Manitoba Junior Hockey League
The Manitoba Junior Hockey League is a Junior'A' ice hockey league operating in the Canadian province of Manitoba and one of eleven member leagues of the Canadian Junior Hockey League. The MJHL consists of 11 teams playing a balanced 60-game schedule, with the top eight teams qualifying for the playoffs; the quarter-finals, semi-finals, final are determined by best-of-seven series. The playoff champion is awarded the Turnbull Cup; the league had two divisions and Sherwood, prior to the 2014-15 season. The winner of the MJHL playoffs competes against the champion from Saskatchewan for the ANAVET Cup and a berth in the National Junior A Championship; the league has a rich tradition. Its first year of operation was the 1918 -- 19 season, it was known as the Winnipeg and District League until 1931, when it became the Manitoba Junior Hockey League. During the inaugural season, there were nine teams in two divisions, each playing a six-game schedule; the teams included the Winnipeg Pilgrims, Grand Trunk Pacific, Winnipeg Tigers, Young Men's Lutheran Club, Winnipeg Argonauts, Selkirk Fishermen and Winnipeg Monarchs.
Over the years, more than 200 MJHL players have gone on to the National Hockey League, 11 of those MJHL graduates have been inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame: Andy Bathgate, Turk Broda, Art Coulter, Bobby Clarke, Charlie Gardiner, Bryan Hextall, Tom Johnson, Harry Oliver, Babe Pratt, Terry Sawchuk, Jack Stewart. In 1955, the brothers Art and Gordon Stratton of the Winnipeg Barons set a league record for most points in a single season with 76 each. In 1957, Ray Brunel of the St. Boniface Canadiens broke it with 105. In the early 1960s, the powerhouse Brandon Wheat Kings, built by Jake Milford, won three titles in a row, four in five years. In 1961, goalie Ernie Wakely of the Winnipeg Braves was named Canada's outstanding junior hockey player for the month of January. In 1962, Clarence Campbell president of the NHL attended inaugural Manitoba–Saskatchewan all-star game in Winnipeg. In 1963, Jim Irving, captain of the Winnipeg Rangers, was named Manitoba's outstanding junior athlete and received the Carl Pederson Memorial Award.
Goaltender Wayne Stephenson led the Winnipeg Braves to the MJHL Championship in 1965. In 1967, future Hall of Famer Bobby Clarke of the Flin Flon Bombers set league records for most goals and points in a single season. Clarke led the Bombers to win the MJHL title. During the summer of 1967, the MAHA agreed to allow three teams to enter the new Western Hockey League, the Brandon Wheat Kings and the Flin Flon Bombers from the MJHL, the Ben Hatskin's owned Winnipeg Jets. Hatskin owned three MJHL teams. Part of the agreement was the continuation of the MJHL. Hatskin sold his three teams to local interests; the Winnipeg Warriors became the West Kildonan North Stars, the St. James Braves became the St. James Canadians, the Winnipeg Rangers became the St. Boniface Saints; these three teams along with the Winnipeg Monarchs became the new MJHL. The Selkirk Steelers, however opted to join the new Central Manitoba Junior Hockey League; the next year, the MJHL absorbed the CMJHL, creating a North Division to house the former CMJHL teams: the Steelers, Portage Terriers, Dauphin Kings, Kenora Muskies, who had operated out of Fort Garry the previous year.
The existing teams created the South Division. On September 19, 1968, the Winnipeg Monarchs announced the signing of Hiroshi Hori, a defenceman from Japan. Hori, a high school all-star in his homeland, would spend a year with the team and return home to pass on what he had learned. A Canadian missionary to Japan, Father Moran was behind the idea. With CAHA approval, Moran convinced the Japanese Skating Union to sponsor one player to a year in Canada; the CAHA chose Winnipeg as the site because of the added experience from watching the Canadian National Team, the Monarchs volunteered. On Sunday February 9, 1969, the MJHL held a special emergency meeting to discuss Butch Goring leaving the Winnipeg Jets of the WCHL and joining the Dauphin Kings. Goring played the night before in Kenora for the Kings during a regular season game; the MJHL gave the Kings approval to use Goring in regular playoff games. Goring was leading the WCHL in goals at the time. Monday, WCHL president Ron Butlin said a court injunction would be sought against Goring and another Jet forward Merv Haney from playing with the Dauphin Kings.
