/or vulcanizing agents designed to improve the cohesion of the rubber. Rubber cement is favored in art applications where easy and damage-free removal of adhesive is desired. For example, rubber cement is used as the marking fluid in erasable pens.
Because rubber cements are designed to peel or rub off without damaging the paper or leaving any trace of adhesive behind, they are ideal for use in paste-up work where excess cement might need to be removed. It does not become brittle as paste does. Older formula rubber cements are not considered an archivally sound adhesive because of their low pH value and will cause deterioration of photographs and papers over time. Newer formulas of rubber cement such as Elmer's'No-Wrinkle' are acid-free and considered "photo safe"; the solvents used in rubber cement present some hazards, including flammability and potential for abuse as inhalants. Therefore, as with any adhesive, rubber cement should be used in an open area. Care needs be taken to avoid heat sources, as n-heptane and n-hexane are flammable. Rubber cement and rubber cement thinner that contain acetone will damage polished surfaces and many plastics
Escapology is the practice of escaping from restraints or other traps. Escapologists escape from handcuffs, cages, steel boxes, bags, burning buildings, fish-tanks, other perils in combination; the art of escaping from restraints and confined spaces has been a skill employed by performers for a long time. It was not displayed as an overt act in itself but was instead used secretly to create illusions such as a disappearance or transmutation. In the 1860s, the Davenport Brothers, who were skilled at releasing themselves from rope ties, used the art to convey the impression they were restrained while they created spirit phenomena. Other illusionists, including John Nevil Maskelyne, worked out how the Davenports did their act and re-created the tricks to debunk the brothers' claims of psychic power. However, the re-creations did not involve overt escape a replication of tricks with the statement that they were accomplished by secret magicians' skills rather than spirits, it took another thirty years before the pure skill of escape began to be displayed as an act in itself.
The figure most responsible for making escapology a recognized entertainment was Harry Houdini, who built his career on demonstrating the ability to escape from a huge variety of restraints and difficult situations. Houdini made no secret of the fact that he was an expert on restraints and the skills needed to overcome them but he concealed the exact details of his escapes to maintain an air of mystery and suspense. Although many of his escapes relied on technical skills such as lock-picking and contortion, he performed tricks such as Metamorphosis and the Chinese Water Torture Cell, which are classic stage illusions reliant on cleverly designed props. Houdini's feats helped to define the basic repertoire of escapology, including escapes from handcuffs, straitjackets, mail bags, beer barrels, prison cells; the actual term'escapology' is reputed to have been coined by Australian escapologist and illusionist Murray, a Houdini contemporary. A succession of performers have added new ideas and created variations on old stunts, but it is common for the best contemporary escapologists to be dubbed modern day "Houdinis".
Because St. Nicholas Owen escaped the Tower of London and arranged the escape of two Jesuit inmates from the prison, the 16th-century Christian martyr is considered by Catholic escapologists as their patron saint. Along with St. John Don Bosco, the two are considered the primary patrons of Catholic Gospel Magicians; the United Kingdom Escape Artists was formed in 2004 and is the only organisation in the United Kingdom devoted to the promotion of UK escape artists and the preservation of escapology within the UK. Its members are made up of professional escapologists, restraint collectors, master locksmiths, historians; the UKEA meet once a year for their AGM. The International Escapologists Society is an online society with its own monthly newsletter, dedicated to the art of escape on an international level. Escape Masters was formed in 1985 by renowned escape artist Norman Bigelow and has been run by Thomas Blacke as International President of the organization and Editor/Publisher of the magazine since 2001.
Hidden is a style of escape performance popularised by the late Harry Houdini that involved much of the performance taking place behind some form of screen or inside a cabinet in order to protect the secrets of the performer. This style of escape performance was popular with the majority of escape artists until the end of the 20th Century and is still preferred by many performers today, its disadvantage is that audiences may wrongly believe a concealed assistant to have released the escapologist, whom they may not have seen struggle. Full View is a form of escape performance, popularised by Norman Bigelow Sr. during the 1970s. He presented his escapes as pure tests of human skill and endurance and the audience could see everything from start to finish, his signature escape, "The Doors Of Death," inspired many escape artists to adopt this style of performance in their own shows. One performer, Jonathon Bryce, took the full view approach to the Buried Alive escape and with the encouragement of Norman Bigelow Sr. made the world debut of Buried Alive in Full View at the Music is Art Festival in Buffalo, NY with the help of Goo Goo Dolls bassist, Robby Takac.
