A nursery rhyme is a traditional poem or song for children in Britain and many other countries, but usage of the term only dates from the late 18th/early 19th century. The term Mother Goose rhymes is interchangeable with nursery rhymes. From the mid-16th century nursery rhymes begin to be recorded in English plays, most popular rhymes date from the 17th and 18th centuries; the first English collections, Tommy Thumb's Song Book and a sequel, Tommy Thumb's Pretty Song Book, were published before 1744. Publisher John Newbery's stepson, Thomas Carnan, was the first to use the term Mother Goose for nursery rhymes when he published a compilation of English rhymes, Mother Goose's Melody, or, Sonnets for the Cradle; the oldest children's songs of which we have records are lullabies, intended to help a child fall asleep. Lullabies can be found in every human culture; the English term lullaby is thought to come from "lu, lu" or "la la" sounds made by mothers or nurses to calm children, "by by" or "bye bye", either another lulling sound or a term for good night.
Until the modern era lullabies were only recorded incidentally in written sources. The Roman nurses' lullaby, "Lalla, Lalla, aut dormi, aut lacta", is recorded in a scholium on Persius and may be the oldest to survive. Many medieval English verses associated with the birth of Jesus take the form of a lullaby, including "Lullay, my liking, my dere son, my sweting" and may be versions of contemporary lullabies. However, most of those used today date from the 17th century. For example, a well known lullaby such as "Rock-a-bye, baby on a tree top", cannot be found in records until the late-18th century when it was printed by John Newbery. A French poem, similar to "Thirty days hath September", numbering the days of the month, was recorded in the 13th century. From the Middle Ages there are records of short children's rhyming songs as marginalia. From the mid-16th century they begin to be recorded in English plays. "Pat-a-cake, pat-a-cake, baker's man" is one of the oldest surviving English nursery rhymes.
The earliest recorded version of the rhyme appears in Thomas d'Urfey's play The Campaigners from 1698. Most nursery rhymes were not written down until the 18th century, when the publishing of children's books began to move from polemic and education towards entertainment, but there is evidence for many rhymes existing before this, including "To market, to market" and "Cock a doodle doo", which date from at least the late 16th century; the first English collections, Tommy Thumb's Song Book and a sequel, Tommy Thumb's Pretty Song Book, are both thought to have been published by Mary Cooper in London before 1744, with such songs becoming known as'Tommy Thumb's songs'. John Newbery's stepson, Thomas Carnan, was the first to use the term Mother Goose for nursery rhymes when he published a compilation of English rhymes, Mother Goose's Melody, or, Sonnets for the Cradle; these rhymes seem to have come from a variety of sources, including traditional riddles, ballads, lines of Mummers' plays, drinking songs, historical events, and, it has been suggested, ancient pagan rituals.
About half of the recognised "traditional" English rhymes were known by the mid-18th century. In the early 19th century printed collections of rhymes began to spread to other countries, including Robert Chambers's Popular Rhymes of Scotland and in the United States, Mother Goose's Melodies. From this period we sometimes know the origins and authors of rhymes—for instance, in "Twinkle Twinkle Little Star" which combines the melody of an 18th-century French tune "Ah vous dirai-je, Maman" with a 19th-century English poem by Jane Taylor entitled "The Star" used as lyrics. Early folk song collectors often collected nursery rhymes, including in Scotland Sir Walter Scott and in Germany Clemens Brentano and Achim von Arnim in Des Knaben Wunderhorn; the first, the most important academic collection to focus in this area was James Orchard Halliwell's The Nursery Rhymes of England and Popular Rhymes and Tales in 1849, in which he divided rhymes into antiquities, fireside stories, game-rhymes, alphabet-rhymes, nature-rhymes and families, superstitions and nursery songs.
By the time of Sabine Baring-Gould's A Book of Nursery Songs, folklore was an academic study, full of comments and footnotes. A professional anthropologist, Andrew Lang produced The Nursery Rhyme Book in 1897; the early years of the 20th century are notable for the illustrations to children's books including Caldecott's Hey Diddle Diddle Picture Book and Arthur Rackham's Mother Goose. The definitive study of English rhymes remains the work of Peter Opie. Many nursery rhymes have been argued to have hidden origins. John Bellenden Ker, for example, wrote four volumes arguing that English nursery rhymes were written in'Low Saxon', a hypothetical early form of Dutch, he then'translated' them back into English, revealing in particular a strong tendency to anti-clericalism. Many of the ideas about the links between rhymes and historical persons, or events, can be traced back to Katherine Elwes's book The Real Personages of Mother Goose, in which she linked famous nursery-rhyme characters with real people, on little or no evidence.