Saying the CHA would be "taking whatever action is necessary against Dauphin and the MAHA for damages." Goring and Haney would play for all the way to the Western Memorial Cup Finals. In September 1971, Winnipeg Monarchs President Bob Westmacott announced 17-year-old Stephan Lindberg of Sweden had been invited to training camp. Jack Bownass, former coach of Canada's national team, recommended Lindberg to the Monarchs; the Dauphin Kings were the first "dynasty" of the new MJHL, winning the league three out of four years, 1969, 1970, 1972, boasting such stars as Ron Low, Butch Goring, Ron Chipperfield. The Kings went to the Western Memorial Cup final in 1969, in 1972 recorded 40 wins, a modern-day MJHL record. Charlie Simmer of the Kenora Muskies won the scoring title in 1973, the same year the Portage Terriers were crowned National Champs, winning the Centennial Cup. In 1974, the Selkirk Steelers won the national crown, giving the MJHL back to back "Canadian Championships", it was players such as Low, Chipperfield, Chuck Arnason, Murray Bannerman, Paul Baxter, John Bednarski, Rick Blight, Dan Bonar, Brian Engblom, Glen Hanlon, Bob Joyce, Barry Legge, Perry Miller, Chris Oddleifson, Curt Ridley, Rick St. Croix, Blaine Stoughto
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada. It is considered one of the three prairie provinces and is Canada's fifth-most populous province with its estimated 1.3 million people. Manitoba covers 649,950 square kilometres with a varied landscape, stretching from the northern oceanic coastline to the southern border with the United States; the province is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, Northwest Territories to the northwest, the U. S. states of North Minnesota to the south. Aboriginal peoples have inhabited. In the late 17th century, fur traders arrived on two major river systems, what is now called the Nelson in northern Manitoba and in the southeast along the Winnipeg River system. A Royal Charter in 1670 granted all the lands draining into Hudson's Bay to the British company and they administered trade in what was called Rupert's Land. During the next 200 years, communities continued to grow and evolve, with a significant settlement of Michif in what is now Winnipeg.
The assertion of Métis identity and self-rule culminated in negotiations for the creation of the province of Manitoba. There are many factors that led to an armed uprising of the Métis people against the Government of Canada, a conflict known as the Red River Rebellion aka Resistance; the resolution of the assertion of the right to representation led to the Parliament of Canada passing the Manitoba Act in 1870 that created the province. Manitoba's capital and largest city, Winnipeg, is the eighth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada. Other census agglomerations in the province are Brandon, Portage la Prairie, Thompson; the name Manitoba is believed to be derived from the Ojibwe or Assiniboine languages. The name derives from Cree manitou-wapow or Ojibwa manidoobaa, both meaning "straits of Manitou, the Great Spirit", a place referring to what are now called The Narrows in the centre of Lake Manitoba, it may be from the Assiniboine for "Lake of the Prairie". The lake was known to French explorers as Lac des Prairies.
Thomas Spence chose the name to refer to a new republic he proposed for the area south of the lake. Métis leader Louis Riel chose the name, it was accepted in Ottawa under the Manitoba Act of 1870. Manitoba is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, the US states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south; the province meets the Northwest Territories at the four corners quadripoint to the extreme northwest, though surveys have not been completed and laws are unclear about the exact location of the Nunavut–NWT boundary. Manitoba adjoins Hudson Bay to the northeast, is the only prairie province to have a saltwater coastline; the Port of Churchill is Canada's only Arctic deep-water port. Lake Winnipeg is the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world. Hudson Bay is the world's second-largest bay by area. Manitoba is at the heart of the giant Hudson Bay watershed, once known as Rupert's Land, it was a vital area of the Hudson's Bay Company, with many rivers and lakes that provided excellent opportunities for the lucrative fur trade.
The province has a saltwater coastline bordering Hudson Bay and more than 110,000 lakes, covering 15.6 percent or 101,593 square kilometres of its surface area. Manitoba's major lakes are Lake Manitoba, Lake Winnipegosis, Lake Winnipeg, the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world; some traditional Native lands and boreal forest on Lake Winnipeg's east side are a proposed UNESCO World Heritage Site. Manitoba is at the centre of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, with a high volume of the water draining into Lake Winnipeg and north down the Nelson River into Hudson Bay; this basin's rivers reach far west to the mountains, far south into the United States, east into Ontario. Major watercourses include the Red, Nelson, Hayes and Churchill rivers. Most of Manitoba's inhabited south has developed in the prehistoric bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz; this region the Red River Valley, is flat and fertile. Baldy Mountain is the province's highest point at 832 metres above sea level, the Hudson Bay coast is the lowest at sea level.
