Veere is a municipality with a population of 22,000 and a town with a population of 1,500 in the southwestern Netherlands, in the region of Walcheren in the province of Zeeland. The name Veere means "ferry": Wolfert Van Borssele established a ferry and ferry house there in 1281; this ferry he called the "camper-veer" or "Ferry of Campu" and it soon became known as "de Veer". In the same year 1281 Wolfert built the castle Sandenburg on one of the dikes he had built. On 12 November 1282, Count Floris V. thereupon issued a charter by which Wolfert received the sovereignty to the land and castle with the ferry and ferry house. From that time on Wolfert was given the title of Lord Van der Veer. Veere received city rights in 1355; the "Admiraliteit van Veere" was set up as a result of the Ordinance on the Admiralty of 8 January 1488 in an attempt to create a central naval administration in the Burgundian Netherlands. To this was subordinated the Vice-Admiralty of Flanders in Dunkirk. In 1560 under admiral Philip de Montmorency, Count of Hoorn, this admiralty relocated near Ghent and in 1561 the Habsburg naval forces were moved to Veere.
Veere functioned as the staple port for Scotland between 1541 and 1799. In Scotland it was known as Campvere. Flemish architects Antonis Keldermans and Evert Spoorwater designed the Grote Kerk, the fortifications, the Cisterne and the town hall. During this period of prosperity, the cultural centre was located at Sandenburgh castle, the residence of the noble Van Borsele and Van Bourgondië families. Court painter Jan Gossaert van Mabuse worked here; the poet Adrianus Valerius lived and worked in the city from 1591. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Veere was a prosperous trading city, with about 750 houses inside the city walls compared to about 300 as of 2013. At the start of the Second World War, there was a Royal Netherlands Navy seaplane base at Veere, with six Fokker C XIV-W aircraft. On 12 May 1940 the base was bombed by He 111 bombers causing some casualties. On 14 May, the seaplanes were ordered to evacuate to France and England arriving in the Dutch East Indies where they would be destroyed in action with the Japanese in 1941 and 1942.
On 17 May, German infantry of SS Regiment Deutschland of the 2nd SS Panzer Division crossed onto Walcheren via the Sloedam and by 18:00 that evening, the Dutch forces on the island, including the garrison at Veere, were ordered to surrender. Veere was liberated on 7 November 1944 by Scottish troops of the British 52nd Infantry Division during Operation Infatuate, the Allied assault on Walcheren; as part of the preparations for the operation, the island's sea dykes were bombed resulting in the inundation of much of the area. Unlike many other towns on the island, Veere was undamaged in the fighting; as a result of the damming of the Veerse Gat inlet in 1961, the fishing fleet of Veere moved to a new home port at Colijnsplaat on Noord-Beveland. As of 2013 the main business of the town is tourism. Veere municipality reached its current expanded shape in 1997, after the addition of several neighboring towns. During the course of nearly two centuries seventeen historical municipalities have merged to become present-day Veere.
Its original full name was'Veere-de-Stad en Zanddijk-Binnen'. The city of Veere stands on the Veerse Meer lagoon on the island of Walcheren in the province of Zeeland in the Netherlands; the area of the municipality of Veere is 13,496 hectares, with a coastline of 34 kilometres and a population of about 22,000. The population centres in the municipality are: The area is visited by 4 million tourists annually; the main attractions are the marinas. The Storm Surge Barrier on the Oosterschelde is the most popular visitor attraction in Zeeland; the Scoutcentrum Zeeland on the coast of the Veerse Meer attracts Scout visitors from around the world The town of Veere forms the setting for "Van Loon's Lives", a book of contemporary fantasy written by Hendrik Willem Van Loon in 1942, in which the protagonists are able to magically summon the great men and women of history for weekend dinner parties, leading to humorous incidents. The book was written at the time when Veere, like the rest of the Netherlands, lay under Nazi occupation, despite its light-hearted tone indicates the longing of the writer - living in the US - for his homeland whose liberation he was doomed never to see.