She assumed that children's songs were a peculiar form of coded historical narrative, propaganda or covert protest, considered that they could have been written for entertainment. There have been several attempts, across the world. In the late 18th century we can sometimes see how rhymes like "Little Rob
Children's literature or juvenile literature includes stories, books and poems that are enjoyed by children. Modern children's literature is classified in two different ways: genre or the intended age of the reader. Children's literature can be traced to stories and songs, part of a wider oral tradition, that adults shared with children before publishing existed; the development of early children's literature, before printing was invented, is difficult to trace. After printing became widespread, many classic "children's" tales were created for adults and adapted for a younger audience. Since the fifteenth century much literature has been aimed at children with a moral or religious message; the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is known as the "Golden Age of Children's Literature", because many classic children's books were published then. There is no single or used definition of children's literature, it can be broadly defined as anything that children read or more defined as fiction, non-fiction, poetry, or drama intended for and used by children and young people.
One writer on children's literature defines it as "all books written for children, excluding works such as comic books, joke books, cartoon books, non-fiction works that are not intended to be read from front to back, such as dictionaries and other reference materials". However, others would argue that comics should be included: "Children's Literature studies has traditionally treated comics fitfully and superficially despite the importance of comics as a global phenomenon associated with children"; the International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature notes that "the boundaries of genre... are not fixed but blurred". Sometimes, no agreement can be reached about whether a given work is best categorized as literature for adults or children; some works defy easy categorization. J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series was written and marketed for young adults, but it is popular among adults; the series' extreme popularity led The New York Times to create a separate best-seller list for children's books.
Despite the widespread association of children's literature with picture books, spoken narratives existed before printing, the root of many children's tales go back to ancient storytellers. Seth Lerer, in the opening of Children's Literature: A Reader's History from Aesop to Harry Potter, says, "This book presents a history of what children have heard and read... The history I write of is a history of reception." Early children's literature consisted of spoken stories and poems that were used to educate and entertain children. It was only in the eighteenth century, with the development of the concept of childhood, that a separate genre of children's literature began to emerge, with its own divisions and canon; the earliest of these books were educational books, books on conduct, simple ABCs—often decorated with animals and anthropomorphic letters. In 1962, French historian Philippe Ariès argues in his book Centuries of Childhood that the modern concept of childhood only emerged in recent times.
He explains that children were in the past not considered as different from adults and were not given different treatment. As evidence for this position, he notes that, apart from instructional and didactic texts for children written by clerics like the Venerable Bede and Ælfric of Eynsham, there was a lack of any genuine literature aimed at children before the 18th century. Other scholars have qualified this viewpoint by noting that there was a literature designed to convey the values and information necessary for children within their cultures, such as the Play of Daniel from the 12th century. Pre-modern children's literature, tended to be of a didactic and moralistic nature, with the purpose of conveying conduct-related and religious lessons. During the 17th century, the concept of childhood began to emerge in Europe. Adults saw children as separate beings, innocent and in need of protection and training by the adults around them; the English philosopher John Locke developed his theory of the tabula rasa in his 1690 An Essay Concerning Human Understanding.
In Locke's philosophy, tabula rasa was the theory that the mind is at birth a "blank slate" without rules for processing data, that data is added and rules for processing are formed by one's sensory experiences. A corollary of this doctrine was that the mind of the child was born blank and that it was the duty of the parents to imbue the child with correct notions. Locke himself emphasized the importance of providing children with "easy pleasant books" to develop their minds rather than using force to compel them, he suggested that picture books be created for children. In the nineteenth century, a few children's titles became famous as classroom reading texts. Among these were the fables of Aesop and Jean de la Fontaine and Charles Perraults's 1697 Tales of Mother Goose; the popularity of these texts led to the creation of a number of nineteenth-century fantasy and fairy tales for children which featured magic objects and talking animals. Another influence on this shift in attitudes came from Puritanism, which stressed the importance of individual salvation.