Riding Mountain, the Pembina Hills, Sandilands Provincial Forest, the Canadian Shield are upland regions. Much of the province's sparsely inhabited north and east lie on the irregular granite Canadian Shield, including Whiteshell and Nopiming Provincial Parks. Extensive agriculture is found only in the province's southern areas, although there is grain farming in the Carrot Valley Region; the most common agricultural activity is cattle husbandry, followed by assorted grains and oilseed. Around 12 percent of Canada's farmland is in Manitoba. Manitoba has an extreme continental climate. Temperatures and precipitation decrease from south to north and increase from east to west. Manitoba is far from the moderating large bodies of water; because of the flat landscape, it is exposed to cold Arctic high-pressure air masses from the northwest during January and February. In the summer, air masses sometimes come out of the Southern United States, as warm humid air is drawn northward from the Gulf of Mexico.
Temperatures exceed 30 °C numerous times each summer, the combination of heat and humidity can bring the humidex value to the mid-40s. Carman, Manitoba recorded the second-highest humidex in Canada in 2007, with
Neepawa is a town in Manitoba, Canada located on the Yellowhead Highway at the intersection with Highway 5. As of 2016 its population was 4,609. Neepawa was incorporated as a town in 1883, it is located in the Rural Municipality of Langford and bordered to the north by the Rural Municipality of Rosedale. Neepawa is the self-proclaimed Lily capital of the world in part because of its Lily Festival; the town has been named "Manitoba's Most Beautiful Town", more than any other community in the province. In the many years before European settlement, the lands around Neepawa were used by the Cree and the Assiniboine. Native peoples in the area followed a regular cycle by following the Plains Bison to take shelter in the areas north of Neepawa in the winter, heading south again across the plains and beyond Neepawa in the summer; the town name of Neepawa comes from the Cree word for "Land of Plenty", the name was first used around 1873. Prior to settlement, the only Europeans in the area were fur traders, many people made their way through the area on the North Fort Ellice Trail which went from the Red River to Edmonton.
It was on this trail that a group of settlers from Listowel, Ontario decided to settle in 1877, where the Stony and Boggy creeks meet. The Neepawa area was in what was known as "The Northwest Territories", just to the west of the 1870 boundary of Manitoba. During the next 30 years, many settlers came to live in the area; the first settlers were from the British Isles. Eastern European settlers came from countries such as Poland and Hungary and built the Hun Valley Settlement near Neepawa. Neepawa only joined Manitoba when the western edge of the "postage stamp province" was expanded to its present western borders in 1881. John A. Davidson and Jonathon J. Hamilton arrived in the town in 1880, they were the first real business men of the town buying land and surveying them into lots. In 1881 John Hamilton and John Davidson built a store and a grist mill near the junction of Boggy and Stoney Creeks. Like many western Manitoba towns at the time, Neepawa eagerly await the arrival of the railway in the 1880s.
Sometime after the railway reached Gladstone, Manitoba in 1882, Davidson and Hamilton offered the Manitoba and Northwestern Railway a land grant and a financial bonus of $16,000 to construct their line within the town limits and the railway agreed to build their station within Neepawa. Soon a village grew and on the 23 of September, 1883 the town of Neepawa was incorporated. Dr. David Harrison who owned a private bank in Neepawa was elected Premier of Manitoba in 1887. Neepawa's first hospital had the capacity for 20 patients; the hospital included a nursing school. Neepawa's first school opened in 1881, it was a three-story building completed in 1898 and used until 1928. The Neepawa Salt Company mined salt here from 1932 until 1970. Author Margaret Laurence wrote several books through the 1960s and 1970s, depicting the town under the name of Manawaka. On May 12, 2010 Neepawa was the host of Manitoba's 140th birthday party; the town was chosen as the site of the festivities as a result of winning a contest within the province.