Mark Nelson, "The Great Markini" performed Full View with his Electrified Mummy Lid Torture Board Escape. Escape or Die, the form of escape performance originated by Houdini, is the standard for top-of-the-line escapologists. There are at least three possible ways for an escapologist's life to be at risk from the possible failure of this escape; these are death by drowning. UK escape artist Alan Alan took this further by hanging from a burning rope hundreds of feet in the air; this type of escapology does fail, its failures have resulted in escape artists getting hurt or losing their lives. Others who have done this type of escape include Dorothy Dietrich, Antony Britton, Jonathon Bryce, Mark Nelson "Markini The Worlds Youngest Professional Escape Artist" highlighted death by electrocution with his "Electrified Mummy Lid Torture Board". Escape was required in under 60 seconds or a fatal charge of electricity w
Coin magic is the manipulating of coins to entertain audiences. Because coins are small, most coin tricks are considered close-up magic or table magic, as the audience must be close to the performer to see the effects. Though stage conjurers do not use coin effects, coin magic is sometimes performed onstage using large coins. In a different type of performance setting, a close-up coin magician will use a large video projector so the audience can see the magic on a big screen. Coin magic is considered harder to master than other close-up techniques such as card magic, as it requires great skill and grace to perform convincingly, this takes a lot of practice to acquire. Coin effects include productions, transformations, teleportations, restorations and mental magic—some are combined in a single routine. A simple effect might involve borrowing a coin, making it vanish, concealing the coin reproducing it again unexpectedly and returning it to the owner. More complex effects may involve multiple coins, substituting or switching coins and other objects or props can be employed as well as the coins.
However, the power of most coin magic lies in the solidity of the object. Any audience will be amazed by the simplest mystery, such as passing a coin through a table; some classic coin magic effects: Coin vanish - making a coin vanish. Coin production - making a coin appear. Transposition - making two coins switch placesSome classic coin magic plots: Miser's Dream - Grabbing multiple coins from thin air. Popularized by T. Nelson Downs, who would drop coin after coin into a borrowed top hat. Coins Across - The magical transfer of multiple coins from one hand to another. Three fly - A coins across type effect involving three coins visually transferring from one hand to another. Matrix - Impossibly moving four coins under the cover of playing cards. Chink-a-chink - A bare-handed Matrix. Coins Through Table - Coins penetrate through the surface of the table. Coin Bite - Taking a bite out of a coin visually restoring it right in front of the spectator. Spellbound - Visually changing one coin into another, while only showing one coin at all times.
Coins to Glass - Similar to coins across - coins transfer from one hand to a glass. Tenkai Pennies - A two coin routine where one coin travels from one hand to the other. Coin to bottle - A coin is slammed into a sealed bottle. A sampling of coin sleights and moves: Palming - A form of concealment. Sleeving - A form of concealment. Lapping - A form of ditching a coin; the French Drop - a retention of vision coin vanish involving the Passing of a coin from one hand to the other than making it disappear. The Muscle Pass - Shooting a coin from one hand to the other, this can be done in such a way that can make the coin look as if it’s defying gravity Some magicians known for coin magic include: Thomas Nelson Downs J. B. Bobo Tony Slydini Dai Vernon Ed Marlo David Roth Larry Jennings Michael Ammar Dean Dill Michael Vincent Shoot Ogawa Apollo Robbins David Stone Rocco Silano Jay Sankey Rich Ferguson Luis Piedrahita Michael Rubinstein Mike Gallo Chris Kenner Paul Cummins Although some coin magic use gimmicks, such gimmicks do not create the magical effect.
Gimmicked coins are made by several major manufacturers, such as Sterling, Sasco or Tango Magic. Producing a memorable mystery requires significant skill in presenting the effect and utilizing misdirection to distract the audience from the secret of the gimmick. A performer who relies on special equipment may not impress an audience. Many people are more impressed by an effect which depends on skillful manipulation and misdirection than by an effect which appears to depend to some extent on specially made props. A performer who has mastered the basic skills can nonetheless use gimmicks to powerful effect without it being obvious to the audience; some prefer not to use gimmicks at all, though most well-known coin magicians do use simple coin gimmicks. Canadian novelist Robertson Davies devotes a good part of his Deptford Trilogy to the art of coin magic. All three novels follow in part or wholly the career of a fictitious magician, Magnus Eisengrim, abducted as a boy by a traveling circus and learned his craft while concealed in a papier-mâché automaton.
The descriptions of coin magic throughout are remarkable for their clarity. The final novel in the series, World of Wonders, details his life and career. In the Neil Gaiman novel American Gods, the main character, Shadow, is experienced with coin magic, many different tricks and aspects of coin ma