Puritans were concerned with the spiritual welfare of their children, there was a large growth in the publication of "good godly books" aimed squarely at children. Some of the most popular works were by James Janeway, but the most enduring book from this movement, still read toda
Roud Folk Song Index
The Roud Folk Song Index is a database of around 250,000 references to nearly 25,000 songs collected from oral tradition in the English language from all over the world. It is compiled by a former librarian in the London Borough of Croydon. Roud's Index is a "field-recording index" compiled by Roud, it subsumes all the previous printed sources known to Francis James Child and includes recordings from 1900 to 1975. Until early 2006 the index was available by a CD subscription. A partial list is available at List of folk songs by Roud number; the primary function of the Roud Folk Song Index is as a research aid correlating versions of traditional English-language folk song lyrics independently documented over past centuries by many different collectors across the UK and North America. It is possible by searching the database, for example by title, by first line, or subject matter to locate each of the numerous variants of a particular song. Comprehensive details of those songs are available, including details of the original collected source, a reference to where to find the text of the song within a published volume in the EFDSS archive.
A related index, the Roud Broadside Index, includes references to songs which appeared on broadsides and other cheap print publications, up to about 1920. In addition, there are many entries for music hall songs, pre-World War II radio performers' song folios, sheet music, etc; the index may be searched by title, first line etc. and the result includes details of the original imprint and where a copy may be located. The Roud number – "Roud num" – field may be used as a cross-reference to the Roud Folk Song Index itself in order to establish the traditional origin of the work; the database is recognised as a "significant index" by the EFDSS and was one of the first items to be published on its web site after the launch of the online version of the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library in 2006. The purpose of the index is to give each song a unique identifier; the numbers were assigned on a more or less arbitrary basis, are not intended to carry any significance in themselves. However, because of the practicalities of compiling the index it is true as a general rule that older and better-known songs tend to occupy low numbers, while songs which are obscure have higher numbers.
Related songs are grouped under the same Roud number. If a trusted authority gives the name of a song but not the words it is assigned Roud number 000; the Index cross references to the Child Ballad number, if one is available for the particular song in question. It includes, where appropriate, the Laws number, a reference to a system of classification of folk songs, using one letter of the alphabet and up to two numeric digits, developed by George Malcolm Laws in the 1950s; the Index was compiled and is maintained by Steve Roud the Local Studies Librarian in the London Borough of Croydon. He was Honorary Librarian of the Folklore Society, he began it in around 1970 as a personal project, listing the source singer, their locality, the date of noting the song, the publisher, plus other fields, crucially assigning a number to each song, including all variants to overcome the problem of songs in which the titles were not consistent across versions. The system used 3x5-inch filing cards in shoeboxes.
In 1993, Roud implemented his record system on a computer database, which he continues to expand and maintain and, now hosted on the website of the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library. In the past few years the numbers have been accepted in academic circles; the Traditional Ballad Index at the California State University at Fresno includes Roud numbers up to number 5000 with comments on the songs, but draws on fewer sources. The Folk Song Index is a collaborative project between the Oberlin College Library and the folk music journal Sing Out!. It is an index to traditional folk songs of the world, with an emphasis on English-language songs, containing over 62,000 entries and including over 2,400 anthologies. Max Hunter's collection lists 1,600 songs. James Madison Carpenter's collection has 6,200 transcriptions and 1000 recorded cylinders made between 1927 and 1955; the index gives first line and the name of the source singer. When appropriate, the Child number is given, it is still a unexploited resource, with none of the recordings available.