Neepawa lies on the Manitoba Escarpment, the rolling hills around Neepawa are typical of the escarpment. Neepawa lies within the Canadian Prairies, the region around Neepawa is defined. Although Neepawa is part of the prairies the area to the north is forested parkland. Riding Mountain National Park and Duck Mountain Provincial Park lie to the north, are part of this parkland, are an extension of the escarpment; the boreal forest which extends all the way across Canada, is found to the north of Neepawa. Spruce Woods Provincial Park is located about 60 km south of the town. Neepawa lies at the source of the Whitemud River, it is about 40 km east of the Little Saskatchewan River, a tributary of the Assiniboine River, 60 km south of the town; the town is about 60 km west of Lake Manitoba, one of the largest lakes in Manitoba. The economy of Neepawa and the region is dependent on agriculture; the rolling fields in the area support many types of crops and livestock operations. Neepawa serves as a major agricultural service centre for many of the producers in the region.
More prominently, growers in Neepawa produce some of the finest and most diverse lilies in the world. As of 2009 over 2,000 kinds of Lily were grown locally; these flowers are shipped directly from Neepawa to many of the major international floral markets. Neepawa proclaims itself the "Lily capital of the world" because of this. Neepawa attracts a number of tourists throughout the year in part because of the lilies. An estimated 12,000 people visit Neepawa each July; as well as being an agricultural centre, Neepawa's businesses serve as a shopping and retail centre for much of the area's residents. Hazel M. Kellington Elementary School has about 350 students and the Neepawa Area Collegiate Institute has about 500 students. Neepawa Nursery School teaches 3- and 4-year-old children. Neepawa is part of the Beautiful Plains School Division. Assiniboine Community College offers various post-secondary courses; the Town of Neepawa is located along Highway 5, the Parks Route. The community is located 45 minutes northeast of Brandon, the region's largest centre, 2 hours northwest of Winnipeg, the provincial capital.
Neepawa is located 1 hour from Riding Mountain National Park. Neepawa Airport features a 3,500 foot runway, able to service air ambulance and small jets. Trucking services are provide by Gardewine North; the Margaret Laurence Home is a designated P
The Steinbach Pistons are a Junior "A" ice hockey team from Steinbach, Canada. They are members of the Manitoba Junior Hockey League, a member of the Canadian Junior Hockey League; the MJHL granted an expansion team to the Southeast Tribal Council, a group of First Nation bands in southeastern Manitoba, to begin play in the 1988-89 season. The team was played out of the Notre Dame Arena in Winnipeg; the team was renamed the Southeast Blades in 1992. After taking a leave of absence for the 1996-97 season, the Blades moved northeast of Winnipeg to Sagkeeng First Nation; the Blades played ten seasons in Sagkeeng. Their best season was in 2002-03, when they advanced to the Turnbull Cup finals, losing to the OCN Blizzard; the Beausejour Blades were formed in 2007 following the sale and relocation of the team to the Sun Gro Centre in Beausejour. The move did not improve the team's fortunes: the Blades managed to win only 13 games over two seasons in Beausejour. During the 2009 Allan Cup in Steinbach, the City of Steinbach, together with Blades management, announced that the team would be relocating to Steinbach for the 2009–10 MJHL season.
The team was renamed the Steinbach Pistons, in recognition of the city's reputation as "The Automobile City". Steinbach was home to a MJHL team called the Hawks from 1985 to 1988. Despite the team's improved record after the move to Steinbach, the Pistons failed to qualify for the playoffs in each of their first three seasons; the team's continued poor performance and strained financial position spurred a group of investors from the local business community to purchase the Pistons in 2012 and convert it to a community-owned organization. The next season, the Pistons ended the franchise's ten year playoff drought and captured their first Turnbull Cup; the Pistons enjoyed their best season in 2017-2018 when the team won its second Turnbull Cup, defeated the Nipawin Hawks to win the ANAVET Cup, qualified for the National Junior "A" Championship for the first time. Note: GP = Games Played, W = Wins, L = Losses, T = Ties, OTL = Overtime Losses, GF = Goals for, GA = Goals against 1989 DNQ 1990 Lost Div Semi FinalKildonan North Stars defeated Southeast Thunderbirds 4-games-to-none1991 DNQ 1992 DNQ 1993 DNQ 1994 Lost Div Semi FinalSt.