Scottish singer-songwriter Brian McNeill based the song "The Holland Trade" from his tenth studio album The Baltic tae Byzantium on the trade and cultural ties between Veere and Scotland from 1541 on. Official website Veere in the picture, Beautiful photos of Veere. Website about the historic city of Veere
An artificial island or man-made island is an island, constructed by people rather than formed by natural means. Artificial islands may vary in size from small islets reclaimed to support a single pillar of a building or structure, to those that support entire communities and cities. Early artificial islands included floating structures in still waters, or wooden or megalithic structures erected in shallow waters. In modern times artificial islands are formed by land reclamation, but some are formed by the incidental isolation of an existing piece of land during canal construction, or flooding of valleys resulting in the tops of former knolls getting isolated by water. One of the world's largest artificial islands, René-Levasseur Island, was formed by the flooding of two adjacent reservoirs. Despite a popular image of modernity, artificial islands have a long history in many parts of the world, dating back to the reclaimed islands of Ancient Egyptian civilization, the Stilt crannogs of prehistoric Scotland and Ireland, the ceremonial centers of Nan Madol in Micronesia and the still extant floating islands of Lake Titicaca.
The city of Tenochtitlan, the Aztec predecessor of Mexico City, home to 500,000 people when the Spaniards arrived, stood on a small natural island in Lake Texcoco, surrounded by countless artificial chinamitl islands. The people of Langa Langa Lagoon and Lau Lagoon in Malaita, Solomon Islands built about 60 artificial islands on the reef including Funaafou and Adaege; the people of Lau Lagoon build islands on the reef as these provided protection against attack from the people who lived in the centre of Malaita. These islands were formed one rock at a time. A family would take their canoe out to the reef which protects the lagoon and dive for rocks, bring them to the surface and return to the selected site and drop the rocks into the water. Living on the reef was healthier as the mosquitoes, which infested the coastal swamps, were not found on the reef islands; the Lau people continue to live on the reef islands. Many artificial islands have been built in urban harbors to provide either a site deliberately isolated from the city or just spare real estate otherwise unobtainable in a crowded metropolis.
An example of the first case is Dejima, created in the bay of Nagasaki in Japan's Edo period as a contained center for European merchants. During the isolationist era, Dutch people were banned from Nagasaki and Japanese from Dejima. Ellis Island, in Upper New York Bay beside New York City, a former tiny islet expanded by Land Reclamation, served as an isolated immigration center for the United States in the late 19th and early 20th century, preventing an escape to the city of those refused entry for disease or other perceived flaws, who might otherwise be tempted toward illegal immigration. One of the most well-known artificial islands is the Île Notre-Dame in Montreal, built for Expo 67; the Venetian Islands in Miami Beach, Florida, in Biscayne Bay added valuable new real estate during the Florida land boom of the 1920s. When the bubble that the developers were riding burst, the bay was left scarred with the remnants of their failed project. A boom town development company was building a sea wall for an island, to be called Isola di Lolando but could not stay in business after the 1926 Miami Hurricane and the Great Depression, dooming the island-building project.
The concrete pilings from the project still stand as another development boom roared around them, 80 years later. In 1969, the Flevopolder in the Netherlands was finished, as part of the Zuiderzee Works, it has a total land surface of 970 km2, which makes it by far the largest artificial island by land reclamation in the world. The island consists of two polders Eastern Southern Flevoland. Together with the Noordoostpolder, which includes some small former islands like Urk, the polders form Flevoland, the 12th province of the Netherlands that entirely consists of reclaimed land; the Pearl-Qatar is in the north of the Qatari capital Doha, home to a range of residential and tourism activities. Qanat Quartier is designed to be a'Virtual Venice in the Middle East'. Lusail & large areas around Ras Laffan, Hamad International Airport & Hamad Port; the United Arab Emirates is home to several artificial island projects. They include the Yas Island, augmentions to Saadiyat Island, Khalifa Port, Al Reem Island, Al Lulu Island, Al Raha Creek, al Hudairiyat Island, Palm Islands projects.