The Essen folk song database is another collection that includes songs from non English-speaking countries Germany and China. A similar index of Latvian folk songs and chants, the "Dainu skapis", was created by Latvian scholar Krišjānis Barons at the beginning of the 20th century. List of folk songs by Roud number Iona and Peter Opie Official website
Charles H. Bennett (illustrator)
Charles Henry Bennett was a prolific Victorian illustrator who pioneered techniques in comic illustration. Charles Henry Bennett was born at 3 Tavistock Row in Covent Garden on July 26, 1828 and was baptised a month in St. Paul's Church, Covent Garden, he was the eldest of the three children of Charles and Harriet Bennett from Teston in Kent. His father was a boot-maker. Nothing is known of Charles's childhood, although it is that he received some education at St. Clement Dane's School on nearby Stanhope Street. At the age of twenty, Charles married Elizabeth Toon, the daughter of a Shoreditch warehouseman, on Christmas Day 1848 in St. Paul's Church, their first son was born a year and by 1851 the family was settled in Lyon's Inn in the Strand. At the time of their wedding, Charles was attempting to support his family by selling newspapers, but three years in the 1851 census, he described himself as an artist and portrait painter. Charles and Elizabeth's family kept growing and moving, by 1861 they were living in Wimbledon with their six children.
Charles, the eldest, was by this time at school, while the youngest, was just seven months old. As a child, Charles developed a passion for art, drawing for his inspiration the motley crowds he saw daily in the market, his father was stern in his dismissal of what he considered a waste of time. As an adult, Charles became part of the London bohemian scene, was a founder member of the Savage Club, each member of, “a working man in literature or art”; as well as socializing over convivial dinners, members of the club published The Train. Charles Bennett contributed many illustrations, signed'Bennett' rather than with his CHB monogram, but the magazine was short-lived; the middle of the nineteenth century saw the launch of many cheap short-lived periodicals in London. The Devil in London, The Penny Trumpet, The Whig Dresser and The Squib only lasted a few weeks, while The Man in the Moon survived for two and a half years. In 1847, James Hannay, novelist and protégé of Thackeray, founded Pasquin, followed in 1848 by The Puppet Show and The New Puppet Show.
Charles Bennett contributed small illustrations to these and other magazines, although identifying them is hindered by the absence of his distinctive monogram. By 1855 he was better known and was invited to design the masthead and front page cartoon for the first issue of the Comic Times, he contributed to Diogenes and Comic News as well as mainstream illustrated magazines such as The London Journal, Good Words, London Society and Every Boy's Magazine. His occasional full-page illustrations appeared in Christmas and New Year editions of The Illustrated London News. 1858 saw the publication of the first of more than a dozen children's books illustrated by Charles Bennett. Old Nurse's Book of Rhymes, Jingles & Ditties was, as the title suggests, a collection of children's verse with colour illustrations on every page and a frontispiece illustrating ‘Old Nurse at Home.’ Among the children's books that followed were the short Nine Lives of a Cat, with its twenty rather crudely illustrated pages and The Adventurers of Young Munchausen, the story of a young man whose fantastic adventures ranged from discovering the source of the Nile to travelling in space in a balloon.
The Stories that Little Breeches Told is dedicated by the author to his daughters Harriet and Polly, with a suggestion that he was ill, as follows:DEAR HARRIET AND POLLY, As soon as Little Breeches had told me these stories, I told them to you. Now when they are in print, the pictures are all etched on copper-plates, I am made happy indeed, by your kindness in allowing me to dedicate them to you, and remain, All, left of me, Your affectionate Father, CHARLES BENNETT' In addition to this dedication, the book has a strong family flavour, with comments from family members after each story. As well as Charles and the children, there are comments from Grandmamma, Uncle George and an unnamed aunt; the Sorrowful Ending of Noodledoo was dedicated to his son George, ill, although "as he got better his temper fell sick." Lightsome and the Little Golden Lady his best children's book begins with a family dedication. Charles thanks "my dear Charley" who had written down the story from his father's telling, a task which had given them both much enjoyment.