Boniface Saints defeated Southeast Blades 4-games-to-11995 Lost Div Semi FinalSt. Boniface Saints defeated Southeast Blades 4-games-to-none1996 DNQ 1997 Did Not Participate 1998 DNQ 1999 DNQ 2000 DNQ 2001 DNQ 2002 DNQ 2003 Lost FinalSoutheast Blades defeated Winkler Flyers 4-games-to-3 Southeast Blades defeated Winnipeg South Blues 4-games-to-1 OCN Blizzard defeated Southeast Blades 4-games-to-none2004 DNQ 2005 DNQ 2006 DNQ 2007 DNQ 2008 DNQ 2009 DNQ 2010 DNQ 2011 DNQ 2012 DNQ 2013 Won League, Lost in 2013 Western Canada Cup round robinSteinbach Pistons defeated Portage Terriers 4-games-to-3 Steinbach Pistons defeated Winnipeg Blues 4-games-to-2 Steinbach Pistons defeated Dauphin Kings 4-games-to-2 MJHL CHAMPIONS Fifth and eliminated from 2013 Western Canada Cup round robin 2014 Lost Division FinalSteinbach Pistons defeated Portage Terriers 4-games-to-3 Winnipeg Blues defeated Steinbach Pistons 4-games-to-12015 Lost FinalSteinbach Pistons defeated Selkirk Steelers 4-games-to-0 Steinbach Pistons defeated Winnipeg Blues 4-games-to-1 Portage Terriers defeated Steinbach Pistons 4-games-to-02016 Lost FinalSteinbach Pistons defeated Swan Valley Stampeders 4-games-to-0 Steinbach Pistons defeated Winkler Flyers 4-games-to-3 Portage Terriers defeated Steinbach Pistons 4-games-to-12017 Lost Semi-finalSteinbach Pistons defeated Neepawa Natives 4-games-to-2 Portage Terriers defeated Steinbach Pistons 4-games-to-22018 Won League, Won ANAVET CupSteinbach Pistons defeated Swan Valley Stampeders 4-games-to-0 Steinbach Pistons defeated Winnipeg Blues 4-games-to-2 Steinbach Pistons defeated Virden Oil Capitals 4-games-to-2 MJHL CHAMPIONS Steinbach Pistons defeated Nipawin Hawks 4-games-to-2 ANAVET CUP CHAMPIONS Fifth and eliminated from 2018 Royal Bank Cup round robin 2019 Lost Semi-finalSteinbach Pistons defeated Winnipeg Blues 4-games-to-2 Swan Valley Stampeders defeated Steinbach Pistons 4-games-to-2 Canadian Jr.
A National ChampionshipsDudley Hewitt Champions – Central, Fred Page Champions – Eastern, Doyle Cup Champion – Pacific, ANAVET Cup Champion – Western, HostRound-robin play with top four in semifinal games and winners to finals. List of ice hockey teams in Manitoba Steinbach Pistons website Steinbach Pistons season statistics and records at The Internet Hockey Database
Triston Grant is a Canadian professional ice hockey left winger, playing for the Rapid City Rush of the ECHL. Grant spent five seasons in the Western Hockey League with the Lethbridge Hurricanes and Vancouver Giants. Drafted 286th overall in the 2004 NHL Entry Draft by the Philadelphia Flyers, Grant has spent most of his career in the American Hockey League. However, he was called up early in the 2006–07 NHL season to the Philadelphia Flyers, made his NHL debut on October 26, 2006. Between 2005 and 2012, Grant played for the Philadelphia Phantoms, Milwaukee Admirals, Rochester Americans, the Oklahoma City Barons in the AHL. Signed on July 9, 2012 by Grand Rapids Griffins for the 2012–13 AHL season, Grant won the Calder Cup with the Griffins in 2013. On July 9, 2013, Grant re-signed with the Griffins for the 2013–14 AHL season. On July 21, 2014, Grant signed a one-year deal with the Milwaukee Admirals as a free agent. During the 2014–15 season, Grant posted career highs in goals and points. On July 6, 2015, Grant returned to the Grand Rapids Griffins for a second stint, signing a one-year contract.
Biographical information and career statistics from NHL.com, or Eliteprospects.com, or Hockey-Reference.com, or The Internet Hockey Database
Hockey Canada, which merged with the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association in 1994, is the national governing body of ice hockey and ice sledge hockey in Canada and is a member of the International Ice Hockey Federation. Hockey Canada controls a majority of ice hockey in Canada. There are some notable exceptions, such as the Canadian Hockey League and U Sports who are partnered with Hockey Canada, but are not members, as well as any of Canada's professional hockey clubs. Hockey Canada is based in Calgary, Alberta with a secondary office in Ottawa and regional centres in Toronto and Montreal, Quebec; the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association was founded on December 4, 1914, when 21 delegates from across Canada met at the Chateau Laurier in Ottawa. The organization was made to oversee the amateur level of the sport at the national level; the Allan Cup donated in 1908 by Sir H. Montagu Allan, was selected as the championship of amateur hockey in Canada. William Northey, the trustee of the Allan Cup, was named the first chairman, while Dr. W. F. Taylor was named the inaugural president.