Of all these, only the Palm Jumeirah is complete and inhabited so far. The Burj Al Arab is on its own artificial island; the Universe, Palm Jebel Ali, Dubai Waterfront, Palm Deira are on hold. China has conducted a land reclamation project which had built at least seven artificial islands in the South China Sea totaling 2000 acres in size by mid 2015. One artificial island built on Fiery Cross Reef near the Spratly Islands is now the site of a military barracks, lookout tower and a runway long enough to handle Chinese military aircraft. Kansai International Airport is the first airport to be built on an artificial island in 1994, followed by Chūbu Centrair International Airport in 2005, both the New Kitakyushu Airport and Kobe Airport in 2006, Ordu Giresun Airport in 2016; when Hong Kong International Airport opened in 1998, 75% of the property was created using land reclamation upon the existing islands of Chek Lap Kok and Lam Chau. China is building several airports on artificial islands, they include runways of Shanghai int
The Oosterscheldekering pronounced, between the islands Schouwen-Duiveland and Noord-Beveland, is the largest of the 13 ambitious Delta Works series of dams and storm surge barriers, designed to protect the Netherlands from flooding from the North Sea. The construction of the Delta Works was in response to the widespread damage and loss of life due to the North Sea Flood of 1953; the longest dam in the Delta Works, the nine-kilometer-long Oosterscheldekering was designed, built, as a closed dam, but after public protests, huge sluice-gate-type doors were installed in the remaining four kilometers. These doors are open, but can be closed under adverse weather conditions. In this way, the saltwater marine life behind the dam is preserved and fishing can continue, while the land behind the dam is safe from the water. On 4 October 1986, Queen Beatrix opened the dam for use by saying the well-known words: "De stormvloedkering is gesloten. De Deltawerken zijn voltooid. Zeeland is veilig." At the artificial island Neeltje-Jans, at one end of the barrier, a plaque is installed with the words: "Hier gaan over het tij, de wind, de maan en wij".
The Oosterscheldekering was the most expensive part of the Delta works. Work on the dam took more than a decade, it was constructed by a consortium of contractors comprising Ballast Nedam, Boskalis Westminster, Baggermaatschappij Breejenhout, Hollandse Aanneming Maatschappij, Hollandse Beton Maatschappij, Van Oord-Utrecht, Stevin Baggeren, Stevin Beton en Waterbouw, Adriaan Volker Baggermaatschappij, Adriaan Volker Beton en Waterbouw and Aannemerscombinatie Zinkwerken. Construction started in April 1976 and was completed in June 1986; the road over the dam was ready for use in November 1987. The road was opened by the former queen, Princess Juliana on 5 November 1987 457 years after the St Felix Day's flood of 1530, which had washed away a large chunk of Zeeland, upstream of the new barrier's position. To facilitate the building, an artificial island Neeltje-Jans was created in the middle of the estuary; when the construction was finished, the island was rebuilt to be used as education center for visitors and as a base for maintenance works.
The dam is based on 65 concrete pillars with each 42 meters wide. The parts were constructed in a dry dock; the area was flooded and a small fleet of special construction ships lifted the pillars and placed them in their final positions. Each pillar weighs 18000 tonnes; the dam is designed to last more than 200 years. The Oosterscheldekering is sometimes referred to as the eighth Wonder of the World, it has been declared one of the modern Seven Wonders of the World by the American Society of Civil Engineers. Four ships were custom designed and built for this project: Mytilus, a ship equipped with various ground working tools, such as needles to make the seabed denser and more stable. Cardium, a ship to transport and lay a special foil carpet on the seabed for the pillars to rest on. Ostrea, a ship capable of lifting a concrete pillar from the dry dock and placing it on a special foil on the seabed; the ship has a portal of 50 meters high. The ship can only lift 10000 tonnes, but as a large part of the pillar is underwater, it is not necessary for the ship to be able to lift the full 18000 tonnes.
This ship is considered the flagship of the construction fleet because of its larger size and power in comparison to the other ships. Macoma, a ship that works with the Ostrea, cleaning the foil assisting in placing the pillars in their final position; the ships are named after various types of shellfish. The dam is manually operated but if human control fails, an electronic security system acts as a backup. A Dutch law regulates the conditions; the water levels must be at least three meters above regular sea level before the doors can be shut. Each sluice gate is closed once a month for testing. Emergency procedures are tested on pre-scheduled dates. Once the test is passed, the shutters are opened again to create a minimum amount of effect on tidal movements and the local marine ecosystem, it takes one hour to close a door. The cost of operation is €17 million per year; the full dam has been closed twenty-seven times since 1986, due to water levels exceeding or being predicted to exceed the three meters.
The last time was on 3 January 2018. Kohl, Larry. "The Oosterschelde Barrier – Man Against the Sea". National Geographic. Vol. 170 no. 4. Pp. 526–37. ISSN 0027-9358. OCLC 643483454. Media related to Oosterscheldekering at Wikimedia Commons Satellite view from Google Maps DeltaWorks.org – DeltaWorks. Org about Oosterscheldekering. Includes text, photos and virtual tour
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Nehalennia is a goddess of unclear origin Germanic or Celtic, Nehalennia is attested on and depicted upon numerous votive altars discovered around what is now the province of Zeeland, the Netherlands, where the Rhine River flowed into the North Sea. Worship of Nehalennia dates back at least to the 2nd century BC, veneration of the goddess flourished in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD. While the meaning of the name Nehalennia remains disputed, linguists agree that its origin is not Latin. Given the locations most references were found at, it came from either a Germanic or Celtic language. Gutenbrunner couldn't explain the rest of the name. Gysseling believed that the name was neither Celtic nor Germanic, rather stemming from the Proto-Indo-European root *neiH- "to lead". However, this again didn't explain the rest of the name. A theory by De Stempel links it with heli "sea", proposing a Celtic origin, she deconstructs the name as a combination of Celtic *halen– "sea" and *ne- "on, at". *-ja is a suffix forming a feminine noun.
Thus, the meaning would be "she, at the sea". Nehalennia is attested on 28 inscriptions discovered in the Dutch town of Domburg on the Zeeland coast, when a storm eroded dunes in 1645, disclosing remains of a temple devoted to the unattested goddess Nehalennia. A similar number were discovered in 1971-72 in the town of Colijnsplaat, two others have been found in the Cologne-Deutz area of what is now Cologne, Germany. Dutch archeologist J. E. Bogaers and Belgian linguist Maurits Gysseling, in their joint publication Over de naam van de godin Nehalennia, listed several different forms of the name that appear in inscriptions. While Nehalennia is by far the most common spelling and Nehalaennia both appear a few times. Gysseling characterizes these two forms as Latinisations of the more archaic Nehalennia. Several sporadic spellings that are attested once each were rejected by Bogaers as non-standard or misread due to the poor state of some of the inscriptions; the Domburg inscriptions to Nehalennia inspired Marcus Zuerius van Boxhorn to produce a hasty etymology linking the name Nehalennia to an ancient Scythian, with which he attempted, with the linguistic tools available, to bridge the already-known connections between European languages and modern Persian.
Nehalennia is always depicted with marine symbols and a large, benign-looking dog at her feet. She must have been a Celtic or Germanic deity, attributed power over trading and possible horticulture and fertility, she is depicted as a young woman. She wears a typical short cloak over her shoulders and chest; this garment is unique to her and therefore might have belonged to the costumes usual at that period in this region. She is accompanied by a dog and she has as attributes a basket of apples or loaves and ship parts. Hilda Ellis Davidson describes the votive objects: Nehalennia, a Germanic goddess worshipped at the point where travellers crossed the North Sea from the Netherlands, is shown on many carved stones holding loaves and apples like a Mother Goddess, sometimes with a prow of a ship beside her, but frequently with an attendant dog which sits looking up at her; this dog is on thirteen of the twenty-one altars recorded by Ada Hondius-Crone, who describes him as a kind of greyhound. Davidson further links the motif of the ship associated with Nehalennia with the Germanic Vanir pair of Freyr and Freyja, as well as the Germanic goddess Nerthus and notes that Nehalennia features some of the same attributes as the Matres.
The loaves that Nehalennia is depicted with on her altars have been identified as duivekater, "oblong sacrificial loaves in the shape of a shin bone". Davidson says that loaves of this type may take the place of an animal sacrifice or animal victim, such as the boar-shaped loaf baked at Yule in Sweden, that in Värmland, Sweden "within living memory" grain from the last sheaf was customarily used to bake a loaf into the shape of a little girl, subsequently shared by the whole household. Davidson provides further examples of elaborate harvest loaves in the shape of sheaves, displayed in churches for the fertility of fields in Anglo-Saxon England, with parallels in Scandinavia and Ireland. In 2005, a replica of the temple was built in Colijnsplaat; the design of temple and its sculpture is based on the archaeological study of the type of sanctuaries in the Roman provinces of Gaul and Germania. At the reconstruction, authentic materials and techniques were used as much as possible. Religious practices surrounding Nehalennia were at their peak in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, at which time there were at least two to three temples located in the area of what is now Zeeland.
At the time, this region on the sea coast was an important link for the trade between the Rhine area and Britain. It is known. Visitors came to worship from as far away as Germany. Nehalennia had two sanctuaries or shrines, embellished with numerous altars: one at Domburg on the island of Walcheren, another at Colijnsplaat on the shore of the Oosterschelde. In August 2005, a replica of the Nehalennia temple near the lost town of Ganuenta was opened in Colijnsplaat. Asteroid 2462, or 6578 P-L, an asteroid named after the goddess. Germanic paganism Iðunn, North Germanic goddess associated with apples Matres Mythology of the Low Countries Zeeland Official site of the Nehalennia temple replica
The Eastern Scheldt is a former estuary in the province of Zeeland, between Schouwen-Duiveland and Tholen on the north and Noord-Beveland and Zuid-Beveland on the south. It is the largest national park in the Netherlands, founded in 2002. During the Roman Era it was the major mouth of the Scheldt River. Before the St. Felix's Flood of 1530, it flowed north as a river from the east end of the Westerschelde, turned west a little west of Bergen op Zoom, west along the north edge of what is now the Verdronken Land van Reimerswaal, after that widened into an estuary. Parts of that lost land were reclaimed, restricting part of the connection to the Scheldt River to a narrow channel called the Kreekrak, which silted up and became unnavigable. In 1867 the Kreekrak was closed off with a railway embankment, connecting in the process the island of Zuid-Beveland to the mainland of North Brabant. From that moment on, the Oosterschelde lost its connection with the Scheldt, is no longer functioning as an estuary.
Between Schouwen-Duiveland and Noord-Beveland there are two road connections, the Oosterscheldedam on the west and the Zeeland Bridge on the east. After the North Sea flood of 1953, it was decided to close off the Oosterschelde by means of a dam and barrier; the Oosterscheldekering, between Schouwen-Duiveland and Noord-Beveland, is the largest of 13 ambitious Delta Works designed to protect a large part of the Netherlands from flooding. A four-kilometre section has huge sluice gates, which are open but can be closed in adverse weather. Upon completion of the barrier in 1986, the flow of water decreased and the tidal height differential reduced from 3.40 metres to 3.25 metres. As a result, no new sand is being deposited on the sand bars—they are now eroding, changing the character of the coast. Since May 8, 2002, the entire Oosterschelde was designated a national park, its boundaries are the dikes of Schouwen-Duiveland and Sint-Philipsland, Noord-Beveland and Zuid-Beveland, the dams of the Delta Works.
Having an area of 370 square kilometres, it is the largest national park in the Netherlands. Total shore length is 125 kilometres; the park consists of the salt waters of the Oosterschelde, but includes some mud flats and shoals. Because of the large variety of sea life, including unique regional species, the park is popular with Scuba divers. Other activities include sailing, fishing and bird watching. Delta Works Western Scheldt Oosterschelde National Park official website Satellite view, google maps
Neelie Kroes is a retired Dutch politician of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy. Kroes a businesswoman by occupation, was elected as a Member of the House of Representatives on 3 August 1971 after the election of 1971. After the election of 1977 a coalition agreement with the Christian Democratic Appeal and the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy resulted in the formation of the Cabinet Van Agt-Wiegel with Kroes asked to become State Secretary for Transport and Water Management taking office on 28 December 1977. After the election of 1981 she returned as a Member of the House of Representatives on 25 August 1981. After the election of 1982 a coalition agreement with the Christian Democratic Appeal and the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy resulted in the formation of the Cabinet Lubbers I with Kroes asked to become Minister of Transport and Water Management taking office on 4 November 1982. Kroes remained Minister of Transport and Water Management in the Cabinet Lubbers II following the election of 1986.
Kroes semi-retired from active politics and became Chancellor of the Nyenrode Business University serving from 1 June 1991 until 1 September 2000. In 2004 Kroes was selected as European Commissioner for Competition in the First Barroso Commission taking office on 22 November 2004. On 9 February 2010 she became European Commissioner for Digital Agenda and a Vice President in the Second Barroso Commission serving until 1 November 2014. At age 73, Kroes retired from active politics. Following the end of her active political career, Kroes occupied numerous seats on supervisory boards in the business and industry world and several international non-governmental organizations. Kroes is known for her abilities as negotiator. Kroes has been active as an advocate and lobbyist in promoting startup companies. Neelie Kroes was born on 19 July 1941 in Netherlands, her father owned the transport company Zwatra. Kroes attended a Protestant grammar school in Rotterdam, she continued to a Protestant high school.
In 1958 she went to study economics at the Erasmus University in Rotterdam. In 1961, Kroes was praeses of the R. V. S. V.. She was elected as a member of the University Council. After obtaining a Bachelor of Economics and a Master of Economics degree in 1965, she became a research fellow at the economic faculty at that university. During this period Kroes was involved in the women's organisation within the VVD. In this period she was member of the board of heavy transporting company "ZwaTra", the company of her father. Neelie Kroes was first elected member of the Rotterdam city council for the VVD in 1970. In 1971 she was elected to the House of Representatives. In parliament, she became spokesperson for education, she remained a member of parliament until 1977, when she became State Secretary for Transport, Public Works and Water Management in the First Van Agt Cabinet, responsible for Postal and Telephone Services and Transport. In 1981 she returned to the House of Representatives, while her party, VVD, was in the opposition.
In 1982 she returned to office in the First and Second Lubbers Cabinets, now as the Minister of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, a post that she held until 1989. As a minister she was responsible for the privatisation of the Postgiro, the Post and Telephone Services, the Harbour Pilotage services, as well as the commissioning of the Betuwe Railway. Kroes refused to become Minister of Defence in 1988. During her tenure as minister, she was involved in the so-called TCR affair, about the illegal sale of warships, she had a business relationship with a tank cleaning company, which illegally received governmental subsidies. After her time as minister Kroes became a member of the Rotterdam Chamber of Commerce, furthermore she served as a board member for Ballast Nedam, ABP-PGGM Capital Holdings N. V. NIB, McDonald's Netherlands and Nederlandse Spoorwegen. In 1991 she became chairperson of a private business school. During this period Kroes was a member of the Advisory Board of the Prof.
Mr. B. M. Teldersstichting, the scientific bureau of VVD. According to her husband, Bram Peper, from 1993 to 2001 Kroes relied on astrologers and clairvoyants for personal and business advice; until 2004 Kroes maintained an office in the castle of Jan-Dirk Paarlberg, a real estate mogul, convicted to four and a half years in prison for money-laundering and extortion. One of the astrologers advising Kroes during that time was Lenie Drent, providing business advice to Paarlberg for decades. Kroes has held and still holds many side offices in cultural and social organisations, she is chairperson of Poets of all Nations, the Delta Psychiatric Hospital and of the board of the Rembrandt House Museum. She was a member of several boards of commissioners, for instance at Nedlloyd and Lucent Technologies. In 2004 Neelie Kroes was appointed the European Commissioner for Competition, her nomination was criticised because of her ties to big business and alleged involvement in shady arms deals. Kroes has tried to uphold her integrity.