In addition to his own children's books, Charles Bennett provided the illustrations for Tom Hood's Jingles and Jokes for the Little Folks as well as for books of fairy tales by Henry Morley and Mark Lemon. Shadows and Fables Among Charles Bennett's best loved books were his Shadows series. In Shadow and Substance, Charles Bennett and Robert Barnabas Brough describe the eidolograph, a magic lantern of which Charles Bennett is named as the “sole inventor and original patentee.” The shadows cast by the eidolograph indicate the true personality of the sitter. Thus a fat schoolboy's shadow is portrayed as a snail; the collection of shadow pictures was reprinted several times in coloured versions without the accompanying text and seems to have been something of a best seller. The shadow of a man leaning on a post shows him to be “A Queer Fish" and that of a young woman ser
James Orchard Halliwell-Phillipps, born James Orchard Halliwell, was an English Shakespearean scholar, a collector of English nursery rhymes and fairy tales. The son of Thomas Halliwell, he was born in London and was educated and at Jesus College, Cambridge, he devoted himself to antiquarian research of early English literature. Beginning at the age of only 16, between 1836 and 1837, he contributed 47 articles to The Parthenon. A Weekly Journal of English and Foreign Literature, the Arts, Sciences. In 1841, while at Cambridge, Halliwell dedicated his book Reliquae Antiquae to Sir Thomas Phillipps, the noted bibliomaniac. Phillipps invited Halliwell to stay at Middle Hill. There Halliwell met Henrietta, to whom he soon proposed marriage; however around this time, Halliwell was accused of stealing manuscripts from Trinity College, Cambridge. Although never prosecuted, Phillipps's suspicions were aroused and he refused to consent to the marriage; this led to the couple's elopement in 1842. William A. Jackson and Harvard professor argues that Halliwell stole an exceedingly rare 1603 quarto Hamlet from Phillipps, removed the title page and sold it.
Phillipps refused to see his daughter or Halliwell again. In 1842, Halliwell published the first edition of Nursery Rhymes of England followed by Nursery Rhymes and Nursery Tales, containing the first printed version of the Three Little Pigs. and a version of the Christmas carol The Twelve Days of Christmas. From 1845 Halliwell was excluded from the library of the British Museum on account of the suspicion concerning his possession of some manuscripts, removed from the library of Trinity College, Cambridge, he published an explanation of the matter in 1845. Halliwell had a habit, detested by bibliophiles, of cutting up seventeenth-century books and pasting parts he liked into scrapbooks. During his life he made 3,600 scraps. In 1848 he published his Life of Shakespeare, illustrated by John Thomas Blight, which had several editions. After 1870 he gave up textual criticism, devoted his attention to elucidating the particulars of Shakespeare's life, he collated all the available facts and documents in relation to it, exhausted the information to be found in local records in his Outlines of the Life of Shakespeare.
He was instrumental in the purchase of New Place for the corporation of Stratford-on-Avon, in the formation there of the Shakespeare museum. He assumed the name of Phillipps in 1872, under the will of the grandfather of his first wife, Henrietta Phillipps, he took an active interest in the Camden Society, the Percy Society and the Shakespeare Society, for which he edited many early English and Elizabethan works. He died on 3 January 1889, was buried in Patcham churchyard, near Hollingbury in East Sussex, his house, Hollingbury Copse, near Brighton, was full of rare and curious works, he generously gave many of them to Chetham's Library, Manchester, to the Morrab Library of Penzance, to the Smithsonian Institution, to the library of the University of Edinburgh. His publications in all numbered more than sixty volumes, including:. Shakesperiana. J. R. Smith. Cambridge Jokes: From the Seventeenth to the Twentieth Century. Thomas Stevenson and Bogue A Dictionary of Archaic & Provincial Words, Obsolete Phrases, Proverbs & Ancient Customs, Form the Fourteenth Century, Volume I A-I A Dictionary of Archaic & Provincial Words, Obsolete Phrases, Proverbs & Ancient Customs, Form the Fourteenth Century, Volume II J-Z A Calendar of the Records at Stratford-on-Avon A History of New Place An Historical Account of the New Place, Stratford-Upon-Avon, the Last Residence of Shakespeare.