The Memorial Cup was the junior amateur championship of Canada. In 1920, after the Winnipeg Falcons won the Allan Cup over the University of Toronto, they represented Canada at the 1920 Summer Olympic Games. Canada would go 3-0-0 to win the sport's first Olympic gold medal; the Ottawa and District Amateur Hockey Association joined in 1920, followed by the Maritime Amateur Hockey Association in 1928. On June 30, 1947, the CAHA, the National Hockey League and the Amateur Hockey Association of the United States makes an agreement that no player under the age of 18 can be signed as a professional player without the permission of their amateur club; that same year, the International Ice Hockey Federation changes the rules on amateur status. The rule change means the 1948 Allan Cup champion Royal Montreal Hockey Club were not eligible for the 1948 Winter Olympics, so the CAHA sent the RCAF Flyers instead and were victorious. At the 1952 Winter Olympics, the Edmonton Mercuries won their nation's last Olympic gold until 2002.
In 1961, the Trail Smoke Eaters won Canada's 19th and last world championship for 33 years at the 1961 World Ice Hockey Championships. In 1964, Father David Bauer formed the Canada's national team in response to the success of the programs set up by the Soviet Union and Sweden. Three years the CAHA opened its first national office, located in Winnipeg; the Newfoundland Amateur Hockey Association, led by association president Don Johnson, entered the CAHA in 1966. Johnson would become CAHA president in 1975; the New Brunswick Amateur Hockey Association left the Maritime AHA brand in 1968 and entered the CAHA as a member. In 1968, the Hockey Canada organization was founded to oversee Canada's national teams. In 1970, the CAHA's 13 Junior. Tier I, the Western Canada Junior Hockey League, the Ontario Hockey Association, the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League, were eligible to compete for the Memorial Cup; the ten leagues of Tier II, would compete for the Manitoba Centennial Cup, donated by the Manitoba Amateur Hockey Association.
In 1970, Canada pulled out of IIHF competition and would not return to the fold until 1977 in protest of the IIHF's soft stance on Soviet and Czechoslovakian teams using "professional amateurs" in international competition but not allowing professional players to compete for Canada. In 1972, Canada and the Soviet Union competed in the 1972 Summit Series. Canada's team was composed of NHL stars; the NHLers won the series 4-3-1. Two years the World Hockey Association represented Canada and lost the series 4-1-3. In 1976, the Canada Cup was formed as a best-on-best championship. In 1974, the Nova Scotia Amateur Hockey Association and Prince Edward Island Amateur Hockey Association are formed out of the dissolution of the Maritime AHA; the World Junior Ice Hockey Championships was held for the first time. Canada, who sent Memorial Cup champion teams in early years set up a national team and won their first gold medal at the 1982 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships. In 1975, the QMJHL, WCJHL, the renamed Ontario Major Junior Hockey League form an umbrella organization known as the Canadian Major Junior Hockey League.
With the creation of the CMJHL, the three league began initiating compensation talks with the NHL and WHA without CAHA input. In 1980, the CMJHL separated from the CAHA. With the separation of the CMJHL, Tier II was promoted to Junior A, although the Tier II title still persists in hockey vernacular. To this day, the CMJHL releases its players to Hockey Canada to play at the World Junior Ice Hockey Championships. In 1983, the first Abby Hoffman Cup was awarded to the Burlington Ladies as the Canadian national senior champions of women's hockey. In 1990, the forerunner to the Canadian Junior Hockey League was created as an umbrella organization, within the CAHA, to oversee Junior A hockey; the Canada women's national ice hockey team was formed in 1987 and won the first world championship that year. The 1990 IIHF Women's World Championship was the first official event won by Canada. In 1994, Team Canada would end a 33-year drought by winning the 1994 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships. In 1996, Hockey Canada replaces the Manitoba Centennial Cup with the Royal Bank Cup as the championship of Junior A hockey.
In 1998, Hockey Canada and the CAHA merge into one organization. The International Olympic Committee elected to allow professional players to compete at the Olympics
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000