A Hand-Book Index to the Works of Shakespeare: Including References to the Phrases, Customs, Songs, Particles, &c. Which Are Alluded to by the Great Dramatist. J. E. Adlard Spevack, James Orchard Halliwell-Phillipps: The Life and Works, Oak Knoll Press. Justin Winsor Halliwelliana: A Bibliography of the Publications of James Orchard Halliwell-Phillipps, Harvard University Press Works written by or about James Halliwell-Phillipps at WikisourceWorks by James Halliwell-Phillipps at Project Gutenberg Works by or about James Halliwell-Phillipps at Internet Archive Works by James Halliwell-Phillipps at Open Library Full texts by James Halliwell-Phillipps Letters of the kings of England, now first collected from royal archives Cornell University Library Historical Monographs Collection. Cornell University Library Digital Collections
A proverb is a simple, traditional saying that expresses a truth based on common sense or experience. Proverbs are metaphorical and use formulaic language. Collectively, they form a genre of folklore; some proverbs exist in more than one language because people borrow them from languages and cultures similar to theirs. In the West, the Bible and medieval Latin have played a considerable role in distributing proverbs. Not all Biblical proverbs, were distributed to the same extent: one scholar has gathered evidence to show that cultures in which the Bible is the "major spiritual book contain between three hundred and five hundred proverbs that stem from the Bible," whereas another shows that, of the 106 most common and widespread proverbs across Europe, eleven are from the Bible; however every culture has its own unique proverbs. What is a proverb? Lord John Russell observed poetically that a "proverb is the wit of one, the wisdom of many." But giving the word "proverb" the sort of definition theorists need has proven to be a difficult task, although scholars quote Archer Taylor's argument that formulating a scientific "definition of a proverb is too difficult to repay the undertaking...
An incommunicable quality tells us that one is not. Hence no definition will enable us to identify positively a sentence as proverbial," many students of proverbs have attempted to itemize its essential characteristics. More constructively, Mieder has proposed the following definition, "A proverb is a short known sentence of the folk which contains wisdom, truth and traditional views in a metaphorical and memorizable form and, handed down from generation to generation". Norrick created a table of distinctive features to distinguish proverbs from idioms, etc. Prahlad distinguishes proverbs from some other related types of sayings, "True proverbs must further be distinguished from other types of proverbial speech, e.g. proverbial phrases, maxims and proverbial comparisons." Based on Persian proverbs and Ameri propose the following definition: "A proverb is a short sentence, well-known and at times rhythmic, including advice, sage themes and ethnic experiences, comprising simile, metaphor or irony, well-known among people for its fluent wording, clarity of expression, simplicity and generality and is used either with or without change".
There are many sayings in English that are referred to as "proverbs", such as weather sayings. Alan Dundes, rejects including such sayings among proverbs: "Are weather proverbs proverbs? I would say emphatically'No!'" The definition of "proverb" has changed over the years. For example, the following was labeled "A Yorkshire proverb" in 1883, but would not be categorized as a proverb by most today, "as throng as Throp's wife when she hanged herself with a dish-cloth"; the changing of the definition of "proverb" is noted in Turkish. In other languages and cultures, the definition of "proverb" differs from English. In the Chumburung language of Ghana, "aŋase are literal proverbs and akpare are metaphoric ones". Among the Bini of Nigeria, there are three words that are used to translate "proverb": ere and itan; the first relates to historical events, the second relates to current events, the third was "linguistic ornamentation in formal discourse". Among the Balochi of Pakistan and Afghanistan, there is a word batal for ordinary proverbs and bassīttuks for "proverbs with background stories".
There are language communities that combine proverbs and riddles in some sayings, leading some scholars to create the label "proverb riddles". Haste makes waste. You can catch more flies with honey. You can lead a horse to water; those who live in glass houses should not throw stones. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. Fortune favours. A little learning is a dangerous thing, it ain't over till the fat lady sings It is better to be smarter than you appear than to appear smarter than you are. Good things come to those. A poor workman blames his tools. A dog is a man's best friend. An apple a day keeps the doctor away If the shoe fits, wear it! Honesty is the best policy Slow and steady wins the race Don't count your chickens before they hatch Practice makes perfect. Better the devil you know than the devil you don't know Proverbs come from a variety of sources; some are, the result of people pondering and crafting language, such as some by Confucius, Baltasar Gracián, etc. Others are taken from such diverse sources as poetry, songs, advertisements, literature, etc.
A number of the well known sayings of Jesus and others have become proverbs, though they were original at the time of their creation, many of these sayings were not seen as proverbs when they were first coined. Many proverbs are based on stories the end of a story. For example, the proverb "Who will bell the cat?" is from the end of a story about the mice planning how to be safe from the cat. Some authors have created proverbs in their writings, such a J. R. R. Tolkien, some of these proverbs have made their way into broader society, such as the bumper sticker pictured below. C. S. Lewis' created proverb about a lobster in a pot, from the Chronicles of Narnia, has gained currency. In cases like this, deliberately created proverbs for fictional societies